Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid
|Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid (ZVW35)|
2012 MY Toyota Prius Plugin Hybrid (US)
|Body and chassis|
|Class||plug-in hybrid mid-size car|
|Body style||5-door hatchback|
|Engine||1.8 L gasoline 4-cylinder port-injected inline-4 Atkinson cycle|
|Electric motor||60 kW (80 hp) electric motor|
|Transmission||1-speed planetary gear|
|Hybrid drivetrain||Power-split hybrid (Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive)|
|Battery||4.4 kWh lithium-ion battery|
|Range||870 kilometres (540 mi)|
|Electric range||18 km (11 mi) (EPA - blended mode)
23 km (14 mi) (NEDC/Toyota)
26.4 km (16.4 mi) (Japanese cycle)
|Wheelbase||2,700 mm (106.3 in)|
|Length||4,460 mm (175.6 in)|
|Width||1,745 mm (68.7 in)|
|Height||1,490 mm (58.7 in)|
|Curb weight||1,420 kg (3,130 lb)|
The Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid (or Prius PHV) is a mid-size plug-in hybrid electric vehicle manufactured by Toyota Motor Corporation. The Prius PHV is based on a third generation Toyota Prius (model ZVW30) outfitted with 4.4 kWh lithium-ion batteries co-developed with Panasonic, which enable all-electric operation at higher speeds and longer distances than the conventional Prius hybrid. The production version was unveiled at the September 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show.
The Prius plug-in total all-electric range in blended mode is 11 mi (18 km) as rated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), has an expected total range of 540 miles (870 km), and a maximum electric-only speed of 62 mph (100 km/h). According to Toyota the Prius plug-in is expected to be rated in Europe at 112 mpg-US (2.10 L/100 km; 135 mpg-imp) equivalent, with CO
2 emissions of 49 g/km. The EPA fuel economy rating is 95 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPG-e) (2.5 L/100 km; 114 mpg-imp) in all-electric mode and a combined city/highway rating of 50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp) in hybrid mode, the same as the conventional Prius liftback.
A global demonstration program involving 600 pre-production test cars began in late 2009 and took place in Japan, Europe, Canada, China, Australia, New Zealand and the United States. Deliveries of the production model began in Japan in January 2012, and in late February in the United States, where initially the car is available only in 14 states. Deliveries in Europe began in late June 2012.
As of September 2014[update], a total of 65,310 Prius PHVs have been sold worldwide, with the United States as the market leader with 36,680 units delivered, followed by Japan with 19,100 units sold, and Europe with 9,133 units. The Netherlands is the leading European market with 3,978 units registered as of September 2014[update], followed by the UK with 1,089 units registered as of March 2014[update]. The Prius Plug-in Hybrid ranked as the second most sold plug-in electric car during 2012, and, as of June 2014[update], it was the world's third best selling plug-in electric car ever, after the Nissan Leaf and the Volt/Ampera family.
- 1 History
- 2 Specifications
- 3 Next generation
- 4 Markets and sales
- 5 Recognition
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The Prius Plug-In Concept was exhibited at the September 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show, the October 2009 Tokyo Motor Show, and the December 2009 LA Auto Show. After displaying the concept version in these three shows, on December 2009 Toyota officially announced the introduction of the production model in Japan during the following six months.
Toyota's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle project began in 2007, with road trials of a prototype vehicle in France and the UK in 2008. Toyota made available a total of 600 Prius plug-in demonstration vehicles for lease to fleet and government customers, 230 were delivered in Japan beginning in late December 2009, 125 models released in the U.S. by early 2010, and 200 units in Europe in 2010. All program vehicles were sent to limited geographical areas and equipped with special data tracking devices designed to allow Toyota to monitor the car's usage for further development of the plug-in hybrid system.
Programs by country
The demonstration program in Australia included five Prius Plug-ins allocated to government agencies.
In March 2010 Toyota launched its demonstration program in Canada with five Prius Plug-ins in partnership with academic institutions, hydro-electric producers, and governmental agencies in each of the four provinces participating in the program:British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario and Québec. Canada is home to Toyota's global cold weather research center in Northern Ontario, and the country's cold weather will serve to evaluate its adverse effect on battery performance and range.
In July 2010 the first demonstration Prius PHV was delivered in Manitoba. The unit will be shared and tested by four partners:Manitoba Hydro, Manitoba Innovation, Energy and Mines, and the University of Manitoba. There are 15 trial partners in the four provinces that are part of the first phase of the Canadian demonstration trial.
On October 28, 2010, Toyota signed an agreement with China Automotive Technology and Research Center (CATARC) on jointly carrying out field trials of the Prius PHV in China.
Toyota leased 200 units in Europe to selected partners and customers in 18 European countries. A total of 150 demonstrator plug-in went to France, the United Kingdom and Germany. The largest fleet was deployed in Strasbourg, France, with 70 units.
The demonstration program in Strasbourg was launched in April 2010. The 3-year program involves 70 Prius Plug-ins and the deployment of dedicated charging infrastructure. The program will set up more than 150 charging points at private parking lots of firms participating in the program, user homes, public parking lots and on public roads. The program is run by Électricité de France (EDF) in partnership with Toyota and the City and the Urban Community of Strasbourg, and is financially supported through a research fund managed by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME).
The City and the Urban Community of Strasbourg will lease five Prius Plug-ins and also provide a subsidy to the local carsharing company to lease three Prius PHVs. The remaining vehicles will be leased to other public institutions and private companies.
The demonstration program in Germany was conducted in Baden-Württemberg with ten Prius Plug-ins and the corresponding dedicated charging infrastructure. The program was ran by German energy provider EnBW.
- United Kingdom
The demonstration trial in the U.K. began in late June 2010 with a fleet of 20 Prius Plug-in Hybrids. Toyota Motor Company partnered with Électricité de France to carried out a three-year trial, and as part of the program a number of charging bays will be deployed in London. The trial Prius Plug-in Hybrids will be available through leasing to public sector organizations and business users. Among the organizations that received the first Prius Plug-ins are Transport for London, the Government Car and Despatch Agency, the Metropolitan Police Service, News International and Sky.
In Japan, TMC leased approximately 230 units to government ministries, local governments selected for the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry's EV & PHV Towns program, corporations such, as electric power companies, and other entities. As part of the demonstration program and beginning in July 2010, two Prius PHV were made available for short-term rental in the city of Gotō, Nagasaki. The rental fees are ¥8,400 (US$96) for up to six hours,¥9,450 (US$108) for up to 12 hours, ¥11,550 (US$131) for up to 24 hours, and ¥9,450 (US$108) for each additional day.
