Toyota Celica

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For the All-wheel-drive high-performance versions of the Celica, see Toyota Celica GT-Four.
Toyota Celica
TC2004GTS-AP.jpeg
Toyota Celica GT-S with Action Package body kit (ZZT231, USA)
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production Dec 1970[1]–Apr 2006
Model years 1971–2006
1971–2005 (United States & Canada)
Body and chassis
Class Sports car
Sport compact
Body style 2-door Notchback Coupe
2-door Convertible
3-door Liftback

The Toyota Celica /ˈsɛlɨkə/ is a compact sports car which was produced by the Japanese company Toyota from 1970 to 2006. The Celica name was ultimately derived from the Latin word coelica meaning "heavenly" or "celestial". In Japan, the Celica was exclusive to Toyota Japanese dealerships Toyota Corolla Store.

Throughout its life span the Celica has been powered by various four-cylinder engines. The most significant change occurred in August 1985, when the car's drive layout was changed from rear wheel drive to front wheel drive. During the first three generations, American market Celicas were powered by various versions of Toyota's R series engines. The four-wheel drive turbocharged model called GT-Four worldwide (All-Trac Turbo in the US) was produced from 1986 to 1999. Variable Valve Timing came in certain Japanese models starting in December 1997, and became standard in all models from 2000 on. Through seven generations, the model has gone through many revisions and design forks, including the Toyota Celica Supra (later known as the Toyota Supra). The Celica was available as notchback and liftback coupes, as well as a convertible.

First generation / A20/35 Series (1970–1977) [edit]

First Generation
1970 Toyota Celica 01.jpg
Toyota Celica Coupe 1600 GT (TA22, Japan)
Overview
Production Dec 1970 – Jul 1977[1]
Assembly Toyota, Japan (Tsutsumi plant)
Body and chassis
Body style 3-door liftback
2-door hardtop
Layout FR layout
Platform A20/35
Related Toyota Carina
Powertrain
Engine 1.4 L T I4
1.6 L 2T I4
1.9 L 8R I4
2.0 L 18R I4
2.2 L 20R I4
Transmission 4-speed W40 manual
5-speed W50 manual
3-speed A40 automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,407 mm (94.75 in) [2]
Length 4,170 mm (164.2 in)
Width 1,600 mm (63.0 in)
Height 1,300 mm (53 in) [2]
Curb weight 890 kg (1,962 lb) (Early Coupe) –
1,166 kg (2,571 lb) (US Liftback)

Displayed at the October 1970 Tokyo Motor Show[3] and marketed in December of the same year, the Celica was a personal car that emphasized styling and driving enjoyment. Japanese models were originally ET, LT, ST, and GT. The platform was shared with the Toyota Carina, a vehicle exclusive to Toyota Store Japanese dealerships. The Celica filled a market position previously held by the 1965–1969 Toyota Sports 800, when Toyota Corolla Store locations were previously known as Toyota Public Store, then renamed in 1966 as Toyota Corolla Store.

For export markets, the Celica was offered in three different levels of trim; LT, ST and GT.

At its introduction the Celica was only available as a pillarless hardtop notchback coupe, adopting "coke bottle styling". The SV-1 liftback was shown as a concept car at the 1971 Tokyo Motor Show. With slight modifications, this was introduced in Japan in April 1973 as the 2-liter RA25 and 1.600 L TA27 liftbacks. It was then exported to Europe in RHD form as the 1.6-liter liftback. After the October 1975 facelift, it was available in both RHD and LHD forms in other markets. The RV-1 wagon was also shown at the 1971 Tokyo Motor Show but it did not reach production.

The Japanese GT models had various differences from the ET, LT and ST including the hood flutes, power windows, air conditioning, and specific GT trim, but shared a few things with the ST – a full-length center console and oil pressure/ammeter gauges while the LT had warning lights for these functions. With the exception of the American market, the GT had a twincam engine (1600 cc 2T-G or 2000 cc 18R-G, not available on the ET, LT or ST) and always had 5 speed manual gearboxes. For the American market only, the GT had only a single cam engine (2000 cc 18R or 2200 cc 20R) with a choice of automatic or manual gearboxes.

There was also the GTV version, which introduced in 1972 with slightly less luxurious interior than the GT. The GTV came with firmer suspension for better handling.

The first generation Celicas can be further broken down into two distinctive models. The first of these was the original with slant nose (trapezoid-like shape front corner light). This is for Coupe model only, TA22, RA20, and RA21. These models were released from 1970 to 1975 and came equipped with the 2T, 2T-G 1.6-liter, or 18R 2.0-liter motor. They had a 95 inches (2,400 mm) wheelbase. The second series had a flat nose (square front corner light) and slightly longer wheelbase (98 in or 2,500 mm wheelbase). This facelift model appeared in Japan in 1974, but for export was the 1976 model year. The Japanese version had engines under 2.0 liters so as to conform to Japanese regulations concerning engine displacement size, thereby allowing buyers to avoid an additional tax for a larger engine.

In some markets, the lower-end LT was equipped with the single carbureted four-cylinder 2T engine displacing 1,600 cc, while the ST came with a twin downdraft-carburetor 2T-B engine. The 2T-G that powered the high-end GT model was a DOHC 1,600 cc engine equipped with twin Mikuni-Solex Carburetors.

The first Celica for North America, 1971 ST was powered by 1.9-liter 8R engine. The 1972–1974 models have 2.0-liter 18R-C engines. For 1975–77, the engine for the North American Celica is the 2.2-liter 20R. The Celica GT and LT models were introduced in the U.S. for the 1974 model year. The top-line GT included a 5-speed manual transmission, rocker panel GT stripes, and styled steel wheels with chrome trim rings. The LT was marketed as an economy model. Mid-1974 saw minor changes in the Celica's trim and badges and slightly different wheel arches. The A30 automatic transmission became an option on North American ST and LT models starting in the 1973 model year. For 1975, the 1974 body was used, but body-color plastic fascia and sturdier chrome and black rubber bumpers, replaced the chrome bumpers used in the earlier cars (in accordance with US Federal bumper laws). Unfortunately the early 8R and 18R series engines proved to be less than durable, with early failures common. The 1974 18R-C engine's durability was improved somewhat, but the 20R introduced for 1975 proved to be a better engine in most respects.[citation needed]

1972 Minor Update[edit]

In August 1972, the tail lights were updated from 1 piece tail light (affectionately called 1-tail) to tail lights with distinctive turn signals. The rear center garnish was also redesigned. The fuel tank was moved from the trunk bottom to behind the rear seats; the fuel filler was moved from a concealed location between the tail lights to the left C pillar.

Liftback[edit]

The Liftback was introduced for Japanese market in April 1973, but not until 1976 for export models. Models for home market Liftback were 1600ST, 1600GT (TA27), 2000ST, and 2000GT (RA25 and RA28). The American Liftback was only offered as GT (RA29) with a 2.2-liter 20R engine. All the Liftback models have flat noses. Although there is no "B" pillar in the Liftback, the rear windows do not roll down (as they do in the hardtop coupe).

The Liftback was often called the "Japanese Mustang" or the "Mustang Celica" because of the styling similarities to the Ford Mustang pony car, including the triple bar tail lights that are a signature Mustang styling cue and the overall homages to the muscle-car era.

Facelift export models[edit]

In October 1975, The entire Celica lineup was given a facelift, with a revised front bumper and grille arrangement. The new model codes for facelift hardtop coupe were RA23 for general worldwide market with 18R engine, or RA24 for the American spec with 20R engine. The Liftback were coded RA28 for worldwide or RA29 for US. Also available was the TA23, which was similar to the RA23, but with the 2T engine. The RA23 and RA28 had a more distinctive bulge hood, which was lacking in the TA22 or RA20 Coupe and in the TA27 and RA25 Liftback Celica. The TA22 Celica also had removable vents mounted in the hood, which the RA23 and RA28 lacked. The RA series also had an elongated nose to accommodate the larger engine. The door vents, fuel filler cap, and interior were also different between the TA and RA series.

For 1976–1977, the non-US GT Liftback was released with the 18R-G Twincam engine with a Yamaha head and running gear. This engine produced significantly more power than the 18R-C. Peak power was about 100 kW (134 hp) at 6,000 rpm.

In Australia, the Celica was first released in the 1.6 L 2T motor. The later 1975–1977 Celica was released with the 2.0 L 18R motor.

