Toyota Corolla

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Toyota Corolla
2014 Toyota Corolla (ZRE172R) Ascent sedan (2014-04-11).jpg
Toyota Corolla (E170; international version)
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota Motor Corporation
Production 1966–present
Body and chassis
Class Subcompact car (1966–1991)
Compact car (1991–present)
Chronology
Predecessor Toyota Publica

The Toyota Corolla is a line of subcompact and compact cars manufactured by Toyota. Introduced in 1966, the Corolla managed to become the best-selling car worldwide by 1974[1] and has been one of the best-selling cars in the world since then. In 1997, the Corolla became the best selling nameplate in the world, surpassing the Volkswagen Beetle.[2] Toyota reached the milestone of 40 million Corollas sold over eleven generations in July 2013.[3] The series has undergone several major redesigns.

The name Corolla is part of Toyota's naming tradition of using names derived from the Toyota Crown for sedans. The Corolla has always been exclusive in Japan to Toyota Corolla Store locations, and manufactured in Japan with a twin, called the Toyota Sprinter until 2000.

Early models were mostly rear-wheel drive, while later models have been front-wheel drive. The Corolla's traditional competitors have been the Nissan Sunny, introduced the same year as the Corolla in Japan and the later Honda Civic. The Corolla's chassis designation code is "E", as described in Toyota's chassis and engine codes.

Production locations[edit]

Corollas are manufactured in Japan, Brazil, (Indaiatuba, São Paulo), Canada (Cambridge, Ontario), China (Tianjin), India (Bangalore), Pakistan, South Africa (Durban), Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Turkey and Venezuela. Production has previously been made in Australia (Victoria) and the United Kingdom (Derbyshire). Production in the United States (at NUMMI in Fremont, California) ended in March 2010.[4] It was resumed late in 2011, after a Toyota Motor Manufacturing Mississippi plant was opened in November 2011 in Blue Springs, Mississippi.[5]

Alternative versions[edit]

In Japan, the Corolla has always been exclusive to Japanese retail sales chain called Toyota Corolla Store, which was previously established in 1961, called Toyota Public Store, selling the Toyota Publica. A badge engineered version called the Sprinter was introduced around the same time as the Corolla in Japan, and sold at a different Toyota Japan dealership sales channel called in 1966 Toyota Auto Store.

There have also been several models over the years, including the Corolla Ceres (and similar Sprinter Marino) hardtop, Corolla Levin and Sprinter Trueno sports coupés and hatchbacks, and the Corolla FX hatchback, which became the Corolla RunX, while the Sprinter became the Allex, with the introduction of the ZZE128 Corolla. The RunX and Allex was replaced by the Auris in 2006 (known only as Corolla in markets outside of Japan and South Africa). A luxury version of the Auris installed with V6 engines was briefly sold at Japanese Toyota dealerships Toyota Store and Toyopet Store locations as the Blade, which was discontinued in 2012.

A compact MPV named the Corolla Verso has also been released in European markets. Its Japanese counterpart is the Corolla Spacio, which has been discontinued as of the 10th generation. The Corolla Rumion is also sold in the US-market as the Scion xB.

The Corolla Matrix, better known just as the Matrix, shares the E120 and E140 platforms, and is considered the hatchback/sport wagon counterpart of the North American Corolla sedan, as the European/Australasian Corolla hatchback is not sold there. Toyota frequently combines the sales figures of the Corolla sedan and Matrix. The Pontiac Vibe, which is the General Motors badged version of the Matrix, also shares the Corolla platform. The Pontiac Vibe was exported from Fremont, California to the Japanese market where it was sold as the Toyota Voltz.[6]

Over many years, there have been rebadged versions of the Corolla, sold by General Motors, including the 1980s' Holden Nova of Australia, and the Sprinter-based Chevrolet Nova, Chevrolet Prizm, and Geo Prizm (in the United States). The Corolla liftback (TE72) of Toyota Australia was badged as simply the T-18. The five-door liftback was sold with the Corolla Seca name in Australia and the nameplate survived on successive five-door models.

The Daihatsu Charmant was produced with the E30 through E70 series.

The Tercel was a front wheel drive car, first introduced in 1980 at Japanese Toyota dealerships called Toyota Corolla Store, and was called the Corolla Tercel then, and later given its own name in 1984. The Tercel platform was also used for the Corolla II hatchback in Japan.

First generation (E10; 1966–1970)[edit]

Main article: Toyota Corolla (E10)
First generation Toyota Corolla

The first Corolla generation was introduced in October 1966 with the new 1100 cc K pushrod engine. The Corolla Sprinter was introduced as the fastback version in 1968, and exclusive to a Toyota Japan dealership retail outlet called Toyota Auto Store.