- United States
A total of 125 demonstrator plug-ins were deployed in the US since 2010. In October 2009, Toyota announced its first regional program partnership in the U.S. with Xcel Energy’s SmartGridCity program in Boulder, Colorado. The research project was coordinated by the University of Colorado at Boulder Renewable and Sustainable Energy Institute (RASEI). Boulder offered the opportunity of monitoring the performance of Toyota’s first generation lithium-ion battery at high altitude and under cold climate. Other partnerships were made with Qualcomm, Silicon Valley Leadership Group, Southern California Air Quality Management District, the University of California at Berkeley and Portland State University. Other regional programs considered wereNorthern and Southern California, Washington, D.C., New York City, Portland and Pittsburgh, which offered different conditions for vehicle performance and customer needs.
In June 2010 the first demonstration Prius PHVs were delivered to Portland State University and the Silicon Valley Leadership Group. An additional 30 demonstration program vehicles were assigned to Silicon Valley groups and companies, including the University of California, Berkeley in the following weeks. Also in June 2010 the first three Prius PHVs were delivered in Southern California to San Diego Gas & Electric and the nonprofit California Center for Sustainable Energy. In August 2010 two Prius plug-in hybrids were delivered to be tested in San Francisco's municipal fleet as part of the demonstration program. Georgetown University was the first partner in Washington, D.C to participate in the program under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program. Two Prius Plug-ins were loaned in December 2010 and sixteen Georgetown employees are testing the vehicles in three-month rotations. Five Prius PHVs were delivered in New York City, two units to be tested by New York City Department of Transportation and three by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
As part of the demonstration program, Toyota delivered eight Prius plug-in hybrids to Zipcar in January 2011. The car sharing firm selected three markets to make the plug-in hybrids available to its members, three cars in Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts, three in San Francisco, California, and two in Portland, Oregon. Similar to all hybrids in Zipcar’s fleet, the Prius plug-in can only be reserved by the hour at an hourly rate of US$7.
Field test results
Toyota reported the following findings for the European demonstration fleet after nearly a year into the project, representing the driving experience acquired by the participants after 497,100 miles driven:
- Two thirds of commute trips traveled a distance of less than 12.5 mi (20.1 km), the expected all-electric rangein EV mode.
- More than a third of the participants made long distance trips of more than 62 mi (100 km) at least once a week.
- Fuel consumption data shows that the Prius PHV consumed 36% less fuel than the comparable, best-in-class diesel vehicle, and almost 50% less than the best-in-class petrol vehicle.
- The maximum average fuel consumption figure observed was more than 141 mpg-imp (2.00 L/100 km; 117 mpg-US).
- United Kingdom
Based on the results from less than one year of real-world use for the 20 Prius Plug-in demonstrators leased to EDF Energy, Toyota reported the following findings:
- Driving in electric-only (EV) mode has accounted for one third of the distance driven in the demonstration.
- The average trip distance has been 7.3 miles (11.7 km), with 59% of all journeys covering between 3.1 to 12.4 mi (5.0 to 20.0 km).
- Twenty-two percent of drivers have even been able to drive further than the official 12.5 miles (20.1 km) range in EV mode.
- Fuel consumption data indicates performance is 27% better than an equivalent diesel-powered vehicle.
- United States
Consumer Reports field tested the Prius PHV for two weeks and reported an all-electric range between 14 to 17 miles (23 to 27 km) spent upfront at the beginning of each trip. On a 78-mile (126 km) commute trip the Prius Plug-in averaged 63.5 miles per US gallon (3.70 L/100 km; 76.3 mpg-imp) while on commute trips between 20 to 30 miles (32 to 48 km) the PHV averaged 81 miles per US gallon (2.9 L/100 km; 97 mpg-imp) to 86 miles per US gallon (2.7 L/100 km; 103 mpg-imp) with an EV ratio varying from 40 to 56 percent during those trips.
The California Center for Sustainable Energy tested two Prius Plug-in with 13 different drivers during seven weeks and reported an average combined fuel economy of 83 miles per US gallon (2.8 L/100 km; 100 mpg-imp) on an average round trip commute of 22 miles (35 km). The best average attained was 97.9 miles per US gallon (2.40 L/100 km; 117.6 mpg-imp) on an average round trip commute of 48 miles (77 km).
Motor Trend field tested the Prius PHV for 32 days and reported average CO
2 emissions of 80 g/km (0.28 lb/mile), an average all-electric range of 11.7 miles (18.8 km), and an average combined fuel economy of 70.4 miles per US gallon (3.34 L/100 km; 84.5 mpg-imp) over the 1,880 miles (3,030 km) accumulated during their trial.
Based on the testing with 160 consumers across the United States, Toyota reported that users are charging the Prius Plug-in more frequently than the carmaker anticipated, with about 10 charges per week, but the electricity cost was lower than they thought, at about US$150 for the entire six-week trial.
The pre-production test cars are based on a third generation Toyota Prius (model ZVW30) outfitted with 5.2 kWh lithium-ion batteries. The selected battery capacity is the minimum required for the Prius Plug-in to be eligible for the U.S. federal tax credit of US$2,500, which is applicable to the first 200,000 plug-ins sold by Toyota according to the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009.
The Prius Plug-in uses three different batteries, two to provide all-electric drive and a third battery engages when the first two are depleted, allowing the car to operate in hybrid mode, like a regular 50-mpg Prius. According to Toyota, when the vehicle starts, the plug-in operates in all-electric mode, drawing electrical power directly from the first battery pack. When its charge is depleted, it disconnects from the circuit and the second pack engages and supplies electrical energy to the motor. When the second pack is depleted again it disconnects from the circuit and the system defaults to conventional hybrid mode, using the main battery as the sole electrical power source. Pack one and pack two will not reengage in tandem with the main battery pack until the vehicle is plugged in and charged.
According to Toyota the Prius plug-in demonstrator is rated at 134 mpg-US (1.76 L/100 km; 161 mpg-imp) on the Japanese JC08 cycle with a combined efficiency based on 43.6% of driving in EV mode, and CO
2 emissions of 41 g/km. Fuel efficiency operating as a gasoline-electric hybrid, like the regular Prius, is 72 mpg-US (3.3 L/100 km; 86 mpg-imp) with CO
2 emissions of 76 g/km.
The production Prius Plug-in has a number of key changes from the demonstration units that were deployed in the field for testing based on that experience and customer feedback. The production version has two key modifications from the demonstration vehicle to improve efficiency. First, Toyota decided to include a selectable electric driving mode (EV mode), allowing drivers to conserve energy for use in those places where EV mode is more efficient, such as city driving. The production Prius PHV also has the ability to direct the regenerative braking energy to the electric-vehicle battery, rather than the regular hybrid system battery, thus providing additional range in EV mode.