1970 Celica Coupe 1600 GT (TA22, Japan) 
1973 Celica Liftback 2000 GT (RA25, Japan) 
1973 Celica Liftback 2000 GT (RA25, Japan) 
1976 Celica Liftback 2000 ST (RA28, UK) 
1976 Celica Coupe 2200 GT (RA24, US). Note enlarged bumpers, required by US Federal law. 
1976–1977 Celica Hardtop Coupe 2000 LT (RA23, Australia) 

Second generation (A40, A50; 1977–1981)[edit]

Second generation
Toyota Celica A40 Euro Spec 1978.jpg
Toyota Celica Coupe 1600 ST (TA40, UK)
Overview
Production Aug 1977 – July 1981[1]
Assembly Japan: Toyota, Aichi (Tsutsumi)
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupe
2-door convertible
3-door liftback
Layout Front-engine, rear-wheel drive
Related Toyota Supra (A40, A50)
Toyota Carina (A40, A50)
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission 3-speed A40 automatic ('78–'80)
4-speed A40D automatic ('81)
5-speed W50 manual
5-speed W55 manual ('81)
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,500 mm (98 in)
Length 4,410 mm (174 in)
Width 1,640 mm (65 in)
Height 1,310 mm (52 in)
Curb weight 1,055 kg (2,326 lb)
1978-1979 Toyota Celica Liftback GT (RA42, USA)

The second generation Celica was released for 1978 model year (production began in late 1977), and was again available in both Coupe and Liftback forms. Interestingly, it was designed in the United States by Toyota's Calty Research Design studio in California. The Coupe was no longer a true hardtop; both Coupe and Liftback had frameless door glass but featured a thick "B" pillar. David Stollery was responsible for its design.[4]

From 1979 to 1981 the Griffith company in the US offered a Targa style convertible conversion to the Coupe. They were called the SunChaser and had a removable Targa top and a folding rear roof, much like the '67 Porsche 911 soft-window Targa. These were Toyota approved and sold through Toyota dealers. Over 2000 were produced.

The second generation Celica can also be broken down into two series of release (known as Series A and Series B). These two Celicas were only distinguishable by appearance – both having the same engine capacity. The original Series A Celica (1978–1979) was released with round headlights and chrome bumpers for lower grades. The higher grades such as GT and all US models have black rubber bumpers. The facelift model Series B Celica (1979–1981) was released with square headlights, revised tail lights. They came with chrome bumpers with rubber protectors on each corners, or for certain models with all polyurethane black bumpers such on the GT and all US spec cars.

Power for North American models was provided by a 2.2 L 20R engine for both ST and GT models. Japan and other markets had 1.6-, 1.8-, and 2.0-liter powerplants. This new generation offered more safety, power and fuel economy than previous models, and was awarded Motor Trend's "Import Car of the Year" for 1978. Japanese models were ET, LT, ST, SE, XT, GT, and GTV. The GT and GTV have an 18R-G Twincam engine. In late 1978, the GTV was replaced by GT Rally.

The limited edition "US Grand Prix" GT Liftback was offered in 1980 due to Toyota's connection to the U.S. Grand Prix West in Long Beach, California. For 1981, the North American models were given a bigger engine, the 2.4-liter 22R which was simultaneously fitted to the Pickup. To celebrate the Celica 10th Anniversary, the GTA Coupe was released. This was basically a GT Coupe with a four-speed automatic transmission, Supra style interior, power windows, upgraded sound system and alloy wheels. The GTA is distinguishable by the black/gold two tone paint and a "GTA 10th anniversary" plaque on the center console.

There were about 70 different variants of second generation Celica sold in Japan over the model's life time. At its pinnacle in 1979, Toyota retailed 49 versions at once.

1981 Toyota Celica Coupé 1600 ST (TA40, Europe) 
1979–1981 Toyota Celica Liftback 2000 LT (RA40, Australia) 
1979–1981 Toyota Celica Liftback 2000 LT (RA40, Australia) 

Celica XX / Celica Supra[edit]

Main article: Toyota Supra

In 1978 Toyota began production of the Mark I Toyota Supra in Japan, as the Toyota Celica XX. The year it debuted in the United States and Japan was in 1979. The U.S. Mark I (chassis code MA46) was originally equipped with a 110 hp (82 kW) 2.6 L (2563 cc) 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine (4M-E). Simultaneously in 1979, the Japanese Mark I (chassis code MA45) was offered with a 110 hp (82 kW) 2.0 L 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine (M-EU).

Celica Camry[edit]

Main article: Toyota Carina
Toyota Celica Camry (Japan)

Toyota launched the Celica Camry, a four-door sedan, in the Japanese market during January 1980. This model was essentially a second generation 1977–1981 Toyota Carina (A40 and A50) with an elongated front-end styled to resemble the 1978–1981 Celica XX, known as the Celica Supra in export markets. Unlike other Celicas, this Carina-derived model is a four-door sedan rather than a coupé or liftback. Toyota replaced the Celica Camry upon the arrival of the front-wheel drive Toyota Camry (V10) in 1982.

Third generation / A60 Series (1981–1985)[edit]

Third generation
Toyota Celica 1600 GT-R (AA63).jpg
Toyota Celica Coupe 1600 GT-R (AA63, Japan)
Overview
Production Aug 1981[1] – Jul 1985[5]
Assembly Tahara, Aichi, Japan
Toyota, Aichi, Japan (Tsutsumi plant)
Body and chassis
Body style 3-door liftback
2-door coupé
2-door convertible
Layout FR layout
Platform A60
Related

Toyota Supra

Toyota Carina
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission 4-speed A40D automatic
5-speed W55, W58, T50 manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,500 mm (98 in)
Length 4,435 mm (174.6 in)
Width 1,665 mm (65.6 in)
Height 1,310 mm (52 in)
Curb weight 970–1,227 kg (2,138–2,705 lb)[6][7]
1983 Toyota Celica Coupe GT-S (RA65, USA)

August 1981 saw the introduction of the third generation Celica. The car was initially available in coupe and liftback forms with many buyers preferring the liftback. The US-made convertible came in 1984. Styling was changed considerably from previous models and power was provided by a 2.4 L 22R or 22R-E engine in all North American models, while smaller engines were used in other countries. The 2.4 L became the biggest 4 cylinder engine offered in any Celica ever. Other engines were the 1.6-liter 4A, 1.6-liter 2T, 1.8-liter 3T, 1.8-liter 4T, 1.8-liter 1S, 2.0-liter 2S, 2.0-liter 18R-G and 2.0-liter 21R, depending on the particular market. Trim levels are SV, ST, ST-EFI, SX, GT, and GT Rally. Rack and pinion steering was offered with this Celica.

Fuel injection became standard on all North American Celicas started from August 1982, therefore the 22R engine became 22R-E (or 22R-EC with California emissions equipment). In August 1982, Toyota added the GT-S model to the North American market to re-inject the sports image that Celica had lost as it grew larger and heavier with each subsequent model. The GT-S included larger 14x7" wheels and 225/60HR14 tires, fender flares, independent rear suspension, a sports interior including special seats, and a leather-wrapped steering wheel and shifter knob. Most of these came from the Supra. This made sense as the Supra was based on the Celica. From the windshield back, both cars were nearly identical when in liftback form. There were also optional rear louvers for the coupe and liftback. The upgraded GT-S wheels are coveted as replacements by many people who own first generation Celicas as they remained four-lug and looked sportier than first generation wheels while still providing the "classic Celica" look and feel. The wheels were also polished aluminium as opposed to the flat finish of the lower models.

1984 Toyota Celica Liftback 2000 XT (RA61, UK)

The Celica was updated in August 1983 for the 1984 model year. The revision included fully retractable headlights, restyled grille, and airdam. The rear combination lamps were also revised. The Japanese Celica 1600 GT got new 4A-GE engine, and the 1600 GT-R also powered by the same motor was introduced. Another new model was the turbocharged 1800 GT-TR.

The GT-S Convertible, built by American Specialty Cars (ASC) in California, was originally released in a limited 200 units in 1984. 4,248 more were built for the 1985 model year.

The Australian, European, Japanese, and general export model Celicas came with rear side vents, which are highly sought after by North American Celica enthusiasts.

In Europe, the Celica was offered as 1600ST with 2T engine, 2000XT (21R), and 2000GT (18R-G).

In Australia, Toyota decided initially to use the 21R-C in the Celica. As a result the car only turned out a mere 67 kW (90 hp). However, for the facelift model it was replaced by the far quicker 73 kW (98 hp) 2S-C motor and then by the injected 2.4-liter motor (22R-E) which provided 87 kW (118 PS; 117 hp). The facelift versions also came with independent rear suspension, rather than the traditional live axle differential.

Twincam Turbo Group B Rally Car[edit]

Juha Kankkunen's 1985 Toyota Celica TwinCam Turbo (TA64) Group B rally car

In September 1982, the first Celica turbo was launched in Japan for the local market only. The GT-T (TA63) came with the twin-spark 1.8-liter 3T-GTE engine, W55 5-speed manual gearbox, a limited slip differential, pump up lumbar "sports" seats and optional digital dash. To meet the FISA regulation for Group B Rally Car to compete in the World Rally Championship (WRC), 200 units of the Celica GT-TS were built. These were the basic cars for Group B Celica Twincam Turbo (TA64) which were built and rallied by Toyota Team Europe (TTE). The Group B Celica TCT made its WRC debut in the 1983 Rally Finland. The production car had 180 PS (132 kW; 178 hp) engine, and with 320 bhp (239 kW; 324 PS) 4T-GTE engine, the fully works rally car was the most powerful third generation Celica.

