Toyota GR engine

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Toyota GR engine
Toyota 1GR-FE engine 001.JPG
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota Motor Corporation
Production 2002–
Combustion chamber
Configuration DOHC 60° V6
Chronology
Predecessor Toyota MZ engine
Toyota JZ engine (I6)
Toyota VZ engine

The Toyota GR engine family is an open-deck, V6 piston engine series. The GR series has a 60° die-cast aluminum block and aluminum DOHC cylinder heads. This engine series also features 4 valves per cylinder, forged steel connecting rods, one-piece cast camshafts, and a cast aluminum lower intake manifold. Some variants use multi-port fuel injection, some have D4 direct injection others have a combination of direct injection and multi-port fuel injection or D4-S.

The GR series replaces the previous MZ V6 and JZ inline-6, and in the case of light trucks the VZ V6.

Note: Power ratings have changed due to SAE measurement changes for 2006 model year vehicles. Toyota rates engines on 87 pump octane, Lexus rates engines on 91 pump octane.

1GR-FE[edit]

1GR-FE 4.0 L V6 from a 2007 Toyota FJ Cruiser

The 1GR-FE is the 4.0 L (3956 cc) version, designed for longitudinal mounting in RWD and 4WD pickup applications. It has a 94 mm bore and a stroke of 95 mm. Output is 236 hp (176 kW) at 5200 rpm with 266 lb·ft (361 N·m) of torque at 4000 rpm on 87 octane, and 239 hp (178 kW) at 5200 rpm with 278 lb·ft (377 N·m) at 3700 rpm on 91 octane. This engine features Toyota's VVT-i, variable valve timing system on the intake cam and a compression ratio of 10.0:1. Service weight, including fluids, is 166 kg (366 lb).

An updated version of this engine features Dual VVT-i, increasing output to 254 hp (189 kW) and 270 lb·ft (366 N·m) on 87 octane and 285 hp (213 kW) and 289 lb·ft (392 N·m) on 91 octane. Inside, the 1GR uses a "taper-squish" combustion chamber design with matching pistons to improve anti-knocking and engine performance, while also improving intake and fuel efficiency. Toyota adopted a siamese-type intake port, which reduces the surface area of the port walls and prevents fuel from adhering to such walls. This engine has special cast-iron cylinder liners cast into the block, which are a spiny type to improve adhesion between the liner and cylinder block. With these special thin liners it is impossible to bore the block. In the event of cylinder wall damage (scoring, deep protrusions, etc.), the entire cylinder block must be replaced. For increased block rigidity, the 1GR also receives a high temperature plastic insulator/protector, which fills the empty space between the outer portion of the cylinders and block material common to open deck engines. For increased cooling efficiency, the 1GR employs water passages between the bores of the engine. There are two such passages for each bank for a total of four. This reduces cylinder hot-spotting and keeps combustion chamber temperatures more uniform.

A bolt-on TRD supercharger kit is available on the Tacoma and FJ Cruiser.

Applications (with VVT-i) in model years:

Applications (with Dual VVT-i) in model years:

2GR[edit]

2GR-FE[edit]

2GR-FE engine in the 2008 Lexus RX 350

The 2GR-FE is a 3.5 L (3456 cc) version for transverse FWD, 4WD, or AWD mounting.[1] Bore remains at 94 mm but stroke is reduced to 83 mm. Reported output varies depending on the vehicle application, but is approximately 266 hp (198 kW) to 280 hp (209 kW) at 6200 rpm with 245 lb·ft (332 N·m) to 260 lb·ft (353 N·m) of torque at 4700 rpm on 87 octane (R+M/2).[2] This version features Toyota's Dual VVT-i, variable valve timing on both the intake and exhaust cams.

Valves are driven by roller-follower rocker arms with low friction roller bearings, and a unique, concave cam lobe design to increase valve lift over the traditional shimless lifter type system of the 1GR-FE. This increases overall cylinder head height to accommodate the slightly taller roller rocker system. Moreover, the cylinder head is segmented into 3 parts: valve cover, camshaft sub-assembly housing, and cylinder head sub-assembly. As such, this valvetrain is used across all other GR engines with Dual VVT-i. Its service weight is 163 kg.

