Toyota Mark II

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Toyota Mark II
X80 Toyota Mark2 1.JPG
Toyota Mark II sedan (X80)
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Also called Toyota Cressida
Production 1968–2004
Body and chassis
Class Mid-size
Chronology
Successor Toyota Mark X (Japan)
Toyota Avalon (international)

The Toyota Mark II is a mid-size sedan manufactured and sold in Japan by Toyota between 1968 and 2004. In export markets, the Mark II sold as the Toyota Cressida from 1976 until 1992 through four generations. It was the flagship sedan of Toyota in many export markets where the Crown was not offered. Toyota eventually replaced the Cressida in North America with the Toyota Avalon. All Mark II's and Cressidas were manufactured at the Motomachi Plant at Toyota, Aichi.

The first series, called the Toyota Corona Mark II was an all new vehicle at its introduction in 1968, that sought to offer a car that was just under Japanese government regulations concerning maximum vehicle dimensions and engine displacement. Using the established platform of the Corona sedan but slightly larger and wider, it was exclusive to Toyopet Store locations, and offered as a competitor to the newly introduced Nissan Laurel in Japan, and the Nissan Bluebird / Datsun 510 internationally that appeared August 1967, and two years after the Mazda Luce in 1966.

At the Mark II's introduction in the late 1960s, Toyota was known as a small, economy car manufacturer. The Mark II allowed Toyota to establish itself as a more mainstream, international automaker and pursue new market opportunities. The Corona Mark II was sold as a larger companion to the Corona, while still being smaller than the Crown. The Mark II introduced the world to a comfortable front-engine, rear-drive vehicle that was larger than older Toyotas while maintaining an affordable price and better fuel economy than vehicles with larger straight 6 and V8 engines, and shared most of its technology and appearance with the larger, more prestigious Crown.

As the Mark II began to become popular with drivers around the world, Toyota introduced variations of the Mark II with two different model names, both sedans but with different styling and marketing approaches. The sportier Toyota Chaser appeared in 1977, and later in 1980, the high luxury content Toyota Cresta appeared, and both were exclusive together at Toyota Auto Store locations. As other automakers continued to offer vehicles in this size class, the Mark II's popularity peaked in the 1980s. The Mark II's siblings, the Chaser and the Cresta were discontinued due to declining sales, partly influenced by the Japanese recession that started in the early 1990s, and were combined into the short-lived Toyota Verossa. The Mark II evolved into the Toyota Mark X which is still very popular in Japan and select international markets.

First generation (T60, T70; 1968–1972)[edit]

First generation (T60, T70)
CORONA MARK2 1ST.jpg
Overview
Production 1968–1972
April 1968 – July 1974 (pickup)[1]
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
5-door station wagon
2-door coupé
2-door pick-up truck
Related Toyota Corona
Powertrain
Engine 1,490 cc 2R OHV I4
1,587 cc 12R OHV I4
1,591 cc 7R OHV I4
1,707 cc 6R OHV I4
1,858 cc 8R SOHC I4
1,858 cc 10R DOHC I4
1,968 cc 18R SOHC I4
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,510 mm (98.8 in)
Length 4,295 mm (169.1 in)
Width 1,610 mm (63.4 in)
Height 1,405 mm (55.3 in)
Curb weight 1,000 kg (2,204.6 lb)

The Corona Mark II, first offered for sale in Japan September 1968 at Toyopet Store dealerships, was intended as an intermediate model between the large luxury sedan the Crown, sold at Toyota Store dealerships, and the smaller Corona, also available at Toyopet Store. It was a slightly larger vehicle than a Corona with a higher level of equipment offered at the time, sharing some of the same features of the larger Crown, but taking the top position at Toyopet Store locations. At its introduction, the Mark II was third in Toyota's hierarchy of sedans, below the Crown and the all new, hand built, V8-engined limousine called the Toyota Century.

The four-door sedan was designated as the T60 and the 2-door coupé the T70. In 1970 there were minor cosmetic changes in the front grille. The 1,600 cc 7R series engine was replaced by the 1,700 cc 6R series engine. A year later the 1,500 cc 2R models were replaced by the 1,600 cc 12R engines. Its competitor was primarily the Nissan Laurel in Japan, released earlier that year in April.

The U.S. exported version for the same model year, often include the more powerful R series motors compared to other regions. While Japan and other markets often had 1.5-litre 2R, 1.6-litre 7R/12R to 1.7-litre 6R models as well. Engines were shared with the Corona, with both using the 2R, and the 12R engine. Transmissions offered were an automatic transmission with 3 speeds for export and 2 speeds in Japan, or a choice of either a 4-speed or 3-speed manual transmission.

RT62 sedans and RT72 coupé features the 1.9-litre 8R four-cylinder engine, unique to the Mark II. The RT63 sedan, RT73 coupé, RT78/RT79 station wagons feature a two-litre 18R four-cylinder engine, also unique to the Mark II. The suspension setup used double wishbone with coil springs at the front and leaf springs at the back with a front-engine, rear-drive powertrain format.

The Corona Mark II was longer, at 4,295 mm (169.1 in) over the Corona's length of 162.4 in (4,125 mm) for the sedan, and the coupe, with a width of 1,610 mm (63.4 in) in comparison to 61 in (1,549 mm) for the sedan and coupe. The height of the Mark II is lower at 1,405 mm (55.3 in) over 1,420 mm (55.9 in) for the sedan, but higher at 1,374 mm (54.1 in) for the coupé.