WRC Victories[edit]

No. Event Season Driver Co-driver Car
1 Ivory Coast 15ème Rallye Côte d'Ivoire 1983 Sweden Björn Waldegård Sweden Hans Thorszelius Toyota Celica TCT
2 Kenya 32nd Marlboro Safari Rally 1984 Sweden Björn Waldegård Sweden Hans Thorszelius Toyota Celica TCT
3 Kenya 33rd Marlboro Safari Rally 1985 Finland Juha Kankkunen United Kingdom Fred Gallagher Toyota Celica TCT
4 Ivory Coast 17ème Rallye Côte d'Ivoire 1985 Finland Juha Kankkunen United Kingdom Fred Gallagher Toyota Celica TCT
5 Kenya 34th Marlboro Safari Rally 1986 Sweden Björn Waldegård United Kingdom Fred Gallagher Toyota Celica TCT
6 Ivory Coast 18ème Rallye Côte d'Ivoire 1986 Sweden Björn Waldegård United Kingdom Fred Gallagher Toyota Celica TCT

Fourth generation / T160 Series (1985–1989)[edit]

Fourth generation
1987-1989 Toyota Celica (ST162) SX liftback 01.jpg
Toyota Celica 2.0 SX Liftback (ST162, Australia)
Overview
Production Aug 1985 – Aug 1989[8]
Assembly Tahara, Aichi, Japan
Toyota, Aichi, Japan (Tsutsumi plant)
Body and chassis
Body style 3-door liftback Cd 0.32
2-door coupe
2-door convertible
Layout Front engine, FWD / 4WD
Platform T160
Related Toyota Carina
Toyota Carina ED
Toyota Corona Coupé
Powertrain
Engine 1.6 L I4 4A-GE
1.8 L I4 1S-iLU
1.8 L I4 4S-Fi
2.0 L I4 2S-ELC
2.0 L I4 2S-FE
2.0 L I4 3S-FE
2.0 L I4 3S-GE
2.0 L I4 3S-GTE turbo
Transmission 4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,525 mm (99.4 in)
Length 4,410 mm (174 in) (coupe & convertible)
4,365 mm (171.9 in) (liftback)
Width 1,710 mm (67.3 in)
1,690 mm (66.7 in) (Japan)
Height 1,260 mm (49.8 in)
Early model Toyota Celica ST Coupé (ST161, USA)
Toyota Celica GT Convertible (ST162, USA)

In August 1985 the Celica was changed completely. It was an all-new vehicle with front wheel drive, a rounded, flowing body and new 2.0 L four-cylinder engines. The Celica was no longer built on the Toyota A platform, and instead realigned with the Toyota T platform underpinning the Toyota Corona. The Toyota A platform was now exclusive to the Toyota Supra. The coupe bodystyle in Japan was used only for the Corona Coupe, sold only at Japanese Toyota dealerships Toyopet Store without the retractable headlights.[9] An optional feature only offered on the Corona Coupe was four-wheel steering, not shared with the Celica during this generation, however, the turbocharged engine on the Celica was not installed in the Corona Coupe.

Toyota introduced the "ultimate Celica", the GT-Four (ST165) onto the Japanese market in October 1986.[8] With full-time all-wheel drive, including an electronically controlled central locking differential, and a turbocharged version of the GT-S 2.0 L engine producing 190 hp (142 kW) (3S-GTE), it immediately took its place as the flagship of the Celica range, and became the official Toyota rally car for all years of production. The GT-Four, with a revised viscous coupling central locking differential, began export in 1987 (1988 US model year) and marketed in North America as the All-trac Turbo. It was rated at 190 bhp (142 kW; 193 PS) and 190 lb·ft (258 N·m). The All-trac system was also offered for a limited time on the Camry, and Corolla in North America without the turbo, as well as the normally aspirated and supercharged Previa.

The ST165 chassis design was quite acclaimed in its time.[10] Toyota chose not to make any drastic suspension changes for the AWD GT-Four. The front suspension comprises MacPherson struts with an anti-swaybar and strut tower brace, while the rear employs struts with a trailing link and twin lateral links per side plus an anti-swaybar.

The ST165 GT-Four made its World Rally debut in the 1988 Tour de Corse and finished 6th. The first victory came in 1988 Cyprus (non-WRC), and the first WRC victory in 1989 Rally Australia.

Summary of 4th Generation Models
Chassis Code Body Style Engine Trim Level Market
AT160 Coupe, Liftback 4A-F, 4A-GE 1.6 ST (4A-F), 1.6 GT (4A-GE) Japan, General
ST160 Liftback 1S-iLU 1.8 ST, 1.8 SX Japan[8]
ST161 Coupe, Liftback 2S-ELC 2.0 ST, 2.0 GT (1986 model year only) North America
ST162 Coupe, Liftback, Convertible 3S-FE, 3S-GE 2.0 ST & 2.0 GT (3S-FE), 2.0 GT-R (3S-GELU), 2.0 GT-i 16, 2.0 SX & 2.0 GT-S (3S-GE), 2.0 ZR (3S-FE) Japan (Liftback & Convertible),[8] North America (all body styles), Europe (Liftback & Convertible), Australia & New Zealand (Liftback and Coupe)
ST163 Liftback 4S-Fi 1.8 ST, 1.8 SX Japan (introduced May 1988)[8]
ST165 Liftback 3S-GTE GT-Four, Turbo All-Trac Japan,[8] Europe, North America

Japan[edit]

For the Japanese market the fourth generation Celica started with the 1S-iSU engine in the ST160 and 4A engine in the AT160. The 4A engine was terminated in August 1987 and the 1S-iLU engine was replaced by the 4S-Fi engine in the ST163 in May 1988. The 3S engine in various twincam forms was introduced in August 1987 in the ST162. The 3S-GTE turbo engine was also introduced at the same time in the all-wheel drive ST165 GT-Four. Two months later, a factory convertible (coded ST162C) was offered with the twincam 3S-FE engine.[8]

Non twincam models came in ST and SX trim levels. Models with the 3S-FE economy twincam came in the ZR trim level, including the convertible. Models with the 3S-GELU sports twincam came in GT and GT-R trim levels and lastly the turbo all-wheel drive model came in the GT-Four trim level. A digital instrument panel was offered on the top level GT and GT-R. The notchback two-door coupé bodystyle was not offered as a Celica in Japan; instead this body was sold as the Toyota Corona Coupé, with fixed headlights rather than the Celica's flip-up units.

Australia[edit]

1987–1989 Toyota Celica 2.0 SX Liftback (ST162, Australia)

The Australian spec Celica ST162 were the base model ST with 3S-FE engine offered as Coupe and Liftback, and the top of the line SX Liftback with higher performance 3S-GE Twincam engine. Rear spoiler and alloy wheels came standard on the SX, which made it the same appearance as the Japanese GT-R or American GT-S. The limited edition SX White Lightning with all white bumpers, side protectors and wheels was offered in 1989. Inside, it featured cruise control (automatic models only) and the same sports seats used in the ST165 GT-Four, but was otherwise identical to the SX.

Europe[edit]

In most European countries these models were available instead:

Chassis code Model Engine Power at
rpm
Nm at
rpm
kg 0–100
km/h
Top Speed
kW PS km/h mph
AT160 1.6 ST 1587 cc 8V 4A-C (Carb) 64 87 5600  136 3600  1005 12.4 s 175 109
AT160 1.6 GT 1587 cc 16V 4A-GE 92 125 6600  142 5000  1060 8.9 s 205 127
ST162 2.0 GT 1998 cc 16V 3S-FE 92 125 5600  169 4400  1460 8.9 s 205 127
ST162 2.0 GT-S 1998 cc 16V 3S-GE 112 152 6400  180 4800  1130 8.6 s 210 130
ST165 2.0 GT-Four 1998 cc 16V 3S-GTE Turbo 142 193 6000  249 3200  1465 7.9 s 220 137

The Convertible or better known as Cabriolet was based on the 2.0 GT. The GT-S was badged 2.0 GT-i 16.

North America[edit]

1988 Toyota Celica All-Trac Turbo (ST165, USA)

Trims available were the ST coupe or the GT and GT-S that came as a coupe or liftback; with the GT trim available as a soft-top convertible starting in the 1987 model year. The GT-Four was available as a model year 1988, 2 years after the release in Japan. All trims came standard with a tachometer, oil pressure, voltmeter (replaced with a boost meter in the ST165) gauges and a rear window defogger for the interior.

