Toyota concept vehicles, 1990–99

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Avalon[edit]

Toyota Avalon
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1991
Designer Calty
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door convertible
Layout FR

Unveiled in 1991, the Avalon was a concept vehicle designed by Calty. It was a 4-door convertible with styling inspired by the 1960s.[1] It does not appear to have any direct relation to the Avalon production vehicle of the same name.

AXV-III[edit]

Toyota AXV-III
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1991
Body and chassis
Platform T190 Carina

The AXV-III was a concept vehicle first shown at the October 1991 Tokyo Motor Show and later shown at the February 1993 Chicago Auto Show. Based on the new Carina, it demonstrated automated driver aids such as vehicle-to-vehicle distance maintenance and a voice synthesiser that gave instructions for upcoming intersections.[2]

The AXV-III cruise control maintained vehicle-to-vehicle distance. Distances over 33 feet were measured by a pulsed laser beam. Distances under 33 feet were measured by a CCD camera using techniques similar to a camera's auto-focus. The usual accelerator linkage was replaced by an electronic version so that the computer could slow the car down automatically by removing power and activating the brakes when the car in front came too close.[3]

A voice activated GPS system displayed the current location on a display while additional safety was supplied by two door mounted airbags. [4]

AXV-IV[edit]

Toyota AXV-IV
1991 Toyota AXV-IV 01.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1991
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupe
Layout FR
Powertrain
Engine 804 cc two-cylinder supercharged two-stroke
Dimensions
Curb weight 450 kilograms (990 lb)

The AXV-IV was a concept vehicle first shown at the October 1991 Tokyo Motor Show. It is a small coupe designed to be an environmentally friendly personal commuter. The AXV-IV is extremely light, weighing only 450 kilograms (990 lb). It is powered by an 804 cc supercharged two-stroke engine, rated at 64 hp (48 kW). The car also utilized light-weight FRP (fiberglass reinforced plastic) coil springs.

The AXV-IV is now on display at the Toyota Automobile Museum.[5]

AXV-V[edit]

Toyota AXV-V
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1993
Body and chassis
Body style sedan
Powertrain
Engine 2.0 L D-4 throttleless

The AXV-V was a concept vehicle first shown at the October 1993 Tokyo Motor Show. It is a mid-size coupe designed to be an environmentally friendly, fuel efficient family car. [6]

The AXV-V was extremely aerodynamically efficient, with Cd=0.20. To achieve this while still being able to seat four people, the cabin was longer and further forward than normal. Aerodynamic deflectors were used before and after each wheel and the rear wheels had covers. The door handles were made flush with the body.[6]

Power came from the D-4. This was a direct injection, four valve engine, which avoided the pumping losses of using a throttle. Control was by charge stratification at low to medium loads and by homogeneous mixture control at high loads. At low loads, one of the inlet valves was disabled. [7]

There were two 8 inch LCD screen in the front and two 6 inch LCD screens in the rear. The driver's screen showed a three-dimensional speedometer and collision-avoidance information. The passenger screens showed navigational and a TV monitor. [8]

FLV[edit]

Toyota FLV
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1995
Body and chassis
Body style station wagon
Layout FWD
Powertrain
Engine 3.0 L 1MZ-FE V6
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,720 mm (107.1 in)
Length 4,775 mm (188.0 in)
Width 1,800 mm (70.9 in)
Height 1,515 mm (59.6 in)

The FLV (Future Luxury Vehicle) was a concept vehicle built by Toyota. It was first shown at the October 1995 Tokyo Motor Show[9] as a Toyota vehicle and then at the January 1996 North American International Auto Show as a Lexus vehicle. [10] The exterior design was by Toyota USA's Calty Design Research.

The FLV was designed to be luxurious and also practical for an active lifestyle by having a large cargo compartment access by a rear hatch. The side windows are shaped like ordinary sedan windows but the roofline is closer to that of a wagon. Toyota called the shape a "monoform oval silhouette'.

The seat height was chosen so that the passenger's legs could swing out onto the ground without having to shift their body up (as in a normal sedan) or down (as in an SUV). An electronic centre console in the dash housed accessories such as a navigation display, air conditioning controls, the entertainment system and email (connected to a cell phone network).

The 2005 Toyota FT-SX concept vehicle fulfilled a similar purpose. [11]

Hybrid Electric Bus[edit]

Toyota Hybrid Electric Bus
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1995
Body and chassis
Related Coaster
Powertrain
Engine 1.3 L 4E-FE I4
Dimensions
Length 6,990 mm (275.2 in)
Width 2,070 mm (81.5 in)
Height 2,580 mm (101.6 in)
Curb weight 4,150 kg (9,149 lb)

The Hybrid Electric Bus was a petrol-electric hybrid concept vehicle built by Toyota and first shown at the October 1995 Tokyo Motor Show. It was based on the Coaster bus and was operated the same as a normal small bus. [9]

The 1.3 L engine generated 20 kW (27 hp), which was fed to a bank of 24×12V sealed lead acid batteries. The batteries then supplied power to a 70 kW (94 hp) / 405 N·m (299 lbf·ft) AC induction electric motor. Top speed was 80 km/h (50 mph). A regenerative braking system was fitted.