For North America, the Mark II was available with bucket seats for the front passengers, a center console with a floor-mounted manual transmission, electric rear window defroster, and a full size spare tire installed externally and underneath the cargo area on the wagon with rear seats that folded down to a fully carpeted rear cargo area. The Mark II wagon was the largest wagon Toyota offered in North America, next to the Corona and Corolla wagons; the Crown wagon was no longer sold in North America.

1971 Toyota Corona Mark II coupe 
1970 Toyota Corona Mark II truck 
1970 Toyota Corona Mark II station wagon 

Second generation (X10, X20; 1972–1976)[edit]

Second generation (X10, X20)
1976 Toyota Corona Mark II.jpg
Overview
Production 1972–1976
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
5-door station wagon
2-door coupé
Powertrain
Engine 1,707 cc 6R I4
1,808 cc 16R I4
1,968 cc 18R I4
1,968 cc 18R-G DOHC I4
1,988 cc M I6
2,253 cc 2M I6 (export)
2,563 cc 4M I6 (export)
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,645 mm (104.1 in) sedan
2,585 mm (101.8 in) wagon
Length 4,325 mm (170.3 in)
4,350 mm (171.3 in) wagon
Width 1,625 mm (64.0 in)
Height 1,380 mm (54.3 in) sedan
1,425 mm (56.1 in) wagon
Curb weight 1,080 kg (2,381 lb) sedan

The second-generation Corona Mark II was based on a new X series platform abandoning the compact Corona T series chassis. X10s are sedans and wagons, while the X20 is a 2-door coupé. The inline six-cylinder "M" series engine was borrowed from the S60 series Crown, in order to compete better with the Nissan Bluebird / Datsun 610 in North America, and the Nissan Laurel in Japan.

The styling used on the second generation was dramatically different from the first, showing similarities to the S60 series Crown. The appearance reflected a popular styling trend that appeared during the 1960s and 1970s internationally, called "coke bottle styling" which Toyota adopted for only this generation of the Mark II. The version sold as a wagon in export markets was marketed as a van, intended for commercial usage, in the Japanese domestic market. Due to the introduction of the Toyota Hilux pickup truck, the previously offered Mark II pickup was discontinued.

It was originally only available with the smallest 1.7-litre inline-four. All Mark II engines were of an overhead camshaft design, with the sporting GSS even featuring a twin-cam design. X10 through 13 are sedans, 16 and 17-series numbers were reserved for vans, 20 through 23 for coupés, and 26 through 29 for wagons.[2] The only exception to this scheme is the 18R-U–engined RX15, introduced in June 1976, which received the same chassis code whether fitted in the hardtop or the sedan.

Engine choices included:

  • I4 1,707 cc 6R (RX10/RX16V/RX20/RX26: 95 PS (70 kW)[3])
  • I4 1,808 cc 16R (RX11/RX17V/RX21/RX27)
  • I4 1,968 cc 18R (RX12/RX22/RX28)
  • I4 1,968 cc 18R-G DOHC (RX22 GSS)
  • I4 1,968 cc 18R-U (RX15, low emissions version)
  • I6 1,988 cc M (MX10/MX20/MX27)
  • I6 2,253 cc 2M (MX12/MX22/MX28, export only)
  • I6 2,563 cc 4M (MX13/MX23/MX29, export only)

In August 1973, there were minor changes and updates. The basic trim package wagon was offered with a five-speed manual transmission. Electronic fuel injection was introduced on the two-litre four-cylinder (18R) engine to increase power and lower fuel emissions. The four-cylinder 1,707 cc 6R engine was replaced by the 1,808 cc 16R. The 1.8 was discontinued in October 1975, leaving only two-litre engines of four or six cylinders in the Japanese market. Even after the introduction of the next Mark II, production of the second generation continued through November 1976.

North America

The Crown line of cars was no longer marketed in North America due to poor sales. This left a gap in Toyota's North American line up, offering only smaller compact cars. The second-generation Corona Mark II fortunately increased in size. The Corona Mark II would be one of the few sensible options for families transitioning from larger American Detroit cars in the midst of the oil crisis. In 1974 it was marketed in the US as a fully loaded car with few added options. Standard features included a six-cylinder SOHC engine, four-speed manual transmission, front disc brakes, heater defroster, and bucket seats. Some available options were stereo cassette player, power steering, air conditioning, and a three-speed automatic transmission.