ST: The ST was the most basic form of the T160 chassis. In 1986, the chassis was designated as the ST161. It had the SOHC 8-valve, 2.0 L 2S-E engine from the Camry, producing 97 hp (72 kW) at 4400 rpm and 118 ft-lbs. of torque at 4000 rpm. However this only lasted a year as it was changed over to an all new DOHC engine 3S-FE for the 1987 model year producing 115 hp (86 kW) at 5200 rpm and 124 ft-lbs. of torque at 4400 rpm; and as a result, the chassis designation was changed to ST162. The ST was the lightest T160 chassis at 2455 lbs. with the manual transmission. A 5-speed manual was the only transmission available in 1986, with a 4-speed automatic being optional 1987 onwards, bringing the curb weight to 2522 lbs. Steel wheels were wrapped with 165/80-13 tires. The interior had manual windows and locks, bucket seats and an AM/FM receiver as standard features. Power steering and power brakes were standard, with ventilated discs in the front and drum brakes in the rear to go along with a 4x100 bolt pattern. Cable operated air-conditioning was optional.[11]

GT: The GT shared the ST's engine as well as the chassis designation being the ST161 with a 2S-E engine in 1986 quickly changing over to the ST162 with a 3S-FE engine 1987 onwards. The curb weight was 2515 lbs for the coupe and 2546 lbs. for the liftback. A 4 speed overdrive automatic transmission (A140L) was an option, bringing the curb weight up to 2579 and 2610 lbs., respectively. The convertible weighed in at 2700 lbs. for the manual and 2760 lbs. for the automatic. For the interior, the GT came with an electronic 4 speaker AM/FM/MPX tuner, power side mirrors, tilt steering wheel, driver's lumbar support and an automatic retracting radio antenna was standard. Power locks, windows, power tilt/slide sunroof, side mirror defogger, cruise control, electronic air-conditioning, and 13"x5.5" aluminum alloy wheels were optional with 185/70-13 tires. Interestingly enough, a digital instrument panel was available as an option for the non-convertible GT trim only. The GT also includes a front strut bar across the two strut towers as an upgrade over the ST trim, but retains the front ventilated disc and rear drum brake combination from the ST.[11]

GT-S: The GT-S (chassis code ST162) was given a de-tuned version of the DOHC 2.0 L engine (3S-GELC) featuring T-VIS and a 6800 rpm redline producing 135 hp (101 kW) at 6000 rpm and 125 ft-lbs of torque at 4800 rpm. An EGR and O2 sensor restricted the engine along with a milder ECU. The GT-S replaced the rear drum brakes with disc brakes going along with a 5x100 bolt pattern. Standard features in addition to the GT trim included an 8-way adjustable sports bucket seats with power lumbar and side bolsters, automatic climate control, side mirror defogger, wrap-around spoiler, telescopic steering wheel, and speed-rated 205/60-14 tires on 14"x6" alloy wheels. Leather interior including shift knob, door panel inserts, and steering wheel were optional. In Canada, all GT-S models were 5-speed (S53) manual transmissions, but in America, an electronic controlled 4-speed automatic (A140E) with lock-up torque converter was available. New features in 1988-1989 included an illuminated vanity light as standard and ABS as optional.[11]

Turbo All-Trac: The turbo All-Trac (chassis code ST165), or turbo 4wd as it was named in Canada, is the American version of the GT-Four. It was given a DOHC turbo-charged, water-to-air intercooled 2.0L engine (3S-GTE) featuring T-VIS producing 190 hp (142 kW) at 6000 rpm and 190 ft-lbs of torque at 3200 rpm. The All-Trac only came with a 5 speed all wheel drive transmission with a viscous-coupling center differential, bringing the curb weight to 3197 lbs. The ST165 was not sold in North America before 1988 except for seventy-seven special-edition cars sold in 1987 as 1988 models at each of the 77 Toyota dealerships in California to commemorate Toyota's IMSA GTO championship win. These Celicas are all white with white wheels and blue interior and have "IMSA GTO CHAMPION" printed in small letters on the side moulding, as well as a white stripe on the grill. This top of the line trim came with the same options as the GT-S with the exception of the power interior options, leather steering wheel, fog lights, V-rated tires, and a factory full body kit as standard. One interior feature that is missing from the GT-S trim and other trims is the cup holder as the center console is different due to a larger center body tunnel to accommodate for the ST165's center drive shaft.[11]

Fifth generation / T180 Series (1989–1993)[edit]

Fifth generation
CelicaST185GT4AFresnoF.jpg
Toyota Celica All-Trac Turbo (ST185, USA)
Overview
Production Sep 1989 – Sep 1993
Assembly Tahara, Aichi, Japan
Body and chassis
Body style 3-door liftback
2-door coupe
2-door convertible
Layout Front engine, FWD / 4WD
Platform T180
Related Toyota Carina ED
Toyota Corona EXIV
Powertrain
Engine 1.6 L 4A-FE I4
2.0 L 3S-FE & 3S-GE I4
2.0 L turbo 3S-GTE I4
2.2 L 5S-FE I4
Transmission 4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,525 mm (99.4 in)
Length Coupe & Convertible: 4,470 mm (176 in)
Normal body Liftback: 4,410 mm (174 in)
Wide body Liftback: 4,420 mm (174 in)
Width 1990 ST Coupe: 1,690 mm (67 in)
Convertible, 1991–93 Coupe, Normal body Liftback: 1,705 mm (67.1 in)
Wide body Liftback: 1,745 mm (68.7 in)
Height Liftback FF: 1,280 mm (50.4 in)
Coupe, Liftback 4WD: 1,290 mm (50.6 in)
Convertible: 1,300 mm (51.2 in)
1990 Toyota Celica ST Coupe (AT180, USA)
1991 Toyota Celica 4WS Convertible (ST183, Japan)
1990 Toyota Celica SX Liftback (ST184, Australia)

The fifth generation Celica was introduced in September 1989 for the 1990 model year. The Celica received new Super Round organic styling, upgraded wheels and tires, more powerful GT-Four (US: All-Trac) with better cooling system, and for the Japanese market only, the 4-Wheel Steering (4WS) models. Toyota engineers claimed that the round styling and lack of straight edges increased strength without adding weight. The styling was later copied by other manufacturers. Japanese domestic market (JDM) models were now S-R, Z-R, GT-R, Active Sports (with active suspension), and GT-Four. The S-R and Z-R were powered by a 3S-FE engine, while the GT-R and Active Sports came with a 3S-GE. The 3S-GTE in the GT-Four features an air-to-air intercooler and CT26 twin entry turbo to eliminate exhaust gas interference. The JDM GT-Four has 165 kW (221 hp) and 304 N·m (224 lb·ft) of torque, a result of more aggressive ignition advance and ceramic turbine. The Full-time 4WD system in the GT-Four has viscous coupling limited slip center differential and Torsen rear differential. Eddie Murphy made television commercials in Japan for the fifth-generation Celica, promoting the styling and the Super Live Sound System.[12]

The North American Celica had fixed door mirrors and amber front corner lights. All other models had folding mirrors and front clear corner lights. Driver's side SRS Airbag is standard on all US models. The base model ST has 1.6 L 4A-FE, the GT and GT-S were powered by the 2.2 L 5S-FE. The 1.6L was similar to the one used in the Corolla. The GT-S was rated 5 hp (4 kW) more than the GT at 135 bhp (101 kW; 137 PS). The 2.2 L was designed for more low-end torque, which appealled to US buyers' preferences as opposed to the high revving engines of the past. This engine was similar to the Camry's engine except for the balance shafts. The All-Trac Turbo was available with the improved 2.0 L 3S-GTE engine. It was rated at 200 bhp (149 kW; 203 PS) and 200 lb·ft (271 N·m) torque; an increase of 10 each from the previous model. The GT-S and all export market GT-Four are wide-body Liftbacks with flared fenders. The JDM GT-Four was also offered as normal body for the pre-facelift model.

Trim levels for the European Celica were 1.6 ST-i, 2.0 GT-i 16, and GT-Four. The 2.0 GT-i 16 Cabriolet was offered only in certain European countries. Only the 2.0 GT-i 16 Liftback and GT-Four were officially sold in the UK. New for 1992, the wide body 2.0 GT-i 16 was offered in the Netherlands and Belgium. This was basically a GT-S with 3S-GE engine.

Models for Australia were SX Coupe, SX Liftback, GT-Four, and also 150 units limited edition GT-Four Group A Rallye. The Australian cars are less luxurious than JDM and North American models. Initially, the GT-Four did not come with ABS and fog lamps, which became standard few months after the introduction. In 1993, the Limited Edition WRC Trophy model was offered in Australia. This is basically the SX with sport front seats from the GT-Four, cruise control, rear window shade / spoiler, and special decals.

In August 1990, the wide body Liftback GT-Four A and Convertible were added into the Japanese Celica line up. Super Live Sound System with 10 speakers became standard on the GT-Four A and optional in other models except the S-R. The 20th Anniversary GT-R came in December 1990 to celebrate 20 years of Celica production. The Celica Convertible was built by American Sunroof Corporation (ASC) in California. It was offered as GT in US with 5S-FE engine, and as Type G in Japan or 2.0 GT-i 16 Cabriolet in Europe with 3S-GE engine. The JDM Convertible also has 4WS. The European Celica Cabriolet retained the old style front bumper for 1992, and received the facelift in 1993.