The Prius Plug-in Hybrid uses the Hybrid Synergy Drive of the standard Prius model, with enhanced capabilities that incorporates a 4.4 kWh lithium-ion battery that significantly expands the all-electric range as compared to the regular Prius, and fully rechargeable from a domestic source. The hybrid system includes a 1.8-liter DOHC 16-valve VVT-i gasoline engine that develops 98 horsepower (73 kW) @ 5200 rpm, and 105 lb-ft (142 N·m) @ 4000 rpm, a third-generation hybrid transaxle, a power control unit (PCU), and an on-board charging system. The system uses two high-output electric motors, one 60 kW (80 hp) unit (MG2) that mainly works to power the compact, lightweight transaxle, and another smaller motor (MG1) rated at 42 kW (56 hp) that works as the electric power source for battery regeneration and as a starter for the gasoline engine. Maximum motor-drive voltage is 650 volts DC. After the electric driving range is exhausted, the plug-in switches into hybrid operation at a pre-determined state of battery charge (SOC) and operates as a conventional full hybrid with a similar efficiency of a standard Prius. Net hybrid system output is 134 bhp, allowing the Prius Plug-in to accelerate from 0 to 62 mph (0 to 100 km/h) in 10.7 seconds and reach a top speed of 112 mph (180 km/h). The maximum speed in EV mode is 62 mph (100 km/h). With a weight of approximately 1,420 kg (3,130 lb), the plug-in version is only 50 kg (110 lb) heavier than the regular Prius.
The Prius Plug-in has three drive modes, all-electric (EV), and two hybrid modes: Eco and Power. The EV mode is user-selectable and when running in this mode the hybrid engine control unit (ECU) operates the vehicle using only the larger motor-generator (MG2) if pre-determined parameters are satisfied, such as sufficient battery state of charge (SOC) and vehicle speed within EV mode range. The Eco mode is designed to maximize fuel savings for any driving conditions, and modifies or smoothes out the electronic throttle control program to reduce throttle response, reducing the throttle opening to a maximum of 11.6%, and also modifies the operation of the air conditioning system. As an additional benefit, the Eco mode improves performance in low-traction conditions because the reduced output helps to minimize wheel skidding such as those caused by ice and snow. Power mode increases throttle response in the middle range more than normal.
Battery and range
The production version was unveiled at the September 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show with a lithium-ion battery pack that stores 4.4 kWh. Toyota estimates that the all-electric range varies between 10 to 15 miles (16 to 24 km) on a full charge depending on quick acceleration and braking, road and vehicle conditions, or climate control use. The lithium-ion battery pack can be charged in 180 minutes at 120 volts or in 90 minutes at 240 volts.
Under the JC08 Japanese test cycle the Prius PHV range is 26.4 km (16.4 mi), 3 km (1.9 mi) more than the 23.4 km (14.5 mi) achieved by the demonstrator. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued two EV range ratings to the Prius Plug-in. A driving range for blended operation electric-gasoline of 11 mi (18 km) until the battery is depleted. The second rating is for all-electric operation with a range of 6 mi (10 km). EPA estimated a total range of 540 miles (870 km) until both sources of power are depleted. The regular gasoline-only Prius has a total range of 536 miles (863 km).
The 4.4kWh lithium-ion battery developed for the Prius Plug-in fits under the rear cargo floor and weighs 80 kg (180 lb). As a comparison, the nickel-metal hydride battery of the third generation Prius, which has a capacity of only 1.3kWh, weighs 42 kg (93 lb). A full charge using an external AC outlet takes approximately 2.5 to 3.0 hours from a standard North American 120V 15A household outlet, or 1.5 hours using a standard European 230V household outlet. The battery requires approximately 3.2 kWh of electricity plus 0.3 US gal (1.1 l; 0.25 imp gal) of gasoline to provide 40 km (25 mi) of range. A fully charged battery state of charge reads 85% and the all-electric mode disengages at 23%, and the usable energy after charging loss is 2.73 kWh. The included charging cable connects to the charging port inlet located on the right-rear fender. The charge port location was moved from the front driver-side fender in the demonstration model based on input from the program participants. The battery charger cable weighs just 3.75 lb (1.70 kg), is 24 feet (7.3 m) in length, and fits in its own compartment in the trunk area. The charge port provides LED (Light Emitting Diode) illumination for convenient night-time charging. A timer allows charging to take place during off-peak hours and can be set for either a start or end time.
According to Toyota the Prius plug-in was expected to be rated at 112 mpg-US (2.10 L/100 km; 135 mpg-imp) and CO
2 emissions of 49 g/km under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). EPA's official fuel economy rating is 95 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPG-e) (2.5 L/100 km; 114 mpg-imp) in all-electric mode and a combined city/highway rating of 50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp) in hybrid mode, the same as the third generation Prius liftback.
The EPA's overall combined city/highway EV mode/hybrid fuel economy rating is 58 mpg-US (4.1 L/100 km; 70 mpg-imp) equivalent (MPG-e), with 59 mpg-US (4.0 L/100 km; 71 mpg-imp) equivalent in the city and 56 mpg-US (4.2 L/100 km; 67 mpg-imp) equivalent on the highway. The Prius PHEV overall EV mode/hybrid fuel economy is higher than the Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid (57 MPG-e) and both Ford Energi models (51 MPG-e), but lower than the BMW i3 REx (88 MPG-e), Chevrolet Volt (62 MPG-e) and the Cadillac ELR (65 MPG-e).
Based on the JC08 Japanese test cycle, the Prius PHV fuel efficiency is 61.0 km/L (143 mpg-US, 1.64 L/100 km), calculated from combined all-electric (EV) and hybrid (HV) driving modes, with only 38 g/km of CO
2 emissions. The electric power consumption rate is 8.74 km/kWh. After the battery has been depleted, the HV mode fuel efficiency is 31.6 km/L (74.3 mpg-US, 3.16 L/100 km).
The EPA's 2014 edition of the "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends" introduced utility factors for plug-in hybrids to represent the percentage of miles that will be driven using electricity by an average driver, in electric only or blended modes. The Prius PHV has a factor of 29%, compared with 83% for the BMW i3 REx, 66% for the Chevrolet Volt, 45% for the Ford Energi models, and 33% for the Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid.