Second generation (E20; 1970–1974)[edit]

Main article: Toyota Corolla (E20)
Second generation Toyota Corolla

In May 1970, the E20 was restyled with a more rounded body and the 1400 cc T and 1600 cc 2T OHV engines were added to the range. The now mutually exclusive Corolla and Sprinter names were used to differentiate between two slightly different treatments of sheet metal and trim. The Corolla Levin and Sprinter Trueno names were introduced as the enhanced performance version of the Corolla and Sprinter respectively when a double overhead camshaft version of the 2T engine was introduced in March 1972 (TE27).

In Australia, only the 3K powered 2-door KE20 was available as a sedan and wagon / panelvan. The brakes were single system with no booster, solid discs on the front and rear drums. Front sway bar but no rear sway bar. Parts are not compatible with later models.

In NZ, the 4-door KE20 was available.

Most models stopped production in July 1974 but the KE26 wagon and van were still marketed in Japan alongside the new 30-series, until production finally ended in May 1978.

Third generation (E30, E40, E50, E60; 1974–1979)[edit]

Main article: Toyota Corolla (E30)
Third generation Toyota Corolla

April 1974 brought rounder, bigger and heavier Corollas and Sprinters. The range was rounded out with the addition of a two-door liftback. The Corollas were given E30 codes while the Sprinters were given E40 codes. A face-lift in March 1976 saw most Corolla E30 models replaced by equivalent E50 models and most Sprinter E40 models were replaced by equivalent E60 models. The E30 Corolla was fitted with retracting front seat belts.

In Australia, KE3x was available as 4 door sedan, 2 door sedan, 2 door panel van (KE36) and 4 door wagon (KE38). All had 3K engines and K40 manual gearbox or 3 speed Auto. Sprinters were not available. Later KE5x models were available as 4 door sedan or 2 door coupe (A true pillar-less design) with 4K engine. The KE55 was 50 kg heavier due to the addition of side impact protection in the doors, but due to a change in the body metal and seam sealing they are prone to rust. Later KE55 also used plastic ended bumper bars as apposed to the all chrome bumpers of the previous models, but included a rear sway bar for the first time.

Fourth generation (E70; 1979–1983)[edit]

Main article: Toyota Corolla (E70)
Fourth generation Toyota Corolla

A major restyle in March 1979 brought a square edged design. The Corollas had a simpler treatment of the grill, headlights and taillights while the Sprinter used a slightly more complex, sculptured treatment. The new A series engines were added to the range as a running change. This was the last model to use the K "hicam" and T series engines. Fuel injection was introduced as an extra cost option on Japanese market vehicles.

Fifth generation (E80; 1983–1987)[edit]

Main article: Toyota Corolla (E80)
Fifth generation Toyota Corolla

A sloping front bonnet and a contemporary sharp-edged, no-frills style was brought in during May 1983. The new 1839 cc 1C diesel engine was added to the range with the E80 Series. From 1985, re-badged E80 Sprinters were sold in the U.S. as the fifth generation Chevrolet Nova. Fuel injection was introduced as an extra cost option internationally.

Most models now used the front wheel drive layout except the AE85 and AE86, which were to be the last Corollas offered in the rear wheel drive or FR layout. The AE85 and AE86 chassis codes were also used for the Sprinter (including the Sprinter Trueno). The Sprinter was nearly identical to the Corolla, differing only by minor body styling changes such as pop-up headlights.

Sixth generation (E90; 1987–1991)[edit]

Main article: Toyota Corolla (E90)
Sixth generation Toyota Corolla

A somewhat more rounded and aerodynamic style was used for the E90 introduced in May 1987. Overall this generation has a more refined feel than older Corollas and other older subcompacts. Most models were now front wheel drive, along with a few 4WD All-Trac models. Many engines were used on a wide array of trim levels and models, ranging from the 1.3 liter 2E to the 165 horsepower (123 kW) supercharged 4A-GZE. The E90 Sprinter was also rebadged and sold as the Geo Prizm (US) or Holden Nova (Australia).

Seventh generation (E100; 1991–1995)[edit]

Seventh generation Toyota Corolla
Main article: Toyota Corolla (E100)

In June 1991 Corollas received a redesign to be larger, heavier, and have the completely rounded, aerodynamic shape of the 1990s. In the United States, the somewhat larger Corolla was now in the compact class, rather than subcompact, and the coupé was still available in some markets, known as the AE101 Corolla Levin. Carburetors were mostly retired with this generation.