Applications:

2GR-FZE[edit]

Eaton Roots-type Twin-Vortices supercharger

2GR-FSE[edit]

2GR-FSE engine in the 2008 Crown

The 2GR-FSE is a 3.5L engine used in the Lexus IS, GS 350, Mark X and Crown incorporate Toyota's latest D4-S twin injection fuel system. This system combines direct injection(949cc/min injectors) with traditional port injection (298cc/min injectors). Direct injection lowers the tendency to knock (detonation) and increases performance by reducing the charge intake temperature. Traditionally direct injection engines require an in engine mechanism such as swirl ports or specific piston crown shapes to increase tumble in the engine. These are in place to help achieve a homogeneous air-fuel mixture inside the cylinder at low rpm and high load, these mechanisms inhibit performance at higher rpm. In the 2GR-FSE the port injection is used considerably to achieve the correct mixture without having in engine restrictions, meaning the engine achieves specific power near the top of all naturally aspirated production gasoline engines in the world (67kW/L, 235kW in the Mark X). Toyota also developed a new type of injector for this engine. The dual fan spray pattern of the direct injectors is perpendicular to the piston travel with wide dispersion in the cylinder helping improve in cylinder mixing and therefore power and efficiency. The port injectors not only help improve the power and efficiency but they also help improve emissions especially in the first 20 seconds after start up (when the catalytic converter is in its warm up stage). Development of V-6 3.5-liter Engine Adopting New Direct Injection System


The 2GR-FSE engine is rated at 309 PS (227 kW; 305 hp) at 6,400 RPM and 38.4 kg·m (377 N·m; 278 lb·ft) at 4,800 RPM. The 2GR-FSE in the Crown is rated at 315 PS (232 kW; 311 hp) and 38.4 kg·m (377 N·m; 278 lb·ft) at 4,800 RPM. The 2GR-FSE in the Mark X is rated at 318 PS (234 kW; 314 hp) and 38.7 kg·m (380 N·m; 280 lb·ft) at 4,800 RPM.

The engine's service weight is 174 kg.

The 2GR-FSE was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009.[3][4][5][6]

Applications:

Supercharged

  • 2009 Toyota Mark X +M Supercharger (265 KW, 355 hp)[7]

2GR-FXE[edit]

Atkinson cycle, VVT-i, uses cooled EGR system, 245 hp

Applications:

3GR[edit]

3GR-FE[edit]

3GR-FE engine in the 2007 IS 300

The 3GR-FE is a 3.0 L (2994 cc) version with Dual VVT-i, designed for RWD longitudinal mounting. Bore is 87.5 mm while stroke is shared with the 2GR at 83 mm, with a compression ratio of 10.5:1. Output is 170 kW (228 hp) at 6,400 RPM, and 300 N·m (221 lb·ft) at 4,800 RPM.

Applications:

3GR-FSE[edit]

The 3GR-FSE adds D4 direct injection. The 3GR-FSE engine is rated at 256 PS (188 kW; 252 hp) at 6,200 RPM and 32 kg·m (314 N·m; 231 lb·ft) at 3,600 RPM.

Applications:

Supercharged

  • 2006-2009 Toyota Mark X Supercharged 320 ps (316 bhp)

4GR-FSE[edit]

2004 Toyota 4GR-FSE engine.

The 4GR-FSE is a 2.5 L (2499 cc) version. Bore is 83.0[8]  mm while stroke is reduced to 77.0[8]  mm. Output is 207 PS (152 kW; 204 hp) at 6,400 RPM and 26.5 kg·m (260 N·m; 192 lb·ft) at 3,800 RPM. This version also features Dual VVT-i, variable valve timing on both the intake and exhaust cams and an improved D4 direct injection system.

Applications:

5GR-FE[edit]

The 5GR-FE is a 2.5 L (2497 cc) version. Bore is 87.5 mm while stroke is 69.2 mm with a compression ratio of 10.0:1. Output is 145 kW (194 hp) at 6,200 RPM and 24.7 kg·m (242 N·m; 179 lb·ft) at 4,400 RPM. This version does not include direct injection, but does include Dual VVT-i. The 5GR-FE engine is only built in China for vehicles for the Chinese market. Using the same bore as the 3GR-FE which is also built in China it can be built on the same production line, thus reducing production cost.

Applications:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2013 Highlander Manual". USA: Toyota. p. 628 (11 on PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-16. 
  2. ^ "Avalon Specifications". Bahrain: Toyota. Retrieved 2012-01-27. 
  3. ^ "Ward's Announces 2009 10 Best Engines Winners". Ward's AutoWorld. WardsAuto.com. 2008-12-05. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  4. ^ "Ward's 10 Best Engines Winners Reflect Fuel-Economy Focus (2008)". Ward's AutoWorld. WardsAuto.com. 2007-12-13. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  5. ^ "Ward's Announces 10 Best Engines Winners for 2007". Ward's AutoWorld. WardsAuto.com. 2006-12-05. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  6. ^ "Ward's 10 Best Engines for 2006". Ward's AutoWorld. WardsAuto.com. 2006-01-04. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  7. ^ "Mark X +M Supercharger specs" (in Japanese). 2009. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  8. ^ a b "techdoc". Toyota Motor Europe. Retrieved 2012-01-27.