Toyota Kijang

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Toyota Kijang
KijangInnovaTGN40V.JPG
Toyota Kijang Innova 2.0 G (TGN40)
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota Astra Motor
Also called Innova/Tamaraw (in the Philippines)
Zace (in Taiwan and Vietnam)
Innova/Unser (in Malaysia and Singapore)
Qualis/Innova (in India)
Stallion/Condor/Venture (in Africa)
Production 1977–present
Assembly Jakarta, Indonesia
Body and chassis
Class Mid-size MPV
Body style Pickup truck (1977-2007)
Minivan
Related Toyota Revo
Toyota Fortuner
Toyota Hilux
Powertrain
Engine Gasoline
1.166cc 3K OHV
1.290cc 4K OHV
1.486cc 5K OHV
1.781cc 7K-C OHV
1.781cc 7K-E SOHC EFI
1.998cc 1RZ-E SOHC EFI
1.998cc 1TR-FE DOHC VVT-i
2.694cc 2TR-FE DOHC VVT-i
Diesel
2.446cc 2L
2.494cc 2KD-FTV Turbo-diesel
Transmission 4-speed manual
5-speed manual
4-speed automatic
Chronology
Successor

Toyota Kijang Innova (fifth generation)
Toyota Avanza


Toyota will reinstate the "Kijang" name by 2014 (sixth generation) with Kijang Essential

The Kijang is a series of pickup trucks and minivans sold in Indonesia and Brunei, made by Toyota. "Kijang", meaning deer/muntjac in Indonesian, was first introduced in Indonesia in 1977 and it has become the most popular car in the country.[citation needed]. The car was first built in the Philippines (as the Tamaraw), where it was launched on 2 December 1976.[1] This car is also sold in other countries, and is known as the Unser in Malaysia (Innova for the fifth generation), Zace in Taiwan, Qualis and Innova in India, Nepal, and the Philippines, and Stallion and Condor in South Africa. The original Kijang is known as the Revo in the Philippines (see Revo for the history of the Tamaraw and Tamaraw FX).

It is relatively affordable in the markets where sold when compared to four-wheel drive vehicles (the Kijang is a rear-wheel drive) and features high seating capacity, high ground clearance and rugged suspension, popular features in an area with generally poor road conditions and large extended families.

It is manufactured as a CKD (complete knock-down) in almost every country it is sold in, and many of the parts come from each of the markets in which it is sold. The Kijang was designed with ease of manufacture in mind; in 1986 assembly of a Kijang only cost 42% of the cost of assembling the much smaller Corolla 1300.[2]

First generation (1977-1980)[edit]

Toyota Kijang first generation

The prototype was displayed at the 1975 Jakarta Fair, and production began in 1977. The first Kijang was a boxy little pickup truck powered by 1.2 liter 3K engine matched to four-speed manual transmission. The pickup with rear body and roof was also produced. The Kijang Minibus was built by a local company.

The Kijang first entered the Indonesian market on 9 June 1977, although it had been on sale in the Philippines since 1976.[1] It was a boxy pickup truck with externally hinged half doors and plastic/canvas windows. Called "KF10" it shared the 3K engine with the Corolla, coupled to a 4-speed manual transmission. It was nicknamed "Kijang Buaya" (English: Crocodile Kijang) because of the long engine hood is opened like a crocodile mouth. The KF10 Kijang car sold 26,806 units until 1981, when replaced by the second generation Kijang.

Second generation (1981-1985)[edit]

Toyota Kijang pickup

The 20-series Kijang retained its boxy style although the body panels were different. Under its slimmer hood was a 1.3 liter 4K engine, which was replaced in 1985 by a 1.5 liter 5K. The only transmission was a 4-speed manual. The facelift model had rectangular headlights. In the Philippines, the Tamaraw was also sold as long wheelbase 30-series.

Third generation (1986-1996)[edit]

Toyota Kijang SSX (KF42) in Indonesia.
Toyota Kijang 1.8 Grand Extra (KF52)

Introduced in late 1986, the Kijang was offered as short wheelbase (KF40 series) and long wheelbase (KF50 series). The Standard Kijang had a 4-speed manual transmission, while the Super Kijang had a 5-speed manual and a better equipped interior. Introduced in this generation was Full Pressed Body minibus built by companies appointed by Toyota. This technique were applied to reduce usage of putties up to 2-5 kg for each car.

Minor changes occurred in 1992. The minibus now received a right-side rear door and adopted a new name, Toyota Original Body, instead of Full Pressed Body. In its creation process, it was fully pressed and used pointed welding. Up to this time, this model can be said as the one and only putty-free Kijang. The trim levels for the minibus were:
- Standard (SX/KF42 & LX/KF52): a very basic Kijang with 4-speed manual, standard dashboard and no power features.
- Deluxe (SSX/KF42 & LSX/KF52): an upgraded version of standard Kijang with new refined dashboard, better quality interior materials, steel rims with center caps, single AC, basic audio system with radio receiver, etc. (Alloy wheel was available as an option.)
- Grand Extra (SGX/KF42 & LGX, KF52): top of the range, luxury model with double blower AC, alloy wheels, suede-covered door trim and seats, power steering, power mirror, power windows, tachometers, upgraded audio system with tape deck and radio receiver (CD player available as optional), alarms and power locks.
- Kijang Rover (SGX-based model, KF42): a carroserie model with more spacious interior, power windows for all 4 doors, new alloy wheels and new rear-end.
- Kijang Jantan (LGX-based model, KF52): a carroserie model with larger trunk capacity, air conditioning system with rear defogger, leather seats and same luxuries as Kijang Rover. (Both Rover and Jantan model has different wheels model and different rear end.)
- Kijang Kencana (KF42/KF52): a carroserie model based on Kijang Rover/Jantan with higher roof and higher ground clearance.

