Toyota R engine

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1974 Toyota 18R-G engine.

The Toyota R family was a series of straight-four gasoline engines. Designed for longitudinal use in such vehicles as the Celica and Hilux and in production from 1953 through 1997, use faded out as many of Toyota's mainstream models moved to front-wheel drive. OHC versions featured a chain-driven camshaft, mitigating the danger of internal damage from interference as in belt-driven engines.

History of the R family[edit]

R[edit]

1953 Toyota R engine.

The 1.5 L (1,453 cc) R family was produced from 1953 through 1964.

Bore was 77 mm (3.03 in) and stroke was 78 mm (3.07 in).[1] In common with new engines of the time, it was made from cast iron (both the block and the head), water cooled, used a three bearing crank, 12V electrics and a side mounted gear-driven camshaft controlling overhead valves via pushrods in a non-cross flow head (exhaust and inlet manifolds being on the same side of the engine).[1] Induction was by a twin throat down-draft carburettor, the compression ratio was 8.0:1 and the total weight was 155 kg.[1] An LPG version, the R-LPG, was produced for the last two years.

The R engine was the Toyota engine used in the 1958 Toyota Crown, the first model to be exported to the United States. Road & Track was unimpressed with the engine on its introduction, noting that it idled quietly but was "not capable of very high revolutions per minute."

Code Power kW (hp) Torque N·m (lb·ft) Years Comments
R 45 (60) at 4,400 rpm 108 (79.5) at 2,600 rpm 1953–1964
R-LPG 1962–1964 LPG

Applications:

2R[edit]

The 1.5 L (1,490 cc) 2R family was produced from 1964 through 1971. It is a square engine, with bore and stroke of 78 millimetres.

Again, an LPG version, the 2R-LPG, was produced alongside the gasoline version.

Code Power kW (hp) Torque N·m (lb·ft) Years Comments
2R 55 (74) at 5,000 rpm 116 (85) at 2,600 rpm 1964–1969
2R-LPG 1964–1969 LPG

Applications:[2]

3R[edit]

The 1.9 L (1,897 cc) 3R family was produced from 1959 through 1968.

When introduced it had a 7.7:1 compression ratio. In 1960 the 3R was uprated to 8:1 and the 3R-B version was offered from 1960 through 1968 with the old 7.7:1 compression ratio. The 3R-C was introduced to comply with Californian emissions laws. The 3R-LPG variant was made for the last five years.

Code Power kW (PS) Torque N·m (lb·ft) Years Comments
3R 59 (80) at 4,600 rpm 142 (105) at 2,600 rpm 1959–1960 7.7 CR
3R 66 (90) at 5,000 rpm 142 (105) at 3,400 rpm 1960–1968 8.0 CR
3R-B 59 (80) at 4,600 rpm 142 (105) at 2,600 rpm 1960–1968 7.7 CR
3R-C emissions control - California
3R-LPG 1963–1968 LPG

Applications:

4R[edit]

The 1.6 L (1587 cc) 4R family was produced from 1965 through 1968.

Bore was 80.5 mm and stroke was 78 mm.

Applications:

5R[edit]

The 2.0 L (1,994 cc) 5R family was produced from 1968 through 1986.
An LPG version, the 5R-LPG, was produced from 1968 through 1983.

It was a 2-valve OHV engine. Cylinder bore was 88 mm (3.46 in) and stroke was 82 mm (3.23 in).
Output was 106 hp (79 kW) at 5,200 rpm and 125 lb·ft (169 N·m) at 3,000 rpm.

Applications:

6R[edit]

The 1.7 L (1,707 cc) 6R was produced from 1969 through 1974. Output is 107 hp at 5,300 rpm. The 6R-B was produced those same years, while the natural gas powered 6R-LPG was produced from 1970 through 1973.

Applications

7R[edit]

The 1.6 L (1591 cc) 7R was produced from 1968 through 1971 with a twin throat down-draft carburettor.[4]
The 7R-B was produced from 1968 through 1969 with dual SU carburettors and higher compression.
The 7R-LPG was produced from 1969 through 1970.

The 7R was similar in displacement and technology to the 4R except the wider 86 mm bore and shorter 68.5 mm stroke of the 7R gave different power characteristics.

Code Power kW (hp) Torque N·m (lb·ft) Compression Years Comments
7R[4] 63 (85) at 5,500 rpm 123 (90) at 3,800 rpm 8.5 1968–1971
7R-B[4] 75 (100) at 6,200 rpm 133 (98) at 4,200 rpm 9.5 1968–1969 Dual SU carburettors
7R-LPG 1969–1971 LPG

Applications:

8R[edit]

The 1.9 L (1,858 cc) 8R The engine was produced from 1968 through 1973.
Cylinder bore was 85.9 mm (3.38 in) and stroke was 80 mm (3.15 in) with a five bearing crank.
It was also available as the 8R-D, dual SU 8R-B, EFI 8R-E, Californian-spec 8R-C and DOHC 8R-G.

It was a major departure for the R family. With a 2-valve SOHC head, it impressed contemporary reviewers - Road & Track praised its quietness and free-revving nature.

The Toyota upped the ante again with the DOHC (but still 2-valve) 8R-G, produced from 1969 through 1972. From 1969 to Feb 1971 it was known as the 10R, but along with a removal of the tensioner gear in the interest of quieter operation, it was renamed the 8R-G to reflect the decision that twin-cam engines were henceforth to be identified by a "-G" suffix.[6] 4,931 twin cam engines were built, all installed in the Toyota Corona Mark II (RT72) 1900 GSS. The 10R/8R-G weighed in at 170 kg and as such was both lighter and more compact than its less powerful predecessor the 9R[7]

Code Power kW (hp) Torque N·m (lb·ft) Compression Years Comments
8R 81 (108) at 5,500 rpm 153 (113) at 3,800 rpm 9.0 1968–1972
8R-B 82 (110) at 6,000 rpm 152 (112) at 4,000 rpm 10.0 1969–1971 Dual SU carburettors
8R-D
8R-E EFI
8R-C 81 (108) at 5,500 rpm 174 (128) at 3,600 rpm 9.0 Californian emissions controls
8R-G 104 (140) at 6,400 rpm 166 (123) at 5,200 rpm 1969–1972 DOHC, dual side-draft carburettors

Applications:

9R[edit]

The 1.6 L (1587 cc) 9R was produced from 1967 through 1968. Bore 80.5 x 78mm stroke

It was essentially a 4R with a DOHC head designed by Yamaha. The cam lobes activated the valves directly via a bucket over shim arrangement. This same arrangement was used on the 2M, 8R-G, 10R, 18R-G, 2T-G, 4A-GE and 3T-GTE engines (all designed by Yamaha).

Output was 110 hp (82 kW) at 6,200 rpm and 101 lb·ft (136 N·m) at 5,000 rpm. It was a 2-valve DOHC design with two Solex carburettors and weighed 174 kg. A total of 2,229 9R engines were built.[7]

Applications:

10R[edit]

The twin cam 1.9