Toyota F engine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Toyota F series engine was a series of OHV inline-6-cylinder engines produced by Toyota between 1955 and 1992. They are known for their high amount of torque at low RPM, massive cast-iron blocks and heads and also their high reliability. The F Engine had one of the longest production runs of any Toyota engine. The F engines all incorporate overhead valves actuated by pushrods from a gear driven camshaft in the lower portion of the engine. The engine was first introduced in the Land Cruiser, and in many countries, was the only engines offered in the Landcruiser until 1993. Although it's commonly badged as the Land Cruiser engine, it was used in a variety of other large truck applications as well, such as in fire trucks and the Toyota FQ15 trucks. It was also used in the Crown-based Japanese police patrol cars FH26 and FS20-FS50.

Engine Revisions[edit]

F[edit]

F
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1955-1974
Combustion chamber
Configuration I6
Displacement 3.9 L (3878 cc)
Cylinder bore 90 mm (3.5 in)
Piston stroke 102 mm (4.0 in)
Compression ratio 6.8:1
Combustion
Fuel system Carbureted
Fuel type Gasoline
Output
Power output 75/93 kW (105/125 hp)
Torque output 261/289 N·m (189/209 ft·lb)
Chronology
Predecessor B
Successor F (1974) aka F.5

The F engine is a 3.9-liter, 75/93 kW (105/125 hp), carburated gasoline engine that is capable of 261/289 N·m (189/209 lb·ft) of torque at 2000 RPM; the difference in power and torque is different depending on the export destination. The original design was started in the early 1950s when Toyota had begun to export their vehicles internationally.

The F engine block, crankshaft and lower end assembly is loosely based on the 1939-63 G.M.C. L6 OHV 235 engine but with a taller deck (rather than the similar but smaller Chevrolet 1937-63 Gen-2 L6 OHV engine), and built under license. The cylinder head and combustion chamber is derived from the Chevrolet L6 OHV "stovebolt" engine, slightly scaled up. The general idea was consumers would feel comfortable with the engine since it was a familiar design and had a proven track record. None of the bottom end of the engine is interchangeable with these engines.

The F engine replaced the early 3.4-liter B gasoline engine introduced in 1937 (not to be confused with the 2.9-liter B diesel engine introduced much later). The early B engine was based on the original 1929-36 Chevrolet Gen-1 207 inline-6, not the later 1937-63 Gen-2 216, 235 etc. engine.

F (9/73-12/1974)[edit]

F (9/1973-1974)
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Also called F.5 or "F and a half"
Production 9/73-12/1974
Combustion chamber
Configuration I6
Displacement 3.9 L (3878 cc)
Cylinder bore 90 mm (3.5 in)
Piston stroke 102 mm (4.0 in)
Compression ratio 6.8:1
Combustion
Fuel system Carbureted
Fuel type Gasoline
Oil system Same as 2F
Cooling system Water
Output
Power output 75/93 kW (105/125 hp)
Torque output 261/289 N·m (189/209 ft·lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Toyota Type F engine
Successor 2F

The F (9/73-12/1974) engine is a 3.9-liter, 75/93 kW (105/125 hp), carburated gasoline engine that is capable of 261/289 N·m (189/209 lb·ft) of torque at 2000 RPM; the major difference between the F and the F.5 is the oiling system. The F.5 (09/1973-12/1974) uses the same oiling set-up and configuration as its successor the 2F.

2F[edit]

2F
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1975-1988
Combustion chamber
Configuration I6
Displacement 4.2 L (4230 cc)
Cylinder bore 94 mm (3.7 in)
Piston stroke 102 mm (4.0 in)
Compression ratio 7.8:1
Combustion
Fuel system Carbureted
Fuel type Gasoline
Output
Power output 101 kW (135 hp)
Torque output 271 N·m (200 ft·lb)
Chronology
Predecessor F
Successor 3F/3F-E

The second version of the engine, called the 2F, was introduced in 1975. There are a few differences between the F and 2F, i.e., a larger bore in the 2F, removing one oil ring and forcing the oil to travel through the oil filter before the engine.

3F/3F-E[edit]

3F/3F-E
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1985-1992
Combustion chamber
Displacement 4.0 L (3955 cc)
Cylinder bore 94 mm (3.7 in)
Piston stroke 95 mm (3.7 in)
Compression ratio 8.1:1
Combustion
Fuel system Fuel Injected
Fuel type Gasoline
Output
Power output 116 kW (155 hp)
Torque output 303 N·m (220 ft·lb)
Chronology
Predecessor 2F
Successor 1FZ-FE

The 3F debuted in 1985, but wasn't available in the American market until 1988. Differences from the 2F engine include a modified cylinder head to reduce warping and separation from inlet and exhaust manifolds, the introduction of electronic fuel injection (EFI) in some markets, a vastly improved emissions system, and a smaller displacement resulting from a shorter piston stroke. The displacement shrank from 4.2 liters to 4, but even with this reduction, the engine power increased by 15 kW (20 hp) and 14 N·m (10 lb·ft) of torque. As a result of these changes to the engine design the redline was increased, allowing a wider powerband which made this engine far more suitable for on-road use.

In 1992, the F series engines, after almost 45 years, finally ceased production. In 1993, the F series was replaced by the dual overhead cam (DOHC) 1FZ-FE engine.

Due to the low rpm design and cast iron construction of these engines, it is not uncommon to see them reach over 300,000 miles (482,800 km) before needing a major overhaul.