North American market cars had the 2.3-litre M-series "six" when they first went on sale in early 1972, but in August of that year this was replaced by the larger 2.6-litre 4M unit. Power, originally at 109 hp (81 kW), increased to 122 hp (91 kW). This was the only engine offered for the Mark II's next four years in the North American markets.[2]

Toyota Corona Mark II X20 series coupe 
Corona Mark II GSS coupe 
Corona Mark II Wagon 

Third generation (X30, X40; 1976–1980)[edit]

Third generation (X30, X40)
Toyota Corona Mark II X30.jpg
Overview
Also called Toyota Chaser
Toyota Cressida
Production December 1976[4] – August 1980[4]
Assembly Japan: Toyota, Aichi (Motomachi plant)
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupé
4-door sedan
5-door station wagon
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1770 cc 3T-U I4
  • 1808 cc 16R-J I4 (RX37V van only)[5]
  • 1968 cc 18R I4
  • 1988 cc M I6 (MX30/35/40/41/45)
  • 2563 cc 4M I6
  • 2563 cc 4M-E I6
Transmission 4/5-speed manual
4-speed A43DL automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,645 mm (104.1 in)
Length 4,615 mm (181.7 in)
Width 1,680 mm (66.1 in)
Height 1,455 mm (57.3 in)
Curb weight 1,215 kg (2,679 lb)
1977 Toyota Corona Mark II Grande

The third generation was introduced with a more upscale, European type design. The lines are a combination of the previous generation's American styling with a British-looking front end, while demonstrating a new corporate Toyota appearance with the larger S80 series Crown. In 1978, this model generation was the last cars that feature the Toyopet brand name, which was dropped in 1980. The Toyopet name continued to be used for the dealership network in Japan, however. The Grande trim was added to models with six-cylinder engines. This generation continued to offer Japanese buyers an alternative to the Nissan Laurel sedan, and the new Nissan Bluebird based Nissan Maxima in North America, with the new Chaser as an alternative to the Nissan Skyline in Japan. The Mark II was split into two other sedans so that they could sell different versions of the Mark II at the multiple dealerships Toyota had established in the 1970s.

Some models had six-cylinder engines, optionally with electronic fuel injection, borrowed from the larger Crown. For the Japanese market, all Japanese models engines were upgraded with Toyota's TTC-C technology to comply with the Japanese Governments Clean Air Act of 1975. In late October 1977 the 3T-U engine was upgraded to pass the 1978 emissions standards with the aid of a lean-burn design.[6] Four-cylinder engines were mostly reserved for cars intended for commercial usage. The X30-series chassis numbers were the original codes for the third-generation Mark II, with X40 numbers being gradually introduced about halfway through the life of the model for cars that could pass the new, stricter 1978 emissions rules.

In 1998, Toyota released a car called Progrès. The Progrès front end looks somewhat like an updated version of the X30/X40 series sedan. For instance, both of them feature a combination of round and squared lighting. The grille and bonnet also has similar shapes, size, and lines.

Chaser[edit]

For more information, see Toyota Chaser.

The Toyota Chaser was released in 1977 as a competitor to the Nissan Skyline sedan. The Chaser was originally just a rebadged Mark II, although later generations received more differentiated styling. The idea of the Chaser was to offer a sportier version of the Mark II and sold at a different Japanese Toyota dealership called Toyota Auto Store, often with more powerful engines and different suspension setups.

Toyota Chaser sedan (X30)

The Chaser chassis codes were X30, X31, X40 and X41 as both a two- and four-door sedan, with no station wagons or commercial delivery vehicles offered, unlike the Mark II. They were powered by the 4-cylinder 1.8 L 3T-U, 4-cylinder 2.0 L 18R-U and 6-cylinder 2.0 L M-U/M-EU engines – all single cam engines tuned for economy rather than performance. All models were listed as typical of larger Toyota sedans. In order to provide buyers with a luxury sports sedan, but not incur tax consequences for exceeding dimension regulations, the vehicle was limited to an engine size at 2000 cc as well as dimensions under 4.7 m (15.4 ft) long, 1.7 m (5.6 ft) wide, and 2 m (6.6 ft) high.

Cressida[edit]

The Corona Mark II was renamed the Toyota Cressida for export markets, and the name Cressida was not used in Japan. Production started in December 1976.[4]The name Mark II was previously identified with the North American Continental Mark II which first appeared in 1956 and the term "Mark" is still associated with Lincoln Motor Company products. It was Toyota's largest sedan and wagon range offered in North America, while the personal luxury coupe wasn't offered. In New Zealand, a two-litre four-cylinder sedan version replaced the six-cylinder Crown in local assembly after the 1970s oil crises prompted the government to impose a 60% sales tax on cars with engines larger than two litres. A few fully built up Crowns were subsequently imported. In other markets, the larger Toyota Crown also remained available.

The name "Cressida" derives from the lead character in William Shakespeare's play Troilus and Cressida.

Depending on the market it was sold in, it had the 4M carbureted engine (MX32, MX36), the 18R engine (RX30, RX32, RX35) or 3T engine (TX30). The North American models started with the carbureted 4M engine (MX32) but in mid-1978 the fuel-injected 4M-E replaced its carbureted counterpart – this was one of the first Toyotas in the US to use fuel injection. In 1979, the MSRP in the US was US$9,190. In New Zealand, where it was locally assembled and sold in a highly specified GL form (replacing the 2.8-litre Crown which had been hit by high sales taxes on two-litre-plus engine sizes), it had the 18R engine.

Standard features included air conditioning, automatic transmission (a 5-speed manual was available), power steering, rear seat armrests, AM/FM cassette stereo with amplifier, reclining front seats, and a rear window defroster. The automatic transmission was a four-speed overdrive with an overdrive lockout. Power windows were optional. Soundproofing was extensive, and the Cressida was famous for being one of the quietest cars on the road at the time.[citation needed]

In the United Kingdom, the Cressida was available in both sedan and wagon bodystyles. The only engine available was the 18R and there was one trim level, badged De Luxe. Contrary to popular belief,[by whom?] it was not the same as DX specifications on other Toyota cars, but a more upmarket version of the DX trim level. The Toyota Carina sedan and wagon also sold in the United Kingdom at this time were also badged as De Luxe (but rebadged as DX from 1980 onwards).