There are three different gearboxes for ST185 GT-Four. The E150F gearbox with 4.285 final gear ratio was installed in the JDM and All-Trac. European and Australian models, as well as the RC/Carlos Sainz/Group A models, came with the E151F gearbox with 3.933 ratio. The JDM only GT-Four Rally, a limited edition lightweight rally version sold only in Japan (not to be confused with the Australian GT-Four Grp A Rallye model), has the E152F gearbox with close ratio on the 1st through 4th gear and 4.285 final ratio. It also came with steel wheels and without air conditioning, power windows, or a power antenna. The early model GT-Four Rally is based on the normal body, and the facelift model is wide body with round fog lights. Also sold in Japan only was the GT-Four V. This was an economy version of normal body without alloy wheels, leather, or System 10, but still came with fog lights, power windows, and optional sunroof. This model was not sold in Australia.

Anti-lock brakes (ABS) were available on the GT-S all four years and was available on the GT from 1992 to 1993. ABS, Leather interior, Sunroof, and System 10 Premium Sound System are optional on the GT-S and '90–'92 All-Trac, and standard on '93 All-Trac. With its sport-style interior, power-operated driver's seat, auto tilt-away steering wheel, and cruise control as standard equipment, the All-Trac (known as the GT-Four outside of the US) was the most expensive Celica yet. With a 2.0 L turbocharged 3S-GTE producing 149 kW (200 hp), it was the most powerful Celica ever sold in the USA.

5th Generation Models
Chassis code Model(s) Body style 2/4WS, FWD/4WD Engine Power Torque Markets JDM price (¥1000)
AT180 ST-i (Europe), ST (North America, General) Coupe, Liftback 2WS, FWD 4A-FE 77 kW (103 hp) @ 6000 rpm 138 Nm (101 lb-ft) @ 3200 rpm Europe, North America, General
ST182 S-R Liftback 2WS, FWD 3S-FE 93 kW (125 hp) JP 1464
ST182 Z-R Liftback 2WS, FWD 3S-FE 93 kW (125 hp) JP 1608
ST182 GT-R Liftback 2WS, FWD 3S-GE 118 kW (158 hp) @ 6600 rpm 186 Nm (137 lb-ft) @ 4800 rpm JP 1880
ST182 2.0 GT-i 16 Liftback, Convertible 2WS, FWD 3S-GE 118 kW (158 hp) @ 6600 rpm 186 Nm (137 lb-ft) @ 4800 rpm Europe, Middle East
ST182 2.0 GTS-i 16 Liftback wide body 2WS, FWD 3S-GE 118 kW (158 hp) @ 6600 rpm 186 Nm (137 lb-ft) @ 4800 rpm Belgium, The Netherlands
ST183 4WS S-R Liftback 4WS, FWD 3S-FE 93 kW (125 hp) @ 6600 rpm JP 1554
ST183 4WS Z-R Liftback 4WS, FWD 3S-FE 93 kW (125 hp) JP 1698
ST183 4WS GT-R Liftback 4WS, FWD 3S-GE 118 kW (158 hp) JP 1970
ST183 Active Sports Liftback 4WS, FWD 3S-GE 118 kW (158 hp) @ 6600 rpm 186 Nm (137tq) @ 4800 rpm JP 3200
ST184 GT (North America), SX (Australia) Coupe, Convertible (North America), Liftback 2WS, FWD 5S-FE 97 kW (130 hp) @ 5400 rpm 186 Nm (145 lb-ft) @ 4400 rpm US, Canada, Australia
ST184 GT-S Liftback wide body 2WS, FWD 5S-FE 97 kW (130 hp) @ 5400 rpm 186 Nm (145 lb-ft) @ 4400 rpm North America, Thailand, Hong Kong
ST185 GT-Four, GT-Four V Liftback normal body 2WS, 4WD 3S-GTE 165 kW (221 hp) @ 6000 rpm 271 Nm (200 lb-ft) @ 3200 rpm Japan 2685
ST185 GT-Four A, Turbo All-Trac Liftback wide body 2WS, 4WD 3S-GTE 149–165 kW (200–221 hp) @ 6000 rpm 271 Nm (200 lb-ft) @ 3200 rpm Japan, Europe, North America, Australia 2900
ST185 GT-Four RC, Turbo 4WD Carlos Sainz, GT-Four Grp A Rallye Liftback wide body 2WS, 4WD 3S-GTE 153–173 kW (205–232 hp) @ 6000 rpm 271 Nm (200 lb-ft) @ 3200 rpm Japan, Europe, Singapore, Australia 3171
The facelift model Toyota Celica 1.6 ST-i (AT180, Germany)
The facelift model US-spec Toyota Celica 2.2 GT-S (ST184, The Netherlands)
The facelift model Toyota Celica 2.2 SX (ST184R, Australia)

In August 1991, Toyota face-lifted the Celica for the 1992 model year. Changes included:

  • Stiffer anti-roll bar was added and suspension spring rates were increased.
  • New three-way catalytic converter.
  • Toyota (T) emblems on the hood and trunk.
  • Taillights redesign (with smoke red frame).
  • Improved gear linkage and a shorter gearshift.
  • New 5S-FE, producing 100 kW (134 hp) and 196 N·m (145 lb·ft) of torque.
  • Front discs were now 277 mm (10.9 in) and ventilated.
  • The front-drive models (except for the wide body Liftback GT-S, which used the same front bumper as the 4WD models) received a new style bumper.
  • The export version GT-Four / All-Trac and GT-S retained automatic air conditioner, but the push button fan switch was replaced by the more conventional rotary type.
  • North American GT models received standard fog lights.
  • 15 in wheels on the Z-R, GT, and SX models fitted with Dunlop 205/55VR tires.
  • Discontinued JDM models: 4WS S-R, Active Sports, and normal body GT-Four.
  • The 'A' was dropped from the 'GT-Four A' and the wide-body turbo model was simply known as the GT-Four.
  • New round fog lights for the JDM GT-Four.
  • The JDM only GT-Four Rally uses the wide body shell.
  • The Cruise Control Package, SD Package and Luxury Package became optional on the JDM models.

For the Group A homologation, the special rally edition of 5000 units named GT-Four RC was launched in Japan in September 1991. The export models are called Carlos Sainz (CS) Limited Edition in Europe (in honour of their famous WRC driver), or Group A Rallye in Australia. Special features include:

  • a different intercooler (water-to-air as opposed to air-to-air) which Toyota Team Europe wanted so they could more easily tune their WRC car.
  • different hood, the emphasis of which is to get rid of heat as fast as possible (instead of scooping in air, as is the case with the standard ST185 hood).
  • more aggressively tuned ECU.
  • different bumper that is much lighter than the standard one.

Out of the 5000 units, 1800 stayed in Japan, 3000 for the selected European countries, 150 delivered to Australia, 25 went to Singapore, and a few were exported to New Zealand and other markets.

Sixth generation / T200 Series (1993–1999)[edit]

Sixth generation
Toyota Celica GT4 ST205.JPG
Toyota Celica GT-Four (ST205, UK)
Overview
Production Oct 1993 – Jun 1999
Assembly Tahara, Aichi, Japan
Body and chassis
Body style 3-door liftback
2-door notchback (coupé)
2-door convertible
Layout Front engine, FWD / 4WD
Platform T200
Related Toyota Carina ED
Toyota Corona EXIV
Toyota Curren
Toyota RAV4
Toyota Corona
Powertrain
Engine 1.8 L 7A-FE I4,
2.0 L 3S-FE I4,
2.0 L 3S-GE I4,
2.0 L 3S-GTE I4 turbo,
2.2 L 5S-FE I4
Transmission 4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,535 mm (99.8 in)
Length Coupe & Convertible: 4,500 mm (177.0 in)
Liftback: 4,420 mm (174.2 in)
Width 1,750 mm (68.9 in)
Height Coupe: 1,300 mm (51.0 in)
Liftback: 1,290 mm (50.8 in)
Convertible: 1,310 mm (51.6 in)
Pre-facelift 1994–1995 Toyota Celica GT-S Liftback (ST204, Canada)
1994-1995 Toyota Celica 1.8 ST notchback Coupe (AT200, US)

In October 1993, Toyota launched the sixth generation Celica for the 1994 model year. Styling of the new Celicas was acclaimed by most publications as "Supra-esque" with four round headlights, and did also provide a visual resemblance to the Soarer introduced in 1991. Celicas were available in either notchback Coupe or Liftback form, the Convertible would come later. New safety equipment in the form of driver (and then later passenger) airbags were standard, and anti-lock brakes were available on all models. Many Celicas also sported CFC-free air conditioning.

For the US market, the Celica was only available in ST and GT trims for the 1994 model year, but the addition of the optional "Sports Package" to the GT Liftback produced GT-S-like handling. All models came with standard dual SRS Airbags. The ST had a new 1.8-liter 7A-FE engine which could also be found in the Corolla, while the GT was powered by the carried-over 2.2-liter 5S-FE engine which could also be found in the Camry. The turbocharged All-Trac was no longer offered in the U.S. The 7A-FE is rated at 105 hp (78 kW) and 110 lb·ft (149 N·m), while the 5S-FE is rated at 135 hp (101 kW) and 145 lb·ft (197 N·m). In Canada, the Celica GT Liftback with "Sports Package" is badged GT-S.