The EPA rating for the model year 2012 through 2015 Prius PHEV tailpipe emissions is 133 grams of CO
2 per mile, (83 CO
2 g/km). The EPA also accounted for the upstream CO
2 emissions associated with the production and distribution of electricity required to charge the vehicle. Since electricity production in the United States varies significantly from region to region, the EPA considered three scenarios/ranges with the low end of the range corresponding to the California powerplant emissions factor, the middle of the range represented by the national average powerplant emissions factor, and the upper end of the range corresponding to the powerplant emissions factor for the Rockies. The following table shows the Prius PHEV tailpipe emission plus total upstream CO
2 emissions for the three scenarios, compared with other six popular plug-in hybrids and the average gasoline-powered car:
|Comparison of tailpipe and upstream CO
2 emissions(1) estimated by EPA
for popular MY 2014 plug-in hybrids available in the U.S. market as compared with the Prius Plug-in Hybrid
|Tailpipe + Total Upstream CO2|
|Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid||58||0.29||133||195||221||249|
|BMW i3 REx(3)||88||0.83||40||134||207||288|
|Ford Fusion Energi/Ford C-Max Energi||51||0.45||129||219||269||326|
|Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid||57||0.33||130||196||225||257|
|Average MY 2014 gasoline car||24.2||0||367||400||400||400|
|Notes: (1) Based on 45% highway and 55% city driving. (2) The utility factor represents, on average, the percentage of miles that will be driven
using electricity (in electric only and blended modes) by an average driver. (3) The EPA classifies the i3 REx as a series plug-in hybrid
In the United States the Prius Plug-in includes Toyota's Vehicle Proximity Notification System (VPNS), which is designed to alert pedestrians, the blind, and others of the vehicle's presence due to significant noise reduction typical of a hybrid vehicle traveling at low speeds in EV mode. This type of warning device is mandated by the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act of 2010. The warning sound is generated by externally mounted speakers and it activates automatically only at speeds below about 15 mph (24 km/h). The pitch varies with the vehicle's speed to give pedestrians a sense of whether the approaching Prius is accelerating or decelerating.
- Fire incident
In separate incidents during the storm and flooding caused by Hurricane Sandy on the night of October 29, 2012, one Toyota Prius PHV and 16 Fisker Karmas caught fire while being parked at Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal. The vehicles were partially submerged by flash floods caused by the hurricane. In the case of the Toyota's incident, a Prius PHV burned and two other Prii, a conventional hybrid and a plug-in, just smoldered. A Toyota spokeswoman said the fire “likely started because saltwater got into the electrical system.” She also clarified that the incident affected only three cars out of the 4,000 Toyotas that were at the terminal during the storm, including more than 2,128 plug-in or hybrid models.
The Prius Plug-in Hybrid shares many of the same exterior and interior design elements as the standard 2012 Prius, keeping the coefficient of drag at Cd=0.25. Among the design features exclusive to the plug-in are: unique chrome grille and bumper trim, chrome door handles, unique 15-inch alloy wheels, blue-accented headlamps, a distinct tail lamp design, and a new Hybrid Synergy Drive Plug-in badge.
In the United States the Prius Plug-in Hybrid is available in two models, the standard Prius Plug-in and the Prius Plug-in Advanced, and offered in five exterior colors. The standard trim level includes all the features of the 2012 Prius Two Liftback grade, plus some features from the Prius Three and Prius Four grades. Standard features include heated front seats, remote air conditioning system (which can run either off the grid while the vehicle is plugged in or off the battery like the third-generation Prius), a charger timer, EV/ECO/POWER modes, three-door smart key with push-button start, new touch-screen display audio with navigation and an integrated backup camera, Toyota Entune, and LED daytime running lights. Additional features of the Prius Plug-in Advanced include head-up display, LED headlamps, softex interior seat trim, eight-way adjustable power driver seat, JBL premium audio and HDD navigation system and exclusive Entune Plug-in Hybrid Applications for smartphones. Additional safety features in the Advanced model include the Pre-Collision System with Dynamic Radar Cruise Control and Safety Connect system.
In August 2013, Toyota Managing Officer Satoshi Ogiso, who was chief engineer for the Prius line, announced some of the improvements and key features of the next generation Prius, expected to be introduced as early as 2015. The next-generation Prius plug-in hybrid vehicle is being developed in parallel with the standard Prius model.
The next-generation Prius is being designed to deliver significantly improved fuel economy in a more compact package that is lighter in weight and lower in cost. These objectives are being achieved through the development of a new generation of powertrains with significant advances in battery, electric motor and gasoline engine technologies. The next Prius will feature improved batteries with higher energy density; smaller electric motors, with higher power density than the current Prius motors; and the gasoline engine will feature a thermal efficiency greater than 40% (in the current Prius is 38.5%). The Prius fuel economy has improved on average by about 10% each generation, and Toyota has set the challenge to continue to improve at this rate.
Toyota is developing a wireless inductive charging system that uses resonance between an on-floor coil and an onboard coil to transmit power to the battery. The company plans to begin testing and verification work of the wireless battery charging system in Japan, the U.S. and Europe in 2014 for a future plug-in Prius. Toyota is also considering requests from Prius PHV owners for additional all-electric range.
Markets and sales
|Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid sales
by top national markets between 2012 and September 2014
|Notes: (1) CYTD: current year-to-date sales through September 2014.
(2) Sales in the UK trough March 2014. (3) Sales in Finland trough June 2014.
Toyota's initial global sales goal was to sell more than 60,000 Prius PHV a year, with Japan as the main market and aiming for 40,000 units, two-thirds of the carmaker's global sales goal. During its first year in the market, a total of 27,181 Prius PHVs were sold worldwide, ranking as the second most sold plug-in electric car during 2012. As of December 2013[update], the Prius Plug-in Hybrid was the world's third best selling plug-in electric car, after the Nissan Leaf and the Volt/Ampera family.
Sales in 2012 were led by the United States with 12,750 units delivered through December 2012, followed by Japan with 10,970 units, and Europe with 3,496 units sold through December 2012. In 2012, the Prius PHV was the best selling plug-in electric car in Sweden (499 units) and the top selling plug-in hybrid in the UK (470 units), France (413 units), and Norway (171 units). The top selling European market was the Netherlands, with 1,184 units sold during 2012.
About 48,600 Prius PHVs had been sold worldwide through December 2013, and 65,310 units as of September 2014[update]. The market leader is the United States with 36,680 units delivered, followed by Japan with 19,100 units, and Europe with 9,133 units. The leading European markets are the Netherlands with 3,978 units registered as of September 2014[update], followed by the UK with 1,089 units registered as of March 2014[update], Sweden with 1,053 units as of September 2014[update], and France with 844 as of September 2014[update].