1978 Toyota Cressida sedan 
1977 Toyota Cressida coupé 

Fourth generation (X60; 1980–1984)[edit]

Fourth generation (X60)
1982-1984 Toyota Cressida (MX62) GL sedan 01.jpg
Toyota Cressida sedan (X60)
Overview
Also called Toyota Chaser
Toyota Cressida
Production August 1980[4] – 1984
Assembly Japan: Toyota, Aichi (Motomachi plant)
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
4-door hardtop sedan
5-door station wagon
Related Toyota Cresta
Powertrain
Engine 2.0 L "18R-G" I4
2.8 L 5M-E I6
2.8 L 5M-GE I6
Transmission 4/5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
4-speed A43DE automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,645 mm (104.1 in)
Length 4,640 mm (182.7 in)
Width 1,690 mm (66.5 in)
Height 1,425 mm (56.1 in)
Curb weight 1,225 kg (2,701 lb)
Toyota Corona Mark II sedan
Toyota Corona Mark II Grande hardtop

The fourth-generation Corona Mark II was launched in 1980. It was still badged as the Corona Mark II but many of the advertisement at the time simply refer to it as the Mark II. Power by either the 1G-EU, Turbo charged M-TEU, 5M-EU and fuel-injected version of the 18R-G was available in the GT. A diesel version was also available. In 1982 the twin-cam 1G-GEU engine was added. In 1983 the automatic transmission was changed to an electronic controlled four-speed. The two-door coupé was no longer offered, replaced by the Soarer, and the fourth generation was only available with four doors, either as a sedan, hardtop, or as a station wagon (mainly marketed as a commercial vehicle in Japan).

This Mark II generation included commercial, taxi, and drivers training vehicles. The Mark II was common alongside the slightly smaller Corona as a taxi.

Cressida[edit]

The second-generation Cressida, the MX63, was a significant redesign from the previous generation. Gone was the coupé version, but a more up-to-date body style was new for the sedan and wagon. Changes from the previous generation included a larger engine, now up to 116 hp (87 kW) (and using electronic fuel injection). The 5M-E would power the 1981 and 1982 models before it was superseded by the 5M-GE, a DOHC engine with a substantially higher power rating, 143 hp (107 kW) in 1983 and 156 hp (116 kW) in 1984. North American X60-series Cressidas all received versions of the 2.8-liter inline-six engine, while in other markets smaller units were often available.

1982 Toyota Cressida (Canada; pre-facelift)
1983 Toyota Cressida (US; facelift)

This model was again assembled in New Zealand initially only with a two-litre, four-cylinder petrol engine and five-speed manual or optional three-speed automatic transmission. Various markets received different bodywork, combining various elements of the Mark II, Chaser, and Cresta variants.

In 1983, the Cressida was refreshed and gained an independent semi-trailing link rear suspension, rear vented disc brakes, and the 5M-GE engine. Much of this technology came from the Toyota Supra parts bin with minor differences. A five-speed manual transmission was available, but cars equipped with it were considerably more rare than automatic versions. The electronically controlled A43DE automatic transmission was another improvement over the previous hydraulically controlled A43DL transmission and had three modes: Power, Normal, and Economy. This iteration was praised for its handling, ride, quiet interior, and most of all, its reliability; the Cressida was quickly gaining a reputation for outstanding ownership.

In August 1983, Toyota chairman Eiji Toyoda initiated the F1 project ("Flagship" and "No. 1 vehicle"; alternatively called the "Circle-F" project), a clandestine effort aimed at producing a world-class luxury sedan for international markets.[7][8] This led to the creation of an all new, full size luxury sedan designed for export markets and was called the Lexus LS.

Toyota Chaser Avante sedan (X60)

US federal law for seatbelt and safety regulations saw the introduction of automatic seat belts which consisted of a motorized shoulder belt that was deployed in the closed position when the door was closed and the ignition on. The Cressida was the first automobile produced with the motorized shoulder belts as standard equipment on every vehicle. The belts would be installed on all Cressidas in the United States from 1981 on.

After the mid-generation facelift, a mid-grade specification similar to the original one-model line was offered on New Zealand assembled models with the four-cylinder engine; a new top version had a two-litre six-cylinder engine, four-speed automatic and air conditioning, becoming the first NZ-built Toyota to have 'air' as standard. A large number of the four-cylinder cars with dealer-fitted air conditioning were sold to car hire company Hertz Rent-A-Car. Both engines were below two litres to avoid the higher sales taxes that applied on larger engines in New Zealand at the time.

Chaser[edit]

Production swapped to the X51 and X61 Chaser in 1980, with the addition of the 6-cylinder 2.0 L 1G-EU (single cam) and 1G-GE (twincam) engines. Body styles offered were a four-door sedan and 4-door hardtop, no longer offering the 2-door hardtop with this generation. The "Avante" trim level had a sport tuned suspension using Michelin tires. This generation saw a new competitor from Nissan called the Nissan Leopard with a lower asking price in comparison to the Japanese market favorite, the Skyline.