Initially the Japanese Domestic Market (JDM) models were SS-I and SS-II. The ST205 GT-Four was launched in February 1994, and the Convertible in the Autumn of the same year. The width of this generation was no longer in compliance with Japanese Government regulations concerning exterior dimensions, which added an additional tax liability on Japanese buyers. This generation also saw a badge engineered version without the headlight treatment, called the Toyota Curren, and was sold only in Japan at Toyota Vista Store locations, allowing the Celica to be sold at different retail sales channels. The Celica was exclusive to Toyota Corolla Store locations.

Production of the GT-Four (or previously known as All-Trac in the US), continued for the Japanese, Australian, European, and British markets. This ST205 version was to be the most powerful Celica produced to date, producing 178 kW (239 hp) (export version) or 187 kW (251 hp) (JDM) from an updated 3S-GTE engine. Influenced strongly by Toyota Team Europe, Toyota's factory team in the World Rally Championship, the final version of the GT-Four included improvements such as an all-aluminum hood to save weight, four-channel ABS (with G-force sensor), an improved turbocharger (incorrectly known by enthusiasts as the CT20B), and Super Strut Suspension. The 2500 homologation cars built to allow Toyota to enter the GT-Four as a Group A car in the World Rally Championship also sported extras such as all of the plumbing required to activate an anti-lag system, a water spray bar for the Intercooler's front heat exchanger, a water injection system for detonation protection, a hood spoiler mounted in front of the windscreen to stop hood flex at high speed and the standard rear spoiler mounted on riser blocks. The car proved to be quite competitive in the 1995 World Championship. However, the team was banned from competition for a year after the car's single victory due to turbocharger fixing – a device that meant there was no air path restriction on the intake – when the jubilee clip was undone this would flick back into place so as to go un-noticed by inspectors. Toyota has always claimed that they knew nothing of the fix – but opponents say it was one very cleverly engineered device.[13] In some respects this car is a true sports car; in order to qualify for rallying it has a lot of special features and a unique strut arrangement.

1995–1999 Toyota Celica SX Liftback (ST204, Australia)

In Australia, the Celica ST204 (2.2-liter) was offered in SX and ZR trim levels. The ZR has standard SRS Airbag, fog lights, alloys, and other features. The limited edition SX-R was offered in 1998–1999. Based on the SX, this model came with black/red interior, white-faced speedometer and tachometer, fog lights, and alloy wheels.

The ST205 Celica GT-Four was available in Australia only in 1994. There was a limited delivery of only 77 units ST205 with each vehicle came with an individual numbered plaque in the cabin and Group A Rallye badges on the hatch. All Australian models were taken from the 2500 homologation run and had black leather interior and a full size spare wheel. The only option being a moonroof (17 of the 77 were available with this feature).

Toyota Celica GT Convertible (ST204, USA)

The fourth generation convertible was introduced in 1994. Built off of the GT coupe, the conversion took place in the ASC facility in Rancho Dominguez, California. The vehicle arrived in the US as a partially assembled vehicle. At ASC, the roof was removed and a three-layer insulated and power-operated top was installed, producing a vehicle that was virtually water and windproof.

Like its Coupe and Liftback siblings, the American GT Convertible is ST204 with 5S-FE engine, while the Japanese Convertible, and European GT Cabriolet are the 3S-GE powered ST202. The JDM soft top Celica was offered as the base model Convertible Type X with either manual or automatic transmission, and the fully equipped automatic only Convertible.

Summary of 6th Generation Models
Model Code Body Style Engine Trim Level Market
AT200 Coupe, Liftback 7A-FE ST, ST Limited, SR North America, Europe
ST202 Liftback, Convertible 3S-FE, 3S-GE SS-I (3S-FE), SS-II, SS-III, GT (3S-GE) Japan, Europe (Liftback & Convertible), Hong Kong & Thailand (GT Liftback only)
ST203 Liftback 3S-FE SS-I 4WS Japan
ST204 Coupe, Liftback, Convertible 5S-FE SX, SX-R, ZR, GT North America (all body styles), Australia & New Zealand (Liftback only)
ST205 Liftback 3S-GTE GT-Four Japan, Europe, Australia, New Zealand

In August 1995, minor changes were given to all JDM model Celicas, and the SS-III was added into the line up. All models received new rear combination lamps, and if fitted, the new style rear spoiler. The front drive models received new a front bumper design. The SS-III came with standard Super Strut Suspension and side aerodynamic rocker panels. The GT-Four also got side rocker panels, restyled rear spoiler, and new alloys.

The facelift model 1995–1999 Toyota Celica SX Liftback (ST204, Australia)

The 1996 Celica for export market received the same front restyling as the Japanese models, although the tail lights were untouched. The new front bumper has two smaller sections on each side of a smaller air dam as opposed to a single large air dam in previous models. Also new were optional side skirts to improve its aerodynamic efficiency, as well as a redesigned rear spoiler. The North American GT and Australian ZR models came with standard fog lights, and the ST and SX models without the optional fog lights had black grills fill in their place.

To celebrate 25 years of Celica, the SS-I and SS-III Special Edition were released in Japan, and the 25th Anniversary ST Limited and GT Convertible marked this occasion in the US. These Special Edition models have special emblems on the front fenders, and the inside on the rear view mirror hanger, and the name Celica was printed on the front seats as well.

For 1997, the only change in the North American Celica was the discontinuation of the GT coupe. Another minor change was given to JDM Celicas in December 1997. Projector headlights were optional for all models. The 3S-GE engine on the SS-II and SS-III received VVT-i, the SS-III was given a BEAMS tuned 3S-GE engine. WRC style high rear spoiler returned on the GT-Four and also standard on the SS-III.

In 1998, the underpowered ST model was discontinued in the USA, leaving only GT models. In addition, the GT notchback coupe returned after a year's absence. The Celica line up was simplified even further in 1999 by eliminating all coupes, leaving only the GT Liftback and GT Convertible. In the UK, Toyota released the SR based on the 1.8 ST. The SR has full body kit, mesh grille, 16 inch alloys, and upgraded sound system. The GT-Four was still offered in Japan. Also in early 1999, Toyota released pictures of their XYR concept car, which would soon become the next Celica.

Seventh generation / T230 series (1999–2006)[edit]

Seventh generation
Toyota-Celica-GT.jpg
Toyota Celica GT (ZZT230, USA)
Overview
Production July 1999[citation needed] – April 2006[14]
Assembly Susono, Shizuoka, Japan (Higashi-Fuji plant)
Body and chassis
Body style 3-door liftback
Layout FF layout
Platform T230
Related Toyota Corolla
Toyota Matrix
Powertrain
Engine 1.8 L 1ZZ-FE I4
1.8 L 2ZZ-GE I4
Transmission 4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
6-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,600 mm (102.4 in)
Length 4,335 mm (170.7 in)
Width 1,735 mm (68.3 in)
Height 1,310 mm (51.4 in)
Curb weight 1,202 kg (2,650 lb)

In late 1999, Toyota began production and sales of the seventh generation Celica. It closely resembled the XYR concept with the exception of the front bumper and rear spoiler, while omitting the previously available coupe bodystyle. The 2000 model year Celica was an element of Toyota Project Genesis, an effort to bring younger buyers to the marque in the United States. Toyota took time to lighten the car and lower cost wherever possible. Power window and door lock controls were placed in the center console so only 1 set was necessary for both doors. Initial sunroofs were made of polymer plastic instead of the traditional glass. This generation was assembled by Kanto Auto Works at its Higashi-Fuji plant in Susono, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.

Toyota Celica SS-I (ZZT230, Japan)

The Celica came in two different models. The ZZT230 was powered by a relatively economical 1.8 L 4-cylinder 140 hp (104 kW) 1ZZ-FE engine and the ZZT231 powered by a higher-performance 1.8 L 4-cylinder 192 hp (143 kW) (in Europe and Japan) 2ZZ-GE version, co-developed with Yamaha, the latter featuring a two-step variable valve lift control in conjunction with its variable valve timing. In 2004, CNNMoney.com rated the Celica as one of the best cars to purchase for fuel economy.[15]

Exporting of the Celica ceased in July 2005. However until mid-May, customers could still order one, although it was advised they took action before that time ended.

The last Celica was rolled off production line on April 21, 2006. In its last year, the Celica was only officially sold in Japan.