The Toyota Prius Plug-in was released in the Canadian market in September 2012 at a starting price of CA$35,700. During its first month in the market sold 21 units. The Prius Plug-in is eligible in several provinces for purchase rebates. According to its battery size, the Prius PHV will be eligible in British Columbia for a CA$2,500 rebate starting on December 1, 2011. In Quebec the plug-in will be eligible for a CA$5,000 rebate beginning on January 1, 2012, and it is also eligible for a CA$5,000 rebate in Ontario. A total of 63 units were sold during 2012, and 212 in 2013. Cumulative sales totaled 338 units through September 2014.
Deliveries of the Prius Plug-in Hybrid began in France in September 2012. Pricing starts at €37,000 (~ US$48,275) including VAT and before any applicable government incentives. Excluding the environmental bonus, the plug in version is €9,000 (~ US$11,740) more expensive than the conventional hybrid model. The Prius PHV was the top selling plug-in hybrid in France for 2012 with 413 units registered, more than doubling Ampera sales (190). Cumulative sales totaled 806 units through December 2013, and 844 units as of 30 September 2014[update].
Toyota began taking orders on late November 2011 and the Prius PHV was released on 30 January 2012. The price of the plug-in, including consumption tax, starts at ¥3,200,000 (US$32,930) for the entry-level S trim and goes up to ¥4,200,000 (US$43,223) for the G trim with leather option. Toyota's sales target for the Japanese market was set between 35,000 to 40,000 units per year. A total of 15,400 units have been sold between 2012 and December 2013. Cumulative sales reached 19,100 units as of September 2014[update].
In October 2013 Toyota announced upgrades and reduced pricing for the 2014 Prius PHV in the Japanese market. The model will be offered in a new two-tone paint scheme, newly designed aluminium alloy wheels, LED illumination for the "PHV" and "Hybrid Synergy Drive" badges. Interior changes include a padded compartment box in the center of the dashboard for keeping the smartphone, and some dark wood grain inserts in the center console and the armrests. In addition, Toyota explained that the 2014 Prius Plug-In Hybrid will be manufactured using an improved spot-welding process that results in increased structural rigidity, which will reduce noise and vibration, and improve ride quality and steering feel. The Japanese-market 2014 Prius PHV will be offered in four trim levels: L, S, G and G Leather Package. The base price was reduced to ¥2,850,000 (US$29,330), and the advanced model will start at ¥3,990,000 (US$41,060).
Deliveries began in August 2012. The Prius PHV pricing starts at €38,990 (~ US$52,100) and lease prices start at €599 (~ US$668) per month. The price includes installation of a charging station at home, and owners also benefit from several tax exemptions and enjoy free parking due to car's low emissions.
A total of 1,184 units were sold during 2012, making the Prius PHV the second best selling plug-in electric vehicle in the country after the Opel Ampera (2,693 units), and also making the Netherlands the top selling European market for the Prius PHV during 2012. Sales totaled 2,707 units during 2013, ranking third in the Dutch plug-in electric car segment after the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (8,038) and the Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid (6,238). Prius PHV registrations totaled 3,978 units as of 30 September 2014[update].
The Prius PHEV was the top selling plug-in electric car in the country during 2012, with 499 units sold. An additional 376 units were sold in 2013, ranking as the second most sold PEV that year, for cumulative sales through December 2013 of 875 units. A total of 1,053 Prius PHEVs were registered as of 30 September 2014[update], ranking as the third top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the country after the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (1,835) and the Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid (1,102).
The Prius Plug-in will cost GB£32,895 (~ US$52,161) before taking into account the government's GB£5,000 Plug-in Car Grant. After the subsidy is applied, the Prius Plug-in ends up on par with the Nissan Leaf electric car. Deliveries to fleet customers began in August 2012. As of 31 December 2012[update], a total of 470 units were sold since its introduction to the market in July 2012, allowing the Prius PHV to surpass the Vauxhall Ampera and ranking as the top selling plug-in hybrid in the country. In 2013 the Prius PHV ranked as the top selling plug-in hybrid with 509 units sold, up 8.5% from 2012. Cumulative sales through December 2013 reached 979 units. With 1,089 units registered as of March 2014[update], the Prius plug-in ranked second after the Nissan Leaf, the British market leader.
The production Prius Plug-in Hybrid was introduced in the U.S. on September 16, 2011, at the Green Drive Expo in Richmond, California. For the 2012 and 2013 model year the sales price in the U.S. started at US$32,000 for the base model and US$39,525 for the advanced trim before any applicable government incentives. All trims are subject to a US$760 delivery fee. Due to its battery size, the Prius Plug-in qualifies for a federal tax credit of US$2,500, and it is eligible for additional incentives at the state and local level, such as California's US$1,500 rebate. The Prius Plug-in also qualifies for California's Enhanced Advanced Technology-Partial Zero-Emissions Vehicle (EAT-PZEV) status, which will allow plug-in owners to have free access to use carpool lanes even when traveling solo.
On April 22, 2011 Toyota introduced its priority registration website for customers interested in ordering the Prius Plug-in Hybrid, even though the purchase price had not been announced at that time. Registration guaranteed first access to Toyota’s Online Order System, which began sales in October 2011, but limited to the 14 launch states. Toyota reported that during its first month since the process began, more than 17,000 potential buyers signed up through its reservation website, by mid July 2011, 29,000 potential buyers had registered, and deposits were taken by dealers beginning in November 2011. The plug-in hybrid is available in two trims and five colors.
Production began in January 2012, and retail deliveries began in late February 2012. Initial availability is limited, and, as of October 2013[update], the Prius PHV is offered only in 15 states: Arizona, California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia and Washington. According to Toyota these are the states where nearly 60% of all Prius models are currently sold in the country. The Prius Plug-in will be available in all remaining states in 2013. Toyota announced it expects to sell in the U.S. market around 15,000 units a year initially. Toyota delivered 7 plug-ins in February, sold 891 units March 2012, its first full month on the market, and in April 2012 the Prius PHV was the top selling plug-in electric car for that month. The Prius PHV is the second top selling plug-in hybrid car in the U.S. after the Chevrolet Volt, with cumulative sales of 37,159 units through October 2014.
In October 2013 Toyota announced a price reduction for the 2014 model year Prius Plug-in, cutting US$2,000 off the base price, and US$4,620 for the advanced version, in order to boost flagging sales. There will be no changes in the vehicle content as compared to the 2013 model, and the price reduction will take effect in November 2013, when deliveries of the new model is scheduled to begin.
The Toyota Prius Plug-in was a finalist for the 2010 Green Car Vision Award. The Prius Plug-in won the 2012 Urban Green Vehicle of the Year Award. Shared with the Toyota Prius v, the Prius plug-in was awarded Green Car Report's Best Car to Buy 2012.