Fifth generation (X70; 1984–1988)[edit]

Fifth generation (X70)
1984-1988 Toyota Cressida (MX73) GLX-i sedan 01.jpg
Toyota Cressida sedan (X70; Australia)
Overview
Also called Toyota Chaser
Toyota Cressida
Production 1984–1988
1983–1997 (wagon)
Assembly Japan: Toyota, Aichi (Motomachi plant)
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
4-door hardtop sedan
5-door station wagon
Related Toyota Cresta
Powertrain
Engine 1.8L 4-cylinder
2.0L 4-cylinder
2.0L 6-cylinder
2.4L 4-cylinder diesel
2.8 L 5M-GE I6 (Cressida only)
Transmission 4-speed A43DE automatic
4-speed A340E automatic
3-speed automatic
4-speed manual
5-speed W58 manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,660 mm (104.7 in)
Length 4,650 mm (183.1 in)
Width 1,690 mm (66.5 in)
Height 1,415 mm (55.7 in)
Curb weight 1,280 kg (2,822 lb)
Toyota Mark II hardtop (X70)

The 1984 model dropped the Corona name in Japan and simply called it the Mark II. This generation Mark II had a lot of rivals including the Nissan Leopard, as well as the traditional competitor Nissan Laurel sedan. The Mark II continued to remain very viable for fleet sales, government agencies and taxi services.

There are two different variation of the Mark II; the Hardtop and the Sedan. Visually they are different on the exterior while the interior remains untouched.

Exterior changes on the Hardtop version includes a slanted nose which requires a new grille, a thinner headlamp assembly that match the slanted nose, frameless door windows, thinner tail lamp, front fenders and bumper. Body panel is stamped different from the standard version.

The Standard version is exactly like the MX-73 Toyota Cressida. It does not have the aggressive slanted front end, conservative body panels and framed windows.

Toyota Mark II wagon (X70)

Station wagon/van (1984–1997)[edit]

The X70 station wagon was produced from 1984 to 1997 with only a few minor revisions over the years. In most markets, sales of this wagon was stopped when the next model of the sedan was introduced but they continued to be sold in Japan for use as delivery vehicles. It was finally superseded by the front-wheel-drive Mark II Qualis that was based on the Camry Gracia.

Cressida[edit]

Toyota Cressida sedan (X70; Australia)

In 1984 for the 1985 model year, a new Cressida was introduced by Toyota. This was the MX73 (MX72 for wagon). The 5M-GE engine was mostly unchanged from the 1984 model year but gained a knock-sensor, which detected pre-ignition and adjusted timing accordingly when a lower-grade fuel was used. The 5M-E SOHC also was available in some markets. The bodystyle was all-new, larger, and more aerodynamic than previous generations. Interestingly, like its main competitor at the time, the Nissan Maxima, it was given the "compact" design, though it had grown in size. New options included were an electronic shock absorber control (TEMS), CD player, super monitor, digital gauges, standard woodgrain trim, and secondary radio controls that were placed right by the steering wheel for easier access while driving.

The automatic transmission retained its Normal/Power selector as many other Toyotas would, but later in production, the Economy selection was dropped. In 1987 the automatic transmission was changed to the A340E that was also used with the 7M-GE and Lexus 1UZ-FE engine at the time. The 1988 model was not offered with a manual transmission and the wagon was discontinued in 1987. By 1988, power output was at 161 hp (120 kW).

Chaser[edit]

Toyota Chaser hardtop (X70)

This series first appeared in August 1984. The "Avante" series previously introduced became a luxury upgrade starting with this generation and body styles were reduced again to a 4-door hardtop only. The exterior dimensions of this car were slightly smaller in comparison to sister cars Mark II and Cresta, but the Chaser was more performance oriented, while maintaining the advanced features and luxurious interior of the Cresta. October 1985, Mark II / Cresta 1G-GTEU vehicles equipped with "GT twin turbo" has appeared. Disc brakes are larger in diameter, and was now equipped with bucket seats, but Toyota's TEMS electronic suspension wasn't installed. Only Chaser "GT twin turbo S" 5-speed MT that there was only low-cost upgrades (early types only.) Minor change in August 1986. 1G-GEU engine improvements, LPG engine change 3Y-PU, larger bumpers, front grille and changes in, substantial efforts were made to the equipment. Was popular in early-type rear combination lamps are kept to a minor change. January 1987 a special edition "Lordly" was released, May 1987 a special edition "Chaser Avante" was released. August 1987 special edition "New Extra XG Chaser" was released. September 1987 2L, 2L-T 1986 car emissions compliance engine was introduced. January 1988 special edition "Avante Supra" released as a companion to the third-generation Supra. April 1988 special edition "with extra XG Auto Air Conditioner" launch.