Eighth generation (E110; 1995–2000)[edit]

Main article: Toyota Corolla (E110)
Eighth generation Toyota Corolla

Production of the E110 Corolla started in May 1995. The design of the car was slightly altered throughout but retained a look similar to that of the E100. Evolutionary technological improvements continued,[citation needed] however, and in 1998, for the first time, some non-Japanese Corollas received the new 1ZZ-FE engine.[citation needed] The new engine was the first in a Toyota to have an aluminum engine block and aluminum cylinder heads, which made this generation lighter than the E100 Corolla. The model range began to change as Toyota decided styling differences would improve sales in different markets. This generation was delayed in North America until mid-1997 (US 1998 model year), where it had unique front and rear styling.[citation needed] Europe and Australasia received versions of their own as well. In Pakistan, this model was halted in November 1998, while production was closed in March 2002.

Ninth generation (E120, E130; 2000–2006)[edit]

Main article: Toyota Corolla (E120)
Ninth generation Toyota Corolla

In August 2000, the ninth generation Corolla was introduced in Japan, with edgier styling and more technology to bring the nameplate into the 21st century. In 2002, the Corolla was given a refreshed facelift and it grew in length with similar body panels and interior. The facelifted Corolla since then is called Corolla Altis in the ASEAN region. The station wagon model is called the Corolla Fielder in Japan. The North American release was delayed until March 2002 (2003 MY).

Tenth generation (E140, E150; 2006–2013)[edit]

Main article: Toyota Corolla (E140)
Tenth generation Toyota Corolla

The tenth generation of the Corolla was introduced in October 2006. Japanese markets called it the Corolla Axio, with the ASEAN markets retaining the Corolla Altis branding. The station wagon retains the Corolla Fielder name. The Corolla Altis and Corolla Axio have a different appearance and size.

Eleventh generation[edit]

Eleventh generation Toyota Corolla (Japan)

Japan (E160; 2012–present)[edit]

Main article: Toyota Corolla (E160)

The eleventh generation of the Corolla went on sale in Japan in May 2012.[7] The sedan is named the Corolla Axio while the wagon is called the Corolla Fielder. In Japan, both are made by a Toyota subsidiary, Central Motors, in Miyagi prefecture, Japan.[8] The redesigned model has slightly smaller exterior dimensions and is easier to drive in narrow alleys and parking lots for the targeted elderly consumers.[9]

The new Corolla Axio is available with either a 1.3-liter 1NR-FE or 1.5-liter 1NZ-FE four cylinder engines; front or all-wheel drive. Both 5-speed manual and CVT transmissions are offered. The 1.3-liter engine and all-wheel drive variants are available only with the CVT transmission.[10] The Corolla Fielder is available with 1.5-liter 1NZ-FE or 1.8-liter 2ZR-FAE four cylinder engines mated with a CVT transmission. The 1.5-liter is available with front and all-wheel drive, the 1.8-liter is offered only in front-wheel drive.[11]

Toyota released hybrid versions of the Corolla Axio sedan and Corolla Fielder station wagon for the Japanese market in August 2013. Both cars are equipped with a 1.5-liter hybrid system similar to the one used in the Toyota Prius c, with a fuel efficiency of 3.03 L/100 km (93.2 mpg-imp; 77.6 mpg-US) under the JC08 test cycle. Toyota's monthly sales target for Japan is 1,000 units of the Corolla Axio hybrid and 1,500 units of the Corolla Fielder hybrid.[12]

International (E170; 2013–present)[edit]

Eleventh generation Toyota Corolla (international)
Main article: Toyota Corolla (E170)

International markets continued on with the E140/E150 until at least 2013 when the E170 model arrived. The E170 is larger and substantially different from the Japanese E160, with a unique body and interior. Two basic front and rear styling treatments are fitted to the E170—a North American version that debuted first—and a more conservative design for all other markets that debuted later in 2013.

Eleventh generation Toyota Corolla (North America) 

Sales[edit]