- Government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles
- List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles
- Plug-in electric vehicle
- John Stewart (2010-04-21). "2010 Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid First Drive". Edmunds.com. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- Sebastian Blanco (2011-09-16). "Toyota Plug-in Prius priced at $32,000* and Prius V from $26,400*". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- Toyota News Release (2012-02-28). "Prius Plug-In eligibile for a $1,500 California consumer incentive plus $2,500 Federal tax credit". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-02-29.
- Sebastian Blanco (2011-09-14). "2012 Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid now offers 111 MPGe". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2011-09-16. See details in Toyota Press Release
- Toyota Motor Company (2011-10-29). "Toyota starts taking orders for soon-to-be-launched Prius PHV plug-in hybrid in Japan; targeting 35,000-40,000 units per year". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
- "2010 Prius Plug-in Hybrid Makes North American Debut at Los Angeles Auto Show; First Li-ion Battery Traction Battery Developed by Toyota and PEVE". Green Car Congress. 2009-12-02. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
- Colum Wood (2011-09-14). "Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid Gets 112-MPG Rating: 2011 Frankfurt Auto Show". AutoGuide.com. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- "Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid Demo Program". Toyota. Retrieved 2010-04-09.
- "TMC Introduces 'Prius Plug-in Hybrid' into Key Markets". Toyota News release. 2009-12-14. Retrieved 2010-04-09.
- "Toyota to Start Trials of Plug-in Prius in China". Green Car Congress. 2010-04-25. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- Stephen Munday (2011-09-30). "Prius Plug-In Hybrid On Sale January in Japan – Charging Stations at 5,500 Dealerships and Car Rental Locations". Integrity Exports. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- John Voelcker (2012-04-03). "Plug-In Car Sales Soar In March, Led By Chevrolet Volt". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
- "Toyota introduces 2012 Prius Plug-in Hybrid". Green Car Congress. 2011-09-17. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
- Toyota Motor Europe (2012-07-13). "Solid 13% Q2 sales increase for Toyota and Lexus vehicles in Europe". Toyota Media Press Release. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
- Eric Loveday (2013-04-08). "World’s Most Comprehensive 2012 Global Plug-In Vehicle Sales List". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2013-06-29.
- Jose Pontes (2013-12-28). "World Top 10 November 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2013-12-29.
- Jose Pontes (2013-06-15). "World All Time Top 10 (Updated to 30 April 2013)". EV Sales. Retrieved 2013-06-29.
- Jose Pontes (2014-07-30). "World Top 20 June 2014 (Special Edition)". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
- "2010 Prius Plug-in Hybrid Debuts at Frankfurt Motor Show". Totyota. 2009-09-09. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
- "TMC to Display 3 Concepts, F1 Car at Tokyo Motor Show". 2009-10-06. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
- "Report: Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid Officially Launched With Retail Sales Starting in Late 2011". AutoGuide.com. 2009-12-14. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
- Hiroko Tabuchi (2009-12-14). "Toyota to Sell Plug-In Hybrid in 2011". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
- "Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid Unveiled". Automoblog.net.
- Sebastian Blanco (2010-01-11). "Detroit 2010: Toyota FT-CH a younger, cheaper brother for the Prius". Autoblog. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
- "Toyota Australia Announces Prius Plug-in Hybrid Test Fleet". The Motor Report. 2010-09-28. Retrieved 2010-10-13.
- Scott Deveau (2010-03-25). "Toyota tests Prius plug-in hybrid in Canada". Financial Post. Retrieved 2010-04-09.
- "Canada Joins Global Test of Plug-in Priuses". HybridCars.com. 2010-03-25. Retrieved 2010-04-09.
- "Toyota delivers plug-in Prius to Manitoba". Canadian Driver. 2010-07-14. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
- "Toyota Partners with CATARC on Prius PHEV Trials in China". ChinaAutoWeb.com.
- "Toyota, EDF and Strasbourg Launch Large-Scale, 3-Year Plug-in Hybrid Demonstration Project". Green Car Congress. 2010-04-28. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
- "Toyota, EDF trial plug-in Prius in Britain". Reuters. 2010-01-11. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- English, Andrew (2010-01-05). "Toyota Plug-In Prius review". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 2010-04-10.
- "UK: Toyota begins Prius PHV fleet trials". Just Auto. 2010-06-21. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- "Plug-in Prius trial gets under way". Next Green Car. 2010-06-23. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- "Toyota Introduces 'Prius Plug-in Hybrid' into Key Markets". The Wall Street Journal. 2009-12-14. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
- "Toyota Begins Short-Term Renting of Plug-in Prius in Nagasaki Prefecture". Green Car Congress. 2010-07-04. Retrieved 2010-07-09.
- "Prius Plug In Demo Program". Toyota Motor Corporation. 2010-02-03. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
- Brad Berman (2010-06-11). "Prius Plug-in Hybrid Arrives at Ultra-Green Portland State University". PlugInCars.com. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
- Silicon Valley Leadership Group (2010-06-15). "Silicon Valley Leadership Group Receives First Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrids for U.S. Demonstration Program". Sun Herald. Retrieved 2010-06-17.[dead link]
- Bruce V. Bigelow (2010-06-29). "Toyota Delivers Three Prius Plug-In Hybrids for Year-Long Demo". Xconomy San Diego. Retrieved 2010-07-12.
- "Toyota, San Francisco Partner of Plug-in Prius Trial". EV World. 2010-08-29. Retrieved 2010-10-13.
- "Georgetown to Help Toyota Test Prius Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles". Yahoo Finance. 2010-09-28. Retrieved 2010-10-13.
- "Georgetown Demonstration Site". Georgetown Electric Vehicle Research Initiative, Georgetown University. Retrieved 2011-01-27.
- Jonathan Welsh (2010-12-02). "Toyota Delivers Prius Plug-In Hybrids To New York City Officials". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2010-12-14.
- Jonathan Schultz (2011-01-27). "Zipcar Adds Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrids to Fleet". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-01-27.
- Toyota Press Release (2011-07-26). "Toyota says Prius Plug-in is "27 percent better than an equivalent diesel"". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2011-07-26.
- Gabe Shenhar (2010-10-12). "Behind the wheel: Toyota Prius Plug-in - A viable green technology that doesn't save money for now". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 2010-10-12.
- "CCSE Finishes Initial Two-Month Trial with Toyota PriusPlug-in Hybrid Vehicles". California Center for Sustainable Energy. September 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-12.
- Kim Reynolds (2010-09-02). "First Test: 2010 Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Prototype". Motor Trend. Retrieved 2010-10-13.