The display vehicle had 14 ordinary seats, could hold one extra passenger in a wheelchair and was fitted with a wheelchair lifter.

Moguls[edit]

Toyota Moguls
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1995
Powertrain
Engine 1.5 L 5K I4
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,000 mm (78.7 in)
Length 3,165 mm (124.6 in)
Width 1,640 mm (64.6 in)
Height 1,795–2,295 mm (70.7–90.4 in)

The Moguls was a 4WD concept vehicle built by Toyota and first shown at the October 1995 Tokyo Motor Show. [12] [13] It was a narrow 2-seater designed to provide access to forest areas that are not accessible by conventional 4WD vehicles. [9]

The driver sat in the centre of the front row with a large, almost horizontal steering wheel. Visibility was enhanced by a large front window, small windows in the lower sections of the doors, a low instrument panel and powered external mirrors. The single passenger sat behind and to the right of the driver. A single large door was used on the right hand side and a small door was used on the left hand side (driver access only). A light, open cargo area was provided at the rear.

Each wheel could also be raised and lowered independently by up to 500mm so that the vehicle could remain level at all times or so that the vehicle could be raised to clear stumps and large rocks. Each wheel was automatically adjusted to keep equal pressure on all wheels - helping to maintain grip. For extremely rough ground, the wheels could be replaced by 4 individual caterpillar tracks - the front tracks were steerable to lessen damage to the ground.

Conventional drive shafts allow only a limited height range. Instead, the engine was connected to two hydraulic pumps (one for each side) that used pipes to drive individual hydraulic motors in each wheel. The hydraulic transmission could use three sets of valves to provide 2WD/4WD selection by disconnecting the front motors, LSD functionality by locking the left and right hydraulic circuits together or to make tighter turning circles by providing less power to the inner wheels. To go down steep slopes, a low range could be used that did not require the driver to directly control the accelerator or brakes, allowing him to concentrate on outside conditions.

Funcargo[edit]

Toyota Funcargo
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1997
Designer Toyota EPOC
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door van
Layout FR
Related Funcoupe, Funtime
Chronology
Successor Toyota Fun Cargo

The Funcargo was a concept vehicle designed at Toyota's EPOC studio by Sotiris Kovos as part of the NBC (New Basic Car) Funcars project. Rendering was done at D3 Marquettes Prototypes in France and Stola Spa and Forum in Italy. The Funcargo (one word) was shown at the September 1997 Frankfurt Motor Show and the October 1997 Tokyo Motor Show and put into production in late 1998 as the Fun Cargo (two words). The mechanicals and chassis were shared with the Funcoupe and the Funtime. [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]

Funcoupe[edit]

Toyota Funcoupe
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1997
Designer Toyota EPOC
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupe
Layout FR
Related Funcargo, Funtime

The Funcoupe was a concept vehicle designed at Toyota's EPOC studio by Sotiris Kovos as part of the NBC (New Basic Car) Funcars project. Rendering was done at D3 Marquettes Prototypes in France and Stola Spa and Forum in Italy. The Funcoupe was shown at the September 1997 Frankfurt Motor Show and the October 1997 Tokyo Motor Show but was not put into production. The mechanicals and chassis were shared with the Funcargo and the Funtime. [14] [15] [17] [19]

Funtime[edit]

Toyota Funtime
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1997
Designer Toyota EPOC
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door hatchback
Layout FR
Related Funcargo, Funcoupe
Chronology
Successor Toyota Fun Cargo

The Funtime was a concept vehicle designed at Toyota's EPOC studio by Sotiris Kovos as part of the NBC (New Basic Car) Funcars project. Rendering was done at D3 Marquettes Prototypes in France and Stola Spa and Forum in Italy. The Funtime was shown at the September 1997 Frankfurt Motor Show and the October 1997 Tokyo Motor Show and put into production in late 1998 as the Vitz/Yaris/Echo. The mechanicals and chassis were shared with the Funcargo and the Funcoupe. [14] [15] [17] [20] [21]

FCHV-1[edit]

Toyota FCHV-1
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1997
Body and chassis
Body style SUV
Powertrain
Engine Hydrogen fuel cell
Chronology
Predecessor Toyota Highlander
Successor Toyota FCHV-2

The FCHV-1 (Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle 1) was the first prototype vehicle built by Toyota in its Fuel Cell Vehicle program. It was based on the Highlander.[citation needed]

FCHV-2[edit]

