|Townsend's Solitaire by Louis Agassiz Fuertes|
Range and habitat
This solitaire ranges from southern Alaska, British Columbia and Alberta south to northern Zacatecas, preferring montane woodlands. During winter, it may move in search of food to lower elevations, including the Great Plains, northern interior Mexico, and even desert oases.
Townsend's Solitaire reaches a length of approximately 8–9.5 inches (20–24 cm) and wingspan of 14.5 in (37 cm); it weighs approximately 1.2 oz (34 g). It has a short, thick, blackish bill; a white eye ring; and gray plumage with a buffy wing stripe and edges of the flight feathers. The tail is long, tapered when shut, and edged with white. Juveniles are mottled gray and white.
It feeds primarily on berries and insects. The Solitaire is amongst the most specialized of all North American birds since its diet in winter consists almost entirely of the fleshy cones of the Juniper bush, and the solitary birds form territories around productive juniper patches which they strongly defend 
Its song consists of loud, melodious flute-like rising and falling phrases with "low, husky notes interspersed but no distinct pattern" and "a slightly mechanical quality." The call is a squeaky eeek or "clear, soft whistle heeh".
The nest resembles that of other solitaires: a cup of fine plant material on or close to the ground. Townsend's Solitaire usually lays 3–4 eggs that are grayish-white with brown dots or splotches concentrated at the larger end.
The name of this bird commemorates the ornithologist John Kirk Townsend.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Myadestes townsendi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Sibley, David (2000). The Sibley Guide to Birds. Knopf. p. 400. ISBN 0-679-45122-6.
- Howell, Steve N. G.; Webb, Sophie (1995). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press. p. 583. ISBN 0-19-854012-4.
- "Townsend's Solitaire Myadestes townsendi". eNature.com Nature Guides. 2005. Retrieved 2007-08-17.
- Bock, C. 1982. Factors influencing winter distribution and abundance of Townsend's Solitaire. Wilson Bulletin 94: 297-302
- Townsend's Solitaire at USGS
- Townsend's Solitaire photo gallery VIREO; (with picture: egg clutch)
- Townsend's Solitaire photo, Article Washington State
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