- John Gartner (2011-07-13). "Growing EV Industry Still Divided Over DC Charging". PluginCars.com. Retrieved 2011-07-15.
- Abuelsamid, Sam (2009-12-14). "Toyota officially launches plug-in Prius program, retail sales in 2011". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2009-12-22.
- John Voelcker (2009-12-14). "Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid On Sale in 2011, Less Than $10K More". GreenCarReports.com. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
- "Despite Caveats, Prius Plug-in Hybrid Could Be Surprise Hit". hybridCars.com. 2010-04-15. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
- Sebastian Blanco (2010-04-13). "Toyota announces first details of U.S. plug-in Prius test program". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
- "2012 Toyota Prius PHEV to feature selectable EV mode, full regen". AutoblogGreen. 2011-06-16. Retrieved 2011-06-17.
- Eric Evarts (2011-06-20). "Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid will have new efficiency tricks". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 2011-07-20.
- "Toyota Introduces 2012 Prius Plug-in Hybrid" (Press release). Toyota. 2011-09-16. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
- Toyota. "Prius plug-in specs". Toyota.com. Retrieved 2011-09-16. Click on the MPG tab to display fuel economy and range.
- Toyota. "The First Ever prius plug-in hybrid: Technology". Toyota. Retrieved 2011-08-08.
- John Voelcker (2012-03-13). "2012 Toyota Prius Plug-In: Parsing The EPA Efficiency Sticker". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-03-18.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. "Compare Side-by-Side". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2014-01-15.
- "Fueleconomy.gov's Top Ten EPA-Rated Fuel Sippers (2012)". U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2012-10-16. Retrieved 2012-10-17.
- U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (October 2014). "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2014". EPA. Retrieved 2014-10-14. See Table 7.2 - MY 2014 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Powertrain and Range; pp. 98; Table 7.3 for overall fuel economy (mpg-e), pp. 100; Table 7.4 for tailpipe CO2 emissions, pp. 102; and Table 7.5 for upstream CO2 Emission, pp. 105.
- U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2014-10-13). "Compare Side-by-Side - 2015/2014/2013/2012 Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid - Energy and Environment". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2014-10-14.
- Antuan Goodwin (2011-09-22). "Prius' artificial engine noise demonstrated, explained". CNET Cartech. Retrieved 2011-09-25.
- Antuan Goodwin (2011-09-22). "Prius' artificial engine noise demonstrated, explained". CNET Cartech. Retrieved 2011-09-25.
- Josie Garthwaite (2012-11-02). "Mystery at Port Newark: Why Did 17 Plug-In Cars Burn?". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-11-03.
- Viknesh Vijayenthiran (2012-10-31). "Fisker Karmas Catch Fire After Being Submerged By Hurricane Sandy Flood". Motor Authority. Retrieved 2012-11-03.
- Joann Muller (2013-08-29). "Toyota Unveils Plans For 15 New Or Improved Hybrids (It Already Has 23)". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
- Craig Trudell and Alan Ohnsman (2013-08-28). "Toyota Refines Battery Chemistry to Boost Next Prius Efficiency". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
- Mark Rechtin (2013-08-28). "Next Prius will cost less, get better fuel economy, Toyota engineer says". Automotive News. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
- Toyota Press Release (2013-08-28). "Toyota broadly outlines next-generation Prius; developing wireless inductive charging for the plug-in model; bullish on hydrogen". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
- John Voelcker (2013-01-03). "Plug-In Electric Car Sales Triple In 2012 As Buyers, Models Increase". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2013-01-17.
- Cole, Jay (2014-01-03). "December 2013 Plug-In Electric Vehicle Sales Report Card". InsideEvs.com. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
- Jeff Cobb (2014-10-14). "September 2014 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2014-10-03. See sections: "U.S. Plug-in Hybrid sales for September 2014"
- Toyota Global Newsroom (2014-10-14). 実績データ（ハイブリッド車グローバル販売） [Actual data (hybrid vehicles sold globally)] (in Japanese). Toyota. Retrieved 2014-10-18. Prius Plug-in Hybrid sales by year between 2012 and September 2014.
- Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (January 2014). "Cijfers elektrisch vervoer - Aantal geregistreerde elektrische voertuigen in Nederland - Top 5 geregistreerde modellen elektrische auto (31-12-2013)" [Figures electric transport - Number of registered electric vehicles in Netherlands and Top 5 registered electric vehicle models (12-31-2013)] (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2014-10-15. See under the heading "31-12-2013" for total registrations figures at the end of December 2013.
- Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (October 2014). "Cijfers elektrisch vervoer - Aantal geregistreerde elektrische voertuigen in Nederland - Top 5 geregistreerde modellen plug-in hybride elektrische voertuigen (30-09-2014) - Top 5 geregistreerde modellen volledig elektrische voertuigen (30-09-2014)" [Figures electric transport - Number of registered electric vehicles in Netherlands, Top 5 registered plug-in electric hybrid vehicle models (09-30-2014) and Top 5 registered all-electric vehicle models (09-30-2014)] (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2014-10-15. See under the heading "30-09-2014" for total registrations figures at the end of September 2014.
- Ben Lane (2014-08-06). "UK electric fleet passes 13,000 mark". UK: Next Green Car. Retrieved 2014-10-14.
- Jon LeSage (2013-01-08). "Toyota Prius Plug-In wins 2012 sales battle in UK". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2013-01-17.
- Faye Sunderland (2014-01-07). "Plug-in car sales boom on back of recovering car market". The Green Car Website. Retrieved 2014-01-07. 509 Prius PHVs were sold 2013.
- Bil Sweden (2014-01-02). "Nyregistreringar december 2013 prel" [New registrations in December 2013 prel] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2014-01-03. Download file "Nyregistreringar december 2013 prel.pdf" see table "NYREGISTRERADE SUPERMILJÖBILAR DECEMBER 2013" with summary of PEV sales by model for 2013 and 2012.
- Bil Sweden (2014-10-01). "Nyregistreringar september 2014" [New registrations in September 2014] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2014-10-15. Download file "Nyregistreringar september 2014.pdf" see table: "Nyregistrerade supermiljöbilar september 2014" with summary of plug-in electric passenger car registrations by model between January and September 2014.
- Michaël Torregrossa (2013-01-15). "Voitures hybrides – Le bilan des immatriculations 2012 en France" [Hybrid Cars - The balance of 2012 registrations in France] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2013-01-17.
- Michaël Torregrossa (2014-01-19). "Hybride rechargeable – Le marché français stagne en 2013" [Rechargeable hybrids - The French market stagnated in 2013] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2014-02-17.