North America[edit]

In the US and Canada, two models were offered; the base model GT and the sportier GT-S. All models are in liftback only body shape. All models featured dual front airbags, daytime running lights (DRL) with auto-on parking and headlights, and 4 cup holders; two in the front and two in the rear. Power door lock and power window switches were mounted on the center console to reduce costs. Rear seats were contoured for only 2 passengers and can split down 50/50 to increase cargo capacity. Two-speed front wipers had variable intermittent adjustment. The rear wiper had a single speed and fixed intermittent speed. Windshield and rear window washers were also standard. In the interest of light weight, optional sunroof was made of polymer plastics instead of glass. In later models, the sunroof was made of glass, probably for cost reasons. Other options include ABS, rear spoiler, fog lights, HID low beam headlights, upgraded JBL stereo system, 6-disc CD changer, leather seat surfaces, side-impact airbags, floor mats, vehicle intrusion protection (VIP) alarms with door lock/unlock feature, cargo net, cold area package (heavy-duty battery and starter motor)[16] and hatchback cargo cover.

The GT was powered by the 1ZZ-FE rated at 140 bhp (104 kW; 142 PS) at 6400 rpm and 125 lb·ft (169 N·m) of torque at 4200 rpm. It uses Toyota’s VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing with intelligence) system which modulated the intake cam phase angle to increase torque and horsepower throughout the rev range. This is a similar engine used on the Matrix, Corolla, and MR2 Spyder. Buyers had the option of between a 4-speed automatic or 5-speed manual transmissions. The vehicles were shod with 195/60/15 tires with front disc brakes and rear drum brakes.

The GT-S was powered by the 2ZZ-GE engine rated at 180 bhp (134 kW; 182 PS) at 7600 rpm and 133 lb·ft (180 N·m) torque at 6800 rpm. The engine featured Toyota’s VVTL-i (Variable Valve Timing and Lift control with intelligence). A second stage valve lift control for intake was added to the variable intake cam phase timing. Variants of this engine were offered in the Matrix XRS, Corolla XRS and the Lotus Elise (with a Lotus ECU which added 10 bhp). Buyers had the option of a 4-speed automatic or 6-speed manual transmissions. The base tire size was 205/55/15 but the optional size offered was 205/50/16. The tire upgrade was merely US$42 so most GT-S models had the optional wheels and tires. All GT-S models had 4-wheel disc brakes and metal pedals. Manual transmission shifters and all steering wheels were upgraded to leather. Hatchback cargo covers were standard along with fog lights for models without the “Action Package.”

TRD USA offered performance upgrades such as lowering springs, dampers, anti-sway bars, brake disc pads, air filters, exhaust, short-shift kits (manual transmissions), and body kits. The exhaust offered an increase of 14 hp (10 kW), albeit mostly at higher rpm’s. A supercharger was also offered for the 1ZZ-FE engine however Toyota never marketed it directly for the Celica GT due to being too large to fit under the hood, The supercharger was available as an option for 2003–2004 Corolla and Matrix models. The most popular among buyers were the “Action Package” which offered a more pronounced front spoiler, rocker panels, a rear wing, and lower rear fascia extension. The revised front faring interfered with the mounting location for the standard factory fog lights, requiring them to be adjusted or removed when this option was added.

On the 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2004 GT-S models, the rev limiter is set to around 8200–8300 rpm (seems to differ vehicle-to-vehicle) while the 2002 and 2005 have it set to 7800 (left-hand drive markets only). This lower limiter on the 2002 and 2005 models reduces the available performance as the 2ZZ is primarily a high-revving engine, and it is more difficult for the driver to land in the 'lift' (aggressive cam) rev range on an upshift. This only affects the 6-speed manual transmission as the gearing is spaced to where shifting up at approximately 8,250 rpms in any gear other than first gear will result in about 6,200 rpm after the shift, which is where "lift", or the aggressive cam, engages. This allows models without the limited rpm range to remain within the car's power band throughout the gears. First gear is excluded because the gearing ratio is much lower than 2nd gear.[citation needed] For 2003, minor updates were made to the car. The interior was mildly restyled, power antenna replaced the fixed one, the front and rear fascias were redone. In 2004, all models were fitted with a cabin air filter.

In July 2004, Toyota announced the Celica (as well as the MR2) would be discontinued in the United States at the end of the 2005 model year due to lack of sales.[17] Celica sales hit 52,406 units in 2000, but dropped sharply to 14,856 in 2003. Just 8,710 Celicas were sold in 2004, and only 3,113 were sold in 2005. The sports coupe market, in general, was rapidly shrinking, due in part to the 1997 Asian financial crisis and the effects of the collapse of the Japanese asset price bubble, also known in Japan as the "bubble economy". The Subaru XT6, Nissan 240SX, Honda Prelude and Mazda RX-7 were already gone and the Acura RSX was soon to follow. In 2005, the Scion project released a spiritual successor for the North American market – the Scion tC.[citation needed]

Japan[edit]

The facelift model Toyota Celica SS-I (ZZT230, Japan)

The Japanese models continued to carry SS-I and SS-II trim levels. The SS-I is powered by 1ZZ-FE engine, SS-II is motored by 2ZZ-GE engine. The SS-II also can be ordered with Super Strut Package with super strut suspension, rear strut bar, 16-inch alloys, metal pedals, and colored rocker panels. The SS-II has climate control AC with digital display. Options included the choice of the Elegant Sports Version with front lip spoiler and headlight covers, or the Mechanical Sports Version with full body kits. The JDM Celica was updated with minor changes in August 2002.

Toyota also released a limited-production version of the 7th generation called the TRD Sports M based on the SS-II. This version was rated at 200 hp (149 kW) and featured a reinforced unibody and available TRD engine and suspension components. The Sports M was only sold in Japan.

7th Generation Models as of 2002,
Chassis Code Model(s) Drivetrain Engine Power Torque Markets price (¥1000)
ZZT230 SS-I FWD MT 1ZZ-FE 145 PS (107 kW; 143 hp) @ 6400 rpm 170.64 N·m (125.86 lb·ft) @ 4200 rpm JPN 1730 (US$14,400)
ZZT231 SS-II FWD MT 2ZZ-GE 190 PS (140 kW; 187 hp) @ 7600 rpm 180.44 N·m (133.09 lb·ft) @ 6800 rpm JPN 2020 (US$16,800)
ZZT231 SS-II Super Strut Package FWD MT 2ZZ-GE 190 PS (140 kW; 187 hp) @ 7600 rpm 180.44 N·m (133.09 lb·ft) @ 6800 rpm JPN 2250 (US$18,700)

Europe[edit]

Toyota Celica 1.8 VVTL-i GT (ZZT231, UK)

All the European models have the 6-speed manual transmission, and was just marketed as 1.8 VVT-i and 1.8 VVTL-i 190 or T-Sport, which are the GT and GT-S, respectively.

In 2005, Toyota GB released the Celica GT. This is not the same as the GT in North America. The British GT is actually the T-Sport with a different bodykit, different alloy wheels, 30 mm lowered suspension and part leather part alcantara interior.

7th Generation Models as of 2006, pricing for UK market
Chassis Code Model(s) Drivetrain Engine Power Torque Markets price
ZZT230 1.8 VVTi FWD MT 1ZZ-FE 142 PS (104 kW; 140 hp) @ 7600 rpm 173 N·m (128 lb·ft) @ 4200 rpm UK, EUR GB£16,670 (US$32,824)
ZZT231 1.8 VVTLi T Sport FWD MT 2ZZ-GE 191 PS (140 kW; 188 hp) @ 8250 rpm 180.44 N·m (133.09 lb·ft) @ 6800 rpm UK, EUR GB£21,195 (US$41,711)
ZZT231 1.8 VVTLi GT FWD MT 2ZZ-GE 191 PS (140 kW; 188 hp) @ 8250 rpm 180.44 N·m (133.09 lb·ft) @ 6800 rpm UK GB£22,640 (US$44,560)

Asia Pacific[edit]

Toyota Celica 1.8 VVTL-i ZR (ZZT231, Australia)

In Australia and New Zealand, the Celica was only offered with 2ZZ-GE engine (with 4-wheel disc brakes) in two trim levels, SX and ZR. The SX was fitted with 15-inch alloy wheels, CD player, electric windows and mirrors. The ZR has standard ABS, moonroof, SRS side and front airbags, fog lights, 16-inch alloy wheels, 6 stack in dash CD player (with tape deck) and aluminum pedals. Optional extras was the 4-speed tiptronic (Automatic), air conditioning and metallic paint. Satellite Navigation became available mid-2002 as an option. Sportivo body kits (which is the same as Mechanical Sports Version in Japan, or Action Package in the US) are available.

Although not officially imported by Toyota, there are many JDM models sold in Singapore and Indonesia. In Thailand and Hong Kong, the Celica was offered in one trim level similar to the Australian ZR with the 2ZZ-GE engine.

Safety[edit]

Australia

In Australia, 1981–1999 Toyota Celicas were all assessed in the Used Car Safety Ratings 2006 as providing "average" protection for their occupants in the event of a crash.[18]

United States

A driver's side SRS airbag is standard in all US models from 1990. Dual SRS Airbags are standard from 1994. Seat-mounted side airbags are optional from 2000. The NHTSA NCAP rating for the 2005 model year is 4 stars for the Driver Front, 4 stars for the Passenger Front, and 3 stars for the Front side. [19]

Motorsports[edit]

Toyota Celica GT-Four ST165 Group A rally car.