In 1994, the Kijang received a second facelift, including a new grille, new Enkei 14" racing aluminium wheel, new steering wheel, tachometers for deluxe trim, and the larger carburated 1.8-litre (1,781 cc) 7K-C OHV engine. With the introduction of 7K engine, the production of 5K engine was completely stopped. In 17 August 1995, a 4-speed automatic gearbox was introduced as an option for SGX / LGX for the first time throughout the Kijang history. This 1995-1996 version was an anniversary model and it's extremely rare and expensive — it cost Rp 100 million at the time.

The Kijang was sold in India under the name of Qualis. The Qualis was based on the third-generation model, but came with the newer fourth-generation nose. It was the launch vehicle of Toyota in India. Critics said the vehicle was outdated that came with an awkward design and did not expect it to sell well. However, Qualis was a hit as the vehicle was welcomed by taxi and fleet operators over others like Tata's Sumo.[3]

A version was built and sold in South Africa as the Venture, with the pickup variant called the Stallion.

It was called as the Tamaraw FX in the Philippines when it was introduced in the early 1990s. In the Philippines, the Tamaraw FX was available with the 1.8 litre 7K-C petrol engine, or the 2 litre 2C diesel. Power was 78 hp (58 kW) and 69 hp (51 kW) respectively, allowing for top speeds of 130 or 125 km/h (81 or 78 mph). Standard, Deluxe and GL were the equipment levels offered.

Fourth generation (1997-2004)[edit]

Toyota Kijang 1.8 LSX (KF82)
2003 Toyota Kijang LGX in Indonesia.

The new Kijang was more powerful and more refined than its predecessors. The minibus, often known as Kijang Capsule, was either the 70-series (short wheelbase, KF70) or the 80-series (long wheelbase, KF80). The pickup model was coded and known as the KF60. Available engine options were:

  • 7K-C, 1.781cc OHV inline-4, 80 bhp / 132 Nm (1997-2000)
  • 7K-E, 1.781cc SOHC EFI inline-4, 87 bhp / 140 Nm
  • 1RZ, 1.998cc SOHC EFI inline-4, 105 bhp / 165 Nm
  • 2L, 2.446cc diesel inline-4, 84 bhp / 160 Nm

The diesel-equipped Kijang was the favorite model in Indonesia, and it could achieve up to 14 km/l of fuel, which was comparable to the Isuzu Panther (which gave the same rate of engine but with stiffer design). The design cues of this generation of the Kijang later appeared in the last revisions of the Philippines' Revo.

The fourth generation Kijang vehicles were generally released in two series of trims:

  • Long Series
    • LX: Standard (Very basic model without air conditioning, cassette tape player, power windows, tachometer or other luxuries. An air conditioning unit could be added for Rp 950,000, approximately equivalent to US$80.) In Indonesia, the 1997 LX version has 4-speed manual transmission, but starting from the facelift model in 2000, the transmission has changed with 5-speed manual transmission.
    • LSX: Standard Plus (Equipped with standard AC. cassette tape player and tachometer)
    • LGX: Deluxe (Equipped with double blower AC, cassette tape/CD player, power windows and garnish. Also available with 4-speed automatic transmission variant.
    • Krista (long series only): Deluxe Sport Edition (Same as LGX but available in only blue, red, black, silver or green color, and including sports kit and refined interior; the Krista edition also included specially made door trim.)
A 2003 model of Kijang SSX in Indonesia.
  • Short Series
    • SX: Standard (Without air conditioning, cassette tape player, power windows, tachometer or other luxuries)
    • SSX: Standard Plus (Equipped with standard AC and cassette tape player)
    • SGX: Deluxe (Equipped with double blower AC, cassette tape/CD player, power windows and garnish)
    • Rangga (short series only, 1997-2000): Deluxe Sport Edition (Same as SGX but including new front fascia, SUV-like body kit, higher ground clearance, spare tyre attached on boot, and refined interior with suede seat cover & door trim.)

The pickup variant was offered with Standard Deck and Flat Deck. Trim levels for the minibus included SX, SSX, SGX (short), LX, LSX, LGX and Krista (long). The short wheelbase and sporty Rangga was also offered for a short time, but this model was not successful in the market, with only a very few units sold. A version called "RoverAce" and "Jantan Raider" made by local company, was also sold only a few units.