Sixth generation (X80; 1988–1992)[edit]

Sixth generation (X80)
X80 Toyota Mark2 1.JPG
Toyota Mark II sedan (X80)
Overview
Also called Toyota Cressida
Production 1988–1992
Assembly Japan: Toyota, Aichi (Motomachi plant)
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
4-door hardtop sedan
Related Toyota Cresta
Toyota Chaser
Powertrain
Engine 2.4 L 22R I4
2.8 L 5M I6
3.0 L 7M-GE I6
Transmission 4-speed A340 automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,730 mm (107.5 in)
Length 4,690 mm (184.6 in)
Width 1,695 mm (66.7 in)
Height 1,375 mm (54.1 in)
Curb weight 1,480 kg (3,263 lb)
1988 Mark II hardtop

First released in August 1988, the Mark II was no longer the top level sedan at Toyopet Store locations in Japan with the introduction of the Toyota Celsior October 9, 1989. The Australian Cressida was withdrawn from sale in early 1993 on the X80 series so as not to compete against the new widebody Camry-Vienta, and Lexus ES300 and LS400. The North American Cressida was replaced by the first designed-for-America Toyota Avalon was introduced as Toyota's new North American large sedan. The Grande G series in 1989 uses the 3.0L 7M-GE engine. Featuring Traction Control and ABS. In 1990, 1JZ-GE and 1JZ-GTE (280ps) is first introduced on this generation replacing the 1G-GZE. The GT did not have MT transmission available, and were strictly AT.

After 1992, the X80 series continued to be produced for taxi fleet vehicles until 1995, when the Crown Comfort assumed taxi duties.

Cressida[edit]

Toyota introduced the slightly larger fourth generation of the Cressida, the MX83, in 1988 for the 1989 model year — the final generation for the Cressida in North America.

1988–1990 Toyota Cressida GLX (Australia)
1988–1990 Toyota Cressida GLX (Australia)
1990–1992 Toyota Cressida (US)

Standard features included a new, more powerful 3.0-liter straight six 7M-GE engine producing 190 horsepower (140 kW) at 6,000 rpm and 185 lb-ft (250 Nm) at 4,400 rpm. As with the powertrain, most other mechanicals were modified versions of those in the Supra, most notably the new double-wishbone rear suspension. Standard equipment included power windows and locks, cruise control, a tilt-telescoping steering wheel, and a four-speed automatic transmission. Options included antilock brakes, a power driver's seat, leather upholstery, power moonroof, and a CD player. Cressidas of this generation sold in North America featured motorized automatic seat belts; airbags were never offered.

The Cressida was praised for its comfortable and quiet ride, graceful rear-wheel-drive handling, high gas mileage for its class (23 mpg [US] average according to a July 1989 Consumer Reports test), and stellar reliability. Downsides include a somewhat uncomfortable back seat, ride quality that deteriorated with a full load of passengers, and a trunk with only 12.5 cubic feet of space.

The most substantive change was the 1990 facelift for model year 1991, which brought brighter alloy wheels, a redesigned grille containing the new Toyota "T" logo, and simplified climate controls.

In the Middle East, the Cressida had a 2.4-litre 22R engine producing 108 horsepower (81 kW) at 6,000 rpm. The other available engine was the 2.8-litre 5M, which produced 103 kW (140 PS; 138 hp) at 4,800 rpm and 226 Nm at 3,600 rpm using the leaded petrol available in the region at the time.

In Australia, the Cressida was sold from April 1977 to February 1993, when it was replaced by the Vienta (and later the Avalon in the full-size bracket).

The Cressida also played a part in the design of the first Lexus models, most closely resembling the LS 400. However, some of the shared concepts and similarity between the Cressida and early Lexus models in turn led to the decision to eventually discontinue the Cressida in most markets, as it would overlap with vehicles sold under the Lexus marque. The 1992 redesign of the Camry and introduction of the XLE V6 model helped cover the Cressida's market as well, despite the fact the Camry was a front-wheel-drive vehicle and the Cressida was rear-wheel-drive.

The introduction of the Toyota Avalon in the American market in 1995 filled the gap left by the cancellation of the Toyota Cressida in 1992. The Avalon was a front-wheel drive full-size car, powered by a V6 engine, as the third-generation Camry remained in the mid-market but now had grown in proportions to be classified as a mid-size. The Cressida was an upper-level mid-size rear-wheel drive car with a straight-six engine, as the mid-market second-generation Camry was still classified as a compact car in the early 1990s.

Seventh generation (X90; 1992–1996)[edit]

Seventh generation (X90)
1994 Toyota Mark II 01.jpg
Overview
Production 1992–1996
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door hardtop sedan
Layout Front engine, RWD/AWD
Related Toyota Cresta
Toyota Chaser
Powertrain
Engine 1.8L 4S-FE petrol I4
2.0L 1G-FE petrol I6
2.5L 1JZ-GE petrol I6
2.5L 1JZ-GTE twin-turbo petrol I6
3.0L 2JZ-GE petrol I6
2.4 2L-TE turbo-diesel I4
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,730 mm (107.5 in)
Length 4,750 mm (187.0 in)
Width 1,750 mm (68.9 in)
Height 1,390 mm (54.7 in)
Curb weight 1,390 kg (3,064 lb)

First released in October 1992, the Mark II was revised during the period. It received a new front bumper (including grill), rear bumpers and tail lights and some weight mainly due to regulations. Under Japanese exterior dimension regulations, this series was no longer regarded as a "compact car". Buyers who wanted a sedan that remained under the guidelines was now served by the 1990 SV30 series Toyota Camry. Toyota added a new sedan, called the Toyota Scepter with the major difference being a front-wheel-drive powertrain. Styling of this generation showed a corporate similarity to the Toyota Windom, which was exclusive to Toyota Corolla Store locations.