- Jose Pontes (2014-10-14). "France September 2014". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2014-10-14.
- "Over 10.000 ladbare biler på norske veier" [Over 10,000 plug-in cars in Norwegian roads] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. 2013-01-04. Retrieved 2013-01-17.
- Staff (2014-01-08). "Over 20.000 ladbare biler på norske veier" [Over 20,000 rechargeable electric cars on Norwegian road] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. Retrieved 2014-02-17.
- Ståle Frydenlund (2014-07-18). "Snart 10.000 nye elbiler registrert" [Almost 10,000 new EVs registered] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2014-08-04.
- Jose Pontes (2014-10-11). "Norway September 2014". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2014-10-15.
- Timothy Cain (October 2014). "Toyota Prius Plug-In Sales Figures". Good Car Bad Car. Retrieved 2014-09-14.
- Jose Pontes (2014-01-15). "Finland December 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-02-17.
- Jose Pontes (2014-08-23). "Finland June 2014". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- Jose Pontes (2013-01-13). "Spain Full Year 2012". EV Sales. Retrieved 2013-06-29. 58 units sold in 2012.
- Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (2014-01-02). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2013 - Matriculaciones de automóviles" [Market data: December 2013 - Automobiles registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 2014-02-17.Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre13.xls (929KB)" with current month and cumulative sales for 2013.
- Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (October 2014). "Datos de Mercado: Septiembre 2014 - Matriculaciones de automóviles" [Market data: September 2014 - Automobiles registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 2014-10-15. Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_septiembre14.xls (929KB)" with current month and cumulative sales between January and September 2014.
- Takeshi Narabe (2012-05-10). "Toyota rolls out rechargeable Prius plug-in hybrid". Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved 2012-05-13.
- Siddharth Philip (2013-03-12). "GM’s Chevy Volt Outsold Nissan Leaf Last Year, BNEF Says". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 2013-03-30.
- Toyota Europe Press Release (2013-01-09). "Toyota Motor Europe 2012 Sales Up 2% (+15,583 Units) In A Sharply Declining Market". Toyota Europe. Retrieved 2013-04-14. A total of 3,496 units sold in 2012.
- "2012 (Full Year) Sweden: Best-Selling Electric Cars & Plug-In Hybrid Models". BestSellingCars.com. 2013-04-02. Retrieved 2013-01-17.
- The Royal Dutch Touring Club ANWB (2013-01-18). "Best verkochte elektrische auto's 2012 Opel Ampera verkooptopper" [Best selling electric cars in 2012 - Opel Ampera top selling] (in Dutch). ANWB. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- Toyota News (2014-01-15). トヨタ自動車、 ハイブリッド車のグローバル累計販売台数が600万台を突破 [Toyota cumulative global sales of hybrid vehicles exceeded 6 million] (in Japanese). Toyota. Retrieved 2014-02-18.
- Philippe Crowe (2012-09-07). "Prius Plug-in Hybrid Now Available In Canada". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2012-09-11.
- Timothy Cain (2012-10-02). "Chevrolet Volt Sales Figures". Good Car Bad Car. Retrieved 2012-10-02.
- "Table 1 –Examples of Clean Energy Vehicles and Incentive Levels". LiveSmart BC. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
- "Running on Green Power! Electric Vehicles: 2011-2020 Québec Action Plan". Gouvernement du Québec. 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-13. See Table Box 7 for the rebate details and how it changes by year.
- "Which cars are eligible for Ontario's Electric Vehicle Incentive Program?". Ontario Ministry of Transportation. 2011-09-21. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
- Michaël Torregrossa (2012-09-20). "Essai Toyota Prius rechargeable – L’hybride branchée !" [Testing the Toyota Prius Rechargeable - The Hybrid Plugged in!] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2013-06-29.
- "Toyota Is Global Hybrid Leader With Sales Of 7 Million" (Press release). Torrance, California: PR Newswire. 2014-10-13. Retrieved 2014-10-14.
- STEPHEN EDELSTEIN (2013-10-08). "2014 Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid Gets Facelift--In Japan". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
- Nic de Boer. "Prijs Toyota Prius Plug-in" [Price Toyota Prius Plug-in] (in Dutch). Auto Week Netherlands. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- The Royal Dutch Touring Club ANWB (2012-09-07). "Eerste autotest Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid (met video)" [First car test Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid (with video)] (in Dutch). ANWB. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- "Toyota Prius Plug-In Toyota UK". Toyota UK. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- Eric Loveday (2011-09-21). "2012 Toyota Prius Plug-in priced same as Nissan Leaf in UK". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2011-09-22. See details in Press Release.
- Huw Evans (2012-08-07). "Toyota Delivers First Fleet Customer Prius Plug-In". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
- Alan Ohnsman (2011-07-20). "Toyota Targets at Least 16,000 U.S. Plug-In Prius Sales". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 2011-07-23.
- Jim Motavalli (2011-09-20). "Banished from the H.O.V. Lane, Prius Drivers May Be First to Embrace New Plug-In Model". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-09-25.
- Brad Berman (2011-04-19). "Prius Plug-in Hybrid Preliminary Ordering Starts on Friday". PluginCars.com. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
- Jack Rosebro (2011-05-24). "Toyota previews Prius v; first expansion of planned Prius "family"". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2011-05-24.
- Eric Loveday (2011-08-08). "Report: Prius Plug-in deliveries set for March 2012; will have two trims, five colors". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2011-08-08.
- Toyota USA (2012-09-11). "Toyota Prius Plug-In Model Helping Propel Hybrid Cause". Toyota Newsroom. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
- Toyota USA (2013-10-09). "Toyota reduces pricing on 2014 Prius Plug-In in US". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
- "Toyota Reveals Prius Family of Vehicles at the North American International Auto Show". Toyota USA Newsroom. 2011-01-10. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
- John Voelcker (2012-05-01). "April Electric Car Sales Lower; Plug-In Prius Leads Sales". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
- Jeff Cobb (2014-11-04). "October 2014 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2014-11-04. See section "October 2014 Plug-in Hybrid Car Sales Numbers"
- Chris Woodyar (2013-10-09). "Toyota cuts price of plug-in Prius". USA Today. Retrieved 2013-10-11.
- "Nissan Leaf Electric Car Wins 2010 Green Car Vision Award". Green Car Journal. 2010-01-26. Retrieved 2010-05-09.
- "Toyota Prius Plug-in Earns 2012 Urban Green Vehicle Award". Toyota USA Newsroom. 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2011-10-29.
- John Voelcker (2011-11-28). "2012 Toyota Prius: GreenCarReports' Best Car To Buy 2012". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid Concept.|