In the year 2000, the Kijang got a new front end. The 2.0-litre engine was offered in the LGX and Krista models. Another minor change was given in 2002 with new grille, rear garnish, and some small changes with its features.

Fourth generation Kijang, in Indonesia, was changed three times:

  • First edition (January 1997-February 2000): The body's steel was thicker than 2nd edition. The window was still equipped with a rubber seal. It used 1.8-litre carburated gasoline and 2.4 diesel engine.
  • Second edition (February 2000–August 2002): Thinner body-steel was used to decrease production cost; therefore, the new model was sold as the same price as the 1st model. It used compound sealant for the rear window, while the front windscreen was still using rubber seals. The design of the front panel was slightly changed (mostly on the driver's side). For this model (and upwards) customers could choose which engine they wanted to use - the original (but renewed) 2.0-litre EFI gasoline engine, a 2.4-litre diesel engine or the new 1.8-litre EFI engine.
  • Third edition (August 2002-September 2004): LSX & LGX series and SSX & SGX for short series were now equipped with suede doortrim (the older model used cloth doortrim). The interior changed into full beige color (the older models' color is mostly grey).

A version was built and sold in South Africa as the Condor with 4x4 drivetrain and more features such as airbags, higher roof and AC with climate control.

Fifth generation (2004-present)[edit]

Main article: Toyota Innova
Toyota Kijang Innova

In late 2004, Toyota launched the new Kijang, with the introduction of the new Avanza as a cheaper version to replace non-premier Kijangs. The new Kijang is more luxurious and expensive than the previous generation. This all new Kijang is called the Kijang Innova. The Innova was an MPV powered by either a 2.0-liter 1TR-FE VVT-i Gasoline, a 2.7-liter 2TR-FE VVT-i Gasoline, or a 2.5 liter 2KD-FTV D4-D Common Rail Diesel. Although the exterior design is quite similar to the WISH which has a monocoque chassis, the Kijang Innova has a body-on-frame chassis using the Hilux platform. It was part of Toyota's IMV program together with the Hilux Vigo pickup truck and Fortuner SUV.

Variants available in Indonesia:

Variant Description
J Basic model of the Innova, only equipped with power steering, windows, mirrors and auto door locks. No audio systems were equipped.
E Basic-deluxe model of the Innova with additional luxuries that comes with features like single DIN audio with 4 speakers, double blower AC, steel rims with center caps, etc.
G Middle-range model of the Innova with all the features from E, featuring 15" alloy wheels, parking sensor, 2-DIN audio with 4 speakers and 2 tweeters, rear wiper, etc. Kevlar, carbon fiber or wood panels were available as an option.
V Middle-top model of the Innova with all the features from G. This variant got new alloy wheels, refined braking system with ABS, EBD & BA, MID, 2 DIN audio system with touch screen monitor, roof-mounted monitor, DVD, MP3, MP4, WMA, iPod & USB connectivity, climate control AC with digital layout and dual zone, rear defogger, optitron instrument panel, 12V power outlet, parking camera, driver's seat heater, 4-spoke steering wheel with leather cover and audio controls, in-dash 6 CD changer, 6 speakers and 2 tweeters, leather seats, leather-covered shift knob and wooden trim. (Cruise control was available in selected countries)
Luxury Top model of the Innova with all the features based on G or V. This variant got an aerokit, "Captain" individual seats on 2nd row, wood panel and Luxury emblem.

This generation, has been facelifted three times:

  • 2008-2011: Changed front bumper & grille design, rear lamps and bumpers, and redesigned the wheels (V only, G use the wheels from old V). 2-tone interior color (grey & beige) is now a standard.
  • 2011-2013: Changed front & rear fascia (such as lamps, bumpers & grille) and redesigned the wheels (V only, G use the wheels from old V). E grade now received alloy wheels (shared the same design with G, J grade received center caps) and double blower AC. The steering wheel design is now changed. Center dashboard fascia is now have freshened design and add more features such as sat-nav, cameras, etc. Rear wipers is now a standard.
  • 2013-2014: Redesigned the front bumper, rear bumper & grille (is now larger, similar to Toyota Alphard) and added rear ornaments. Luxury variants got two-tone wheel color and new aerokit. Interior color changed to black & grey. ABS, 4-spoke steering wheel & dual SRS airbags is now a standard.

The Innova MPV sold in large numbers in India (where it's known as an MUV)- primarily serving the tourist taxi market and fleet operations of large technology business process outsourcing companies. It also enjoyed large markets in Malaysia, East Timor and Philippines. In the Philippines, it replaced the Tamaraw/Tamaraw FX/Revo line in the process, as the Toyota MPV sold there became simply known as the "Innova".

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Overall Chronological Table: 1971-1980". 75 Years of Toyota. Toyota Motor Corporation. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  2. ^ Tang, Roger Y. W. (October 1990). "The Auto Makers and their Related Party Transactions in Indonesia". Asia Pacific Journal of Management (Kluwer Academic Publishers) 7 (2): 75. doi:10.1007/BF01731423. 
  3. ^ Abhineet Kumar (12 March 2013). "Fortuner, Innova save Toyota the business". Business Standard. 

External links[edit]