The X90 series was available in six different trim levels. All trims came standard with fully automatic air conditioning and faux wood interior paneling. The base GL was available in either standard or automatic with a choice of a diesel or petrol 4-cylinder engine. The slightly more up-market Groire had the same engine and transmission options as the GL with more standard features over its inferior.

1994 Mark II Grande

The next four trim levels featured only petrol straight sixes for engines and either rear- or all-wheel drive. The Grande was available with either a 2.0L 1G-FE or 2.5L 1JZ-GE and either a four-speed automatic or 5-speed manual for 1G-equipped Mark II Grandes. The Grande was otherwise identical to the Groire in terms of options and equipment. The Grande G was available with either the aforementioned 1JZ or a 3.0L 2JZ-GE mated to an automatic transmission and came with ABS and traction control standard.

The Tourer S came with a 1JZ-GE engine, 4-speed automatic and several options either standard (such as ABS and control) or not present (a factory limited-slip differential) in either the Grande or Grande G.

Lastly, the Tourer V had a reinforced body, sport suspension, and a twin-turbo 280 horsepower (210 kW) 2.5-litre 1JZ-GTE inline 6 engine. It also came from the factory with, traction control, ABS, an optional torsen LSD and optional 5-speed manual transmission. The Mark II Tourer V was a popular choice among tuners, enthusiasts, and drifters.

The hardtop approach was used on various segments of core Toyota sedans by offering a more upscale hardtop version. These cars were offered for consumers who wanted the luxurious approach offered by the Toyota Crown hardtop and sedan, as well as the Mark II (4-door hardtop), Cresta (4-door sedan) and Chaser (4-door hardtop and performance enhancements), and the next segment down on the Corona and Carina, called the Toyota Corona EXiV and the Toyota Carina ED, with the Toyota Corolla Ceres and the Toyota Sprinter Marino at the lowest segment, which were all offered at reduced prices and tax liability based on the vehicles size. The various versions were sold at different Toyota dealerships dedicated to particular models.

Eighth generation (X100; 1996–2000)[edit]

Eighth generation (X100)
1996-1998 Toyota Mark II.jpg
Overview
Production 1996–2000
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door hardtop sedan
Layout Front engine, RWD/AWD
Related Toyota Cresta
Toyota Chaser
Powertrain
Engine 2.4L 2L-TE turbo-diesel I4
2.0L 1G-FE petrol I6
2.5L 1JZ-GE petrol I6
2.5L 1JZ-GTE turbocharged petrol I6
3.0L 2JZ-GE petrol I6
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,730 mm (107.5 in)
Length 4,760 mm (187.4 in)
Width 1,755 mm (69.1 in)
Height 1,400 mm (55.1 in)
Curb weight 1,480 kg (3,263 lb)

Like its predecessor, the X100 series Toyota Mark II was available in multiple trim levels. New for this production run was the introduction of all-wheel drive to Grande and Grande G as well as the use of Toyota's new VVTi system on its engines. Also new was the standardization of ABS and a new electronic traction control system. The Groire trim level was also dropped for this production run.

Toyota Mark II (X100)

The base GL came with only the 2.4L 2L-TE turbo-diesel I4 mated to a 4-speed automatic. It came with basic features like power windows and door locks and automatic air-conditioning, but sportier options were only available on higher-level trims. However, traction control and ABS were available as options.

The Grande trim levels had a plethora of options and features available not limited to but including tilt-steering, standard ABS, traction control and AWD. The base Grande was powered by either the 2.0L 1G-FE inline 6 mated to a 5-speed manual transmission or 4-speed automatic, the 2.4L 2L-TE mated to a 4-speed auto from the GL or the 2.5L 1JZ-GE turning a 4-speed automatic as well. New for 1996 was the Grande Four: a four-wheel-drive variant of the Grande, it was powered by the 1JZ-GE and mated to a 4-speed automatic transmission sending power to all wheels via a center differential. The Grande G versions were available with either a 1JZ- or 2JZ-GE and a 4-speed automatic. The "G package" included leather anointments for the steering wheel and seats as well as power front seats. A Grande G Four was also offered with the 1JZ engine, 4-speed auto transmission and all-wheel drive.

The Tourer trim level carried on from the X90 series in both Tourer S and Tourer V. The Tourer S was powered by a naturally aspirated 1JZ-GE and mated to a 4-speed automatic. The Tourer V received some noticeable tweaks from its X90 series counterpart: along with the implementation of ETCS and VVTi, the engine now received forced induction through one large turbocharger as opposed to two smaller ones in a parallel configuration. According to Toyota, this smoothed out the torque curve allowing the engine to deliver more torque at a lower RPM and with VVTi, improved the car's fuel economy.

Mark II Qualis[edit]

1997 Mark II Qualis (based on Camry wagon)

So as to continue to offer Mark II customers the option of purchasing a station wagon at Toyopet Store locations, Toyota introduced the Toyota Mark II Qualis which was identical to the Camry-based station wagon called the Camry Gracia. The Gracia was exclusive to Toyota Corolla Store locations next to the Camry.