In motorsports, the Celica is known for its rallying prowess. The first World Rally Championship (WRC) event for the Celica was 1972 RAC Rally when Ove Andersson drove the 1600 GTV (TA22) into the ninth place. The first victory came in 1982 Rally of New Zealand with 2000GT (RA63). From 1983 to 1986, the Group B Celica Twincam Turbo (TA64) won all six WRC events in Africa they entered. Celica GT-Four competed in Group A Rally racing from the 1988 to 1997. Celica GT-Four have won two manufacturer's titles, and four driver's titles. Carlos Sainz was the most successful driver, winning WRC titles with the ST165 in 1990 and the ST185 in 1992. The ST185 also won 1993 and 1994 titles with Juha Kankkunen and Didier Auriol respectively. The ST185's fourth consecutive Safari Rally victory came in 1995, which was also Toyota's 8th victory in this event. Soon after introducing the ST205 in 1995, a controversy was triggered when Toyota Team Europe was banned for 12 months from the WRC because of cheating (using an illegal turbo air restrictor).[13] Some time after the ban expired TTE switched to the shorter Toyota Corolla WRC based on the AE111 3-door hatchback.

TTE's Celica GT-Four ST185 Group A in Safari Rally trim.

Special editions of the GT-Four models were produced for the public in extremely limited numbers, 5000 units, for WRC homologation requirements. They are considered a collector's item by some enthusiasts. The ST185's homogolation version is called the GT-Four RC in Japan, Group A Rallye in Australia, or Carlos Sainz Limited Edition (CS, after the driver) in Europe, and general markets.

In circuit racing, The Celica was raced by Dan Gurney's All American Racers team with factory backing in the IMSA GTU and GTO classes from 1983 to 1988. The team captured many class wins and the GTO Championship in 1987. Slightly modified versions of stock Celicas were also used as the spec car in the Toyota Pro/Celebrity Race, always held during the weekend of the Long Beach Grand Prix or (from 1976–1983) the United States Grand Prix West until 2005. In 2006 the Scion tC replaced the Celica as the spec car for this race.

Team Racing Project Bandoh created a special rear wheel drive variant of the seventh generation Celica using a 3S-GTE engine.[20] It was entered into GT300 class of the Japanese Grand Touring Championship(and later Super GT) until 2008, which they switched their car to Lexus IS350 in race 3 that season.

The 1st generation liftback (known as Celica LB Turbo) was used to compete in the DRM between 1977 and 1978, the car was capable of producing 560 hp (418 kW). The car was entered by Schnitzer via Toyota Deutschland and was driven by Harald Ertl and Rolf Stommelen for the following season. The car had a limited success scoring only 4th and 8th and was plagued with various problems throughout the two seasons before it was sold to TOM'S in Japan which under company founder, Nobuhide Tachi, it had a successful career. Tachi also had a successful career with the second generation version. Despite its limited success in the series, the DRM liftback was immortalised by Tamiya as a 1/12 radio controlled car and a 1/24 static model.[21]

Seventh generation Celicas were also successfully campaigned in the NHRA Sport Compact Drag Racing series during the early 2000s. Toyotas run in the NHRA Funny Car class also used Celica bodies, although besides the body, these cars do not share any resemblance to their street counterparts.

The Celica (usually the first through third generation rear-wheel drive models powered by R series engines) was sometimes raced privately in stock car racing, usually in four-cylinder classes at the grassroots level. A less stock version of the Celica with factory backing and development was campaigned successfully by several drivers in the Goody's Dash Series. These Celicas started racing in 2000 and had 6th or 7th generation bodies but a steel tube-frame race chassis and a production based V6 engine that was not available in the street Celica. Robert Huffman won the 2003 Dash Series Championship driving one of these Celicas.

Osborne Motorsport won their class in the 2003 Bathurst 24 Hour race.

Timeline[edit]

1970 – Celica LT, ST, GT introduced.
1972 – Celica GTV introduced, first World Rally Championship (WRC) in RAC Rally.
1973 – Celica introduced in liftback form in Japan (The RA25 and TA27 were released for sale in April 1973 in Japan).
1976 – Celica Liftback began for export market. Celica won Motor Trend Import Car of the Year.
1976 – 1-millionth Celica produced in June 1977.
1978 – Second generation Celica introduced; was awarded Motor Trend Import Car of the Year.
1979 – Sunchaser semi-convertible introduced.
1981 – Sunchaser production ended.
1982 – Third generation introduced.
1984 – Celica GT-S among Consumer's Digest "Best Buys" and Car and Driver Ten Best Cars1st year for the Convertible (based on the RA65 GT-S) from ASC 250 made.
1985 – 4,248 Convertibles produced this year.
1986 – Fourth generation; front-wheel drive introduced in late 1985, followed by GT-Four in October 1986.
1987 – New-generation Convertible (based on the ST162) introduced.
1988 – All-Trac/GT-Four model for export.
1990 – Fifth generation introduced. Spanish driver Carlos Sainz, driving ST165 GT-Four became World Rally Champion (WRC).
1992 – Carlos Sainz won his second WRC title with ST185 GT-Four
1993 – Last year of the GT-S, All-Trac Turbo. Juha Kankkunen won his 4th WRC title, driving ST185 GT-Four.
1994 – Sixth generation introduced. Didier Auriol won WRC title with ST185 GT-Four.
1995 – New generation Convertible (based on the ST202 & ST204) produced.
1997 – "Most Reliable Used Vehicles, MYs '89–'95" J.D. Power & Associates.
1998 – Last year for Notchback Coupe body style.
2000 – Seventh generation Celica is introduced.
2001 – US Consumer Reports rates Celica GT-S "Best Sports Coupe" "Most Wanted Sport Coupe Under $30,000" Edmunds.com
2002 – US Consumer Reports "Most Reliable Sporty Car"; Edmunds.com "Most Wanted Sport Coupe – - Under $30,000"
2005 – Final year for Celica in North America and Australia. Still in production in Japan.
2006 – Toyota ended the production of the 7th generation Celica in Japan.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Toyota Vehicle Identification Manual. Japan: Toyota Motor Corporation – Overseas Parts Department. 1984. Catalog No.97913-84. 
  2. ^ a b "Road Test: Toyota Celica". Motor: pages 14–19. 4 December 1971. 
  3. ^ "History: The 17th Tokyo Motor Show 1970". Tokyo Motor Show. Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA). Retrieved 2012-02-04. 
  4. ^ "Walt Disney Legends". Retrieved 2007-11-16. 
  5. ^ Toyota Celica parts catalog USA & Canada (RA6#, MA61B). Toyota. 1986-05. NO.41213-86. 
  6. ^ Toyota Personenwagen Informatie – Celica [Toyota Car Information - Celica] (brochure), Netherlands: Toyota, November 1982, 00050-00300 
  7. ^ Celica (brochure), US: Toyota, August 1982, P/2003 (8/82) 00600-01194 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Toyota Celica Parts Catalogue E-ST160,162,163,165. 1990-05. NO.52219-90. Retrieved 2009-09-18. 
  9. ^ Zillin, Adam (2008-05-16). "1985 Toyota Corona Coupe 2000 GT-R". 7tune.com. Retrieved 2012-10-17. 
  10. ^ "Auto Speed – Getting Into The GT4". Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  11. ^ a b c d http://www.toyotareference.com/celica/1986-1989
  12. ^ "Toyota – Celica #2". YouTube. Retrieved 2012-04-06. 
  13. ^ a b "Shalco – TTE's Illegal Turbo's". Shalco Motorsport. December 1995. Retrieved 2011-12-08. 
  14. ^ "Affiliates (Toyota wholly-owned subsidiaries)-Toyota Motor East Japan, Inc.". Toyota Motor Corporation. 2012. Retrieved 2014-07-21. 
  15. ^ "CNN/Money: Best gas mileage cars". Money.cnn.com. 2004-03-02. Retrieved 2012-04-06. 
  16. ^ "Celica Specs". newcelica.org. Retrieved 2014-02-24. 
  17. ^ http://pressroom.toyota.com/photo_library/display_release.html?id=20040716
  18. ^ "Australian safety rating". Retrieved 2011-11-07. 
  19. ^ "2005 Toyota Celica Safety and Crash Tests – MSN Autos". MSN Autos. Retrieved 2011-11-07. 
  20. ^ http://www.urbanracer.com/garage/jgtc/teams.asp?tid=21
  21. ^ Chris Aldridge. "Tamiya Toyota Celica LB Turbo, Vintage Tamiya Radio Control Cars through to Modern Tamiya R/C – Toyota Celica LB Turbo". Tamiyaclub.com. Retrieved 2012-04-06. 
  • Long, Brian (2007). Toyota Celica & Supra – The book of Toyota's sports coupés. Dochester: Veloce. 
This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Japanese Wikipedia.

External links[edit]