The Toyota Group (トヨタグループ Toyota Gurūpu ) is a group of companies that have supplier, vendor and investment relationships with Toyota Industries Corporation and Toyota Motor Corporation. It is similar to a keiretsu in that no particular entity has outright control over the entire group, although unlike most keiretsu it does not contain a major bank.
Major group companies
- Toyota Industries (1926) - original Toyota company; manufactures forklifts and other equipment
- JTEKT (1935) - manufactures bearings and other components
- Toyota Motor (1937) - manufactures automobiles
- Toyota Auto Body (1940) - manufactures truck bodies; 100% owned by Toyota Motor
- Aichi Steel (1940) - manufactures automotive steel; 30% owned by Toyota Industries and Toyota Motor
- Toyota Motor East Japan - formed in 2002 by the merger of Kanto Auto Works (1945), Toyota Motors Tohoku and Central Motors
- Toyota Tsusho (1946) - trading company (sogo shosha) supporting global operations of Toyota Group companies; 33% owned by Toyota Industries and Toyota Motor
- Aisin Seiki (1949) - manufactures automotive components; 30% owned by Toyota Industries and Toyota Motor
- Toyoda Gosei (1949) - manufactures automotive components; 43% owned by Toyota Motor
- Denso (1949) - manufactures air conditioners and other automotive components
- Toyota Boshoku (1950) - manufactures filters, trim, liners and other automotive components
- Towa Real Estate (1953) - commercial real estate developer in Nagoya area; holds stock in other Toyota Group companies as an anti-takeover measure
- Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc. (1960) - performs research and development for other Toyota Group companies
- Daihatsu (1907) - manufactures compact automobiles; majority stake acquired by Toyota Motor in 1998
- Toyota Financial Services (2000) - provider of automotive financing and credit cards
- Toyota Communication Systems Co., Ltd. (2001) - IT system integrator; 100% owned by Toyota Motor
- Hino Motors - manufacturer of diesel trucks and buses acquired by Toyota Motor in 2001
- Toyofuji Shipping Co. - international shipping company for Toyota vehicles
- Toyota Housing Corporation (2003) - residential construction
Affiliates or partially owned subsidiaries
- Tesla Motors - American electric vehicle maker, partnered with Toyota to create the second-generation Toyota RAV4 EV. (Toyota owns 10% of the company).
- Kyoho kai group - Auto parts company - 211 companies.
- Kyouei kai group - Logistic/facility company - 123 companies.
- Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd., manufacturer of Subaru automobiles. (Toyota owns 16.5% of the company.)
- Isuzu Motors Ltd. (Toyota owns 5.9% of the company.)
- Misawa Homes Holdings, Inc. (Toyota owns 13.4% of the company.)
- United Australian Automobile Industries (UAAI) - a joint venture between Toyota Australia and GM-Holden (1989 to 1996)
- New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. (NUMMI) - a joint venture between Toyota and General Motors (1984 to 2010)
- Primearth EV Energy Co (PEVE) - a joint venture between Toyota and Panasonic (1996 to present)
- Kamon, S.; Hemry Rosovsky (1992). The Political Economy of Japan. 3: Cultural and social dynamics. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. pp. 215–216.
- Costanzo, L. A.; MacCay, R. B. (2009). Handbook of research on strategy and foresight. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. pp. 386–390. ISBN 978-1-84542-963-8.
- Hino, S. (2006). Inside the mind of Toyota: management principles for enduring growth. New York: Productivity Press. p. 229.