Ninth generation (X110; 2000–2007)[edit]

Ninth generation (X11)
Toyota Mark2 2000.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Kanto Auto Works[9]
Production 2000 – 2004 (sedan)
January 2002 – June 2007 (wagon)
Assembly Japan: Iwate
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
4-door station wagon
Layout Front engine, RWD/AWD
Related Toyota Verossa
Powertrain
Engine 2.0 L 1G-FE petrol I6
2.5 L 1JZ-GE petrol I6
2.5 L 1JZ-FSE direct inject petrol I6
2.5 L 1JZ-GTE turbocharged petrol I6
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,780 mm (109.4 in)
Length 4,735 mm (186.4 in) (sedan)
4,775 mm (188.0 in) (wagon)
Width 1,760 mm (69.3 in) (sedan)
1,760 mm (69 in) (wagon)
Height 1,460 mm (57.5 in) (sedan)
1,485 mm (58.5 in) (wagon)
Curb weight 1,530 kg (3,373 lb) (sedan)
1,885 kg (4,156 lb) (wagon)

This last generation of Mark II hosted several new technologies for Toyota. The new 2.5L with the designation of 1JZ-FSE is the first application of Direct Injection for mass production on a Toyota passenger vehicle. This version of the JZ series engine features a redesign head to optimize fuel economy and performance. Along with the 1JZ-FSE, the 1G-FE, 1JZ-GE and 1JZ-GTE are available and all with VVT-i technology. This generation of Mark II also host a new feature call Navi AI-shift, which uses GPS signals and shifts the automatic transmission into the appropriate gear.

2000–2002 Toyota Mark II (X110)

The X110 series discontinued the hardtop version in favor of the standard version.

During this time, Toyota has discontinued the Chaser and Cresta nameplate and created the Verossa. Toyota has also eliminated the Tourer S and Tourer V and instead called their sportier version 2.5 Grande iR-S and 2.5 Grande iR-V, respectively. iR meaning Intelligent Rapidly. Other models include the 2.0 Grande, 2.5 Grande, 2.5 Grande G, 2.5 Grande G-tb, 2.5 Grande G Four, 2.0 Grande Four, and the 2.0 Grande Four "S package" all of which is their luxury lineup.

Minor changes was made in 2002. New headlight, grill and a redesign bumper freshen up the front end while a new taillight design and new chrome trim for the trunk handle finish up the rear end. The introduction of the 2.0L iR grade was added alongside the iR-S and iR-V. The G-tb model was discontinued in favor for the 2.0L iR model. Another model introduced by Toyota for the Mark II is their special edition, Regalia, which marks the 35th Anniversary of the Mark II nameplate.

Mark II Blit[edit]

Main article: Toyota Mark II Blit
2006 Toyota Mark II Blit

The Mark II Blit was the wagon version of the X100 Mark II. It served as a replacement of the Toyota Mark II Qualis, and shared a platform with the Mark II rear wheel drive sedan. The Blit was introduced in January 2002 after the Crown Estate and Caldina wagons ended production starting in June 2007 due to consolidation efforts. The Blit was a return to the Mark II platform with rear wheel drive with optional AWD and not a wagon version of the front wheel drive Camry. The Blit used straight-6 engines with an optional turbo that was discontinued in May 2006. The engines used were the 2.0 L 1G-FE, 2.5 L 1JZ-FSE, 2.5 L 1JZ-GE, and 2.5 L turbocharged 1JZ-GTE.

The Mark II Blit was exclusive to Toyota Japanese dealership Toyopet Store continuing to offer the Mark II in a station wagon.

US Sales[edit]

Calendar year US sales
1977 2,526[10]
1978 12,484
1979 11,910
1980 11,627
1981 29,583
1982 37,448
1983 39,755
1984 34,456
1985 45,286
1986 42,180
1987 21,968
1988 14,035
1989 23,785
1990 12,710
1991 9,415
1992 3,528
1993 322
1994 5
1995 2
Total 318,596

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Affiliates (Toyota wholly owned subsidiaries)-Toyota Motor East Japan, Inc.". Toyota Motor Corporation. 2012. Retrieved 2014-07-21. 
  2. ^ a b Stephenson, Wayne. "Cressida production data". Stepho's Toyota Site. Retrieved 2013-01-12. 
  3. ^ 愛される車づくり。トヨタはあすにいどみます。 [Lovable car manufacture. Toyota dares to defy tomorrow.] (catalog) (in Japanese), Toyota Motor Co., 1972, p. 1 
  4. ^ a b c d Toyota Vehicle Identification Manual. Japan: Toyota Motor Corporation – Overseas Parts Department. 1984. Catalog No.97913-84. 
  5. ^ 自動車ガイドブック [Japanese Motor Vehicles Guide Book] (in Japanese) (Japan: Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association) 25: 109. 1978-10-10. 0053-780025-3400.  Check date values in: |year= (help)
  6. ^ Automobile Guide Book 1978/1979, p. 109
  7. ^ May, Matthew E. (2006), The Elegant Solution: Toyota's Formula for Mastering Innovation, Free Press, NY. p. 43. ISBN 0-7432-9017-8.
  8. ^ Dawson, Chester (2004), Lexus: The Relentless Pursuit. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd., Singapore. p. 4. ISBN 0-470-82110-8. 
  9. ^ "History of KANTO AUTO WORKS". Kanto-aw.co.jp. Retrieved 2010-07-16. [dead link]
  10. ^ "ToyotaReference.com". 2010-10-08.