Calendar year US Canada Australia
2000 230,156[13] 30,576
2001 245,023 30,813
2002 254,360[14] 34,948
2003 325,477 36,128
2004 333,161[15] 39,053
2005 341,290 46,415
2006 387,388[16] 46,256
2007 371,390 47,792[17]
2008 351,007[18] 57,736[19] 47,901
2009 296,874[20] 53,933[21] 39,013[22]
2010 266,082[23] 38,680[21] 41,632[24]
2011 240,259[25] 36,663[26] 36,087[27]
2012 290,947[28] 40,906[29] 38,799[30]
2013 302,180[31] 44,449[32] 43,498[33]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gasnier, Matt (1975-07-18). "World 1974: Toyota Corolla takes command". Retrieved 2013-05-15. 
  2. ^ "History of the Corolla". USA: Toyota. Archived from the original on 2006-06-20. Retrieved 2013-03-20. 
  3. ^ Jeffrey N. Ross (2013-09-07). "Toyota says you might have the 40-millionth Corolla ever built". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2013-09-07. 
  4. ^ Ohnsman, Alan; Inoue, Kae (2009-08-28). "Toyota Will Shut California Plant in First Closure". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2009-08-29. 
  5. ^ Toyota Motor North America, Inc. (2011-12-31). "Toyota's Business Description, US plants". USA: Toyota. Retrieved 2013-02-20. 
  6. ^ "Toyota Corolla Now America's Best-Selling Vehicle". U.S. News Rankings and Reviews. 2008-07-02. Retrieved 2010-12-14. 
  7. ^ "TMC Launches Redesigned Corolla Series in Japan" (Press release). Japan: Toyota. 2012-05-11. Retrieved 2013-06-08. 
  8. ^ "Toyota launches new Corolla models". wltz.com. 2012-05-11. Retrieved 2013-06-08. 
  9. ^ Menton, Jessica (2012-05-11). "Toyota Launches New Models in Recovering Northern Japan, Expects Soaring Profits". International Business Times. IBT Media Inc. 1 min 23 seconds. 
  10. ^ "カローラ アクシオ" [Corolla Axio]. Japan: Toyota. Retrieved 2013-06-08. 
  11. ^ "カローラ フィールダー" [Corolla Fielder]. Japan: Toyota. Retrieved 2013-06-08. 
  12. ^ Toyota News Japan (2013-08-06). "Toyota launches Corolla hybrid models in Japan". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2013-08-06. 
  13. ^ "Toyota Sets Sales Record for Sixth Year in a Row". Theautochannel.com. 2004-11-17. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  14. ^ "Toyota Announces Best Sales Year in Its 46-Year History, Breaks Sales Record for Eighth Year in a Row". Theautochannel.com. 2004-11-17. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  15. ^ "Toyota Reports 2005 and December Sales". Theautochannel.com. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  16. ^ "Toyota Reports 2007 and December Sales". Theautochannel.com. 2008-01-03. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  17. ^ "2007: A milestone year for motor vehicle sales". Australia: Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries. 2008-01-07. Retrieved 2012-04-15. 
  18. ^ "Toyota Reports 2008 and December Sales". Theautochannel.com. 2009-01-05. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  19. ^ "Canadian-built models drive Toyota Canada Inc. to all-time record year in 2008 Drivers embrace quality, fuel-efficiency and safety, setting 2008 Toyota and Lexus records" (Press release). Canada: Toyota. Retrieved 2012-04-15. 
  20. ^ "Toyota Reports December 2009 and Year 2009 Sales". Theautochannel.com. 2010-01-05. Retrieved 2010-07-12. 
  21. ^ a b "Toyota Canada Inc. reports December and full year 2010 sales" (Press release). Canada: Toyota. 2011-01-04. Retrieved 2012-04-15. 
  22. ^ "New Vehicle Market Ends Strong Year With Record December". Australia: Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries. 2010-01-06. Retrieved 2012-04-15. 
  23. ^ "Toyota Reports December and 2010 Sales" (Press release). USA: Toyota. 2011-01-04. Retrieved 2012-04-15. 
  24. ^ "New Vehicle Sales Top The Magic Million". Australia: Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries. 2011-01-06. Retrieved 2012-04-15. 
  25. ^ "Toyota Reports December 2011 and Year-End Sales" (Press release). USA: Toyota. 2012-01-04. Retrieved 2012-04-15. 
  26. ^ "Toyota brand finishes 2011 with six straight months of market share growth" (Press release). Canada: Toyota. 2012-01-04. Retrieved 2012-04-15. 
  27. ^ "New Vehicle Sales Top the Million Mark in 2011". Australia: Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries. 2012-01-05. Retrieved 2012-04-15. 
  28. ^ "December 2012 and Year-End Sales Chart" (Press release). USA: Toyota. 2013-01-03. Retrieved 2013-03-20. 
  29. ^ http://media.toyota.ca/pr/tci/en/annual-records-for-hybrid-and-242384.aspx
  30. ^ https://www.pressroom.com.au/press_release_detail.asp?clientID=2&prID=4904&navSectionID=2
  31. ^ "December 2013 and Year-End Sales Chart". Toyota USA Newsroom. 2014-01-03. Retrieved 2014-01-09. 
  32. ^ http://media.toyota.ca/pr/tci/en/best-ever-year-for-lexus-helps-249777.aspx
  33. ^ https://www.pressroom.com.au/press_release_detail.asp?clientID=2&prID=5198&navSectionID=2

External links[edit]