Toyota FCHV-2
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1999
Body and chassis
Body style SUV
Powertrain
Engine Hydrogen fuel cell
Chronology
Predecessor Toyota FCHV-1
Successor Toyota FCHV-3

The FCHV-2 (Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle 2) was the second prototype vehicle built by Toyota in its Fuel Cell Vehicle program. Like the FCHV-1, it was based on the Highlander.[citation needed]

Celica Cruising Deck[edit]

Toyota Celica Cruising Deck
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1999
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupe
Layout FF
Platform T230 Celica
Related Celica
Powertrain
Engine 1.8 L 2ZZ-GE I4

The Celica Cruising Deck was a concept vehicle built by Toyota and first shown at the October 1999 Tokyo Motor Show.[22][23] Based on the newly released Celica, the liftback rear was replaced with a flat deck that could be folded upright to form the vertical cushion of a rear passenger seat. The window behind the front passengers could be lowered into the divider between the front and rear cabins. This divider could then be folded down to form the lower cushion of the rear seat. The headrests for the rear passengers were folded down from the high-mounted rear wing. This is similar to the rear decking and revealable rear seat of the 1979 CAL-1 concept vehicle.

The Celica Cruising Deck was often displayed connected to a similarly styled trailer holding a Jet Ski. Toyota first displayed a Jet Ski behind a concept vehicle on the RV-1.

Celica XYR[edit]

Toyota Celica XYR
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1999
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupe
Layout FF
Chronology
Successor Celica

The Celica XYR was a concept vehicle built by Toyota, with photos being released in early 1999. The Celica released in late 1999 closely resembled the XYR.

HV-M4[edit]

Toyota HV-M4
HV-M4 front.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1999
Body and chassis
Body style minivan
Layout 4WD
Powertrain
Engine 2.4 L
Transmission CVT

The HV-M4 was a concept vehicle built by Toyota that was first shown at the October 1999 Tokyo Motor Show,[24] then the March 2000 Geneva Motor Show.[25] The front wheels were powered by a petrol-hybrid system based on the first generation Prius and the rear wheels were powered by a second electric motor.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Toyota Avalon at 2000GT.net (French)
  2. ^ Giangrasse, Joan (1993-02-07). "Concepts To Contests, Something For Everyone". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2010-08-18. 
  3. ^ TOYOTA AUTOMOBILE MUSEUM Virtual Museum - Stepping Toward the Future
  4. ^ a b Advanced Automotive Technology: Visions of a Super-Efficient Family Car. USA: Office of Technology Assessment. 1995. pp. 75/147. 
  5. ^ Mark L. Poulton (1997). Fuel efficient car technology. Computational Mechanics Publications. pp. 19/122. ISBN 978-1-85312-447-1. 
  6. ^ "TOYOTA LAUNCHES NEW-GENERATION VEHICLE". Telecom Paper. December 1993. Retrieved 2011-05-03. 
  7. ^ a b c "Tokyo Motor Show Toyota press information" (PDF). Toyota. October 1995. Retrieved 2011-04-17. 
  8. ^ "LEXUS CONCEPT VEHICLE EXPLORES FUTURE OF LUXURY CARS". PR Newswire. January 1996. Retrieved 2011-04-21. 
  9. ^ N.H. Conway (January 2009). "Behind the Wheel - 2009 Toyota Venza - High-End Nest for Pampered Empty Nesters - Review". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2011-04-20. 
  10. ^ Andrew Pollack (November 1995). "Tokyo Auto Show Explores New Frontiers - New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-04-05. 
  11. ^ a b c "Press Kits: 1999 Echo". Toyota Australia. 28 September 1999. Retrieved 2010-12-26. 
  12. ^ a b c "TOYOTA YARIS AND YARIS VERSO D-4D". Toyota. November 2001. Retrieved 2011-07-13. 
  13. ^ Kai S. Gruszczynski. "Toyota Funcargo". the history of cars. Retrieved 2011-07-13. 
  14. ^ "Toyota Funcargo". conceptcars.it. 2007. Retrieved 2011-07-13. 
  15. ^ "Toyota Funcoupe". conceptcars.it. 2007. Retrieved 2011-07-13. 
  16. ^ Kai S. Gruszczynski. "Toyota Funtime". the history of cars. Retrieved 2011-07-13. 
  17. ^ "Toyota Funtime". conceptcars.it. 2007. Retrieved 2011-07-13. 
  18. ^ "Toyota shows sun chaser". goauto.com. 2002-02-26. Retrieved 2010-07-15. 
  19. ^ Chips (2000-11-26). "Toyota at the Motorshow". autoworld.com.my. Retrieved 2010-07-15. 
  20. ^ "Tokyo Motor Show Toyota press information" (PDF). Toyota. October 1999. Retrieved 2013-09-28. 
  21. ^ "Toyota at Geneva Show 2000" (Press release). UK: Toyota. 2000-03-03. Retrieved 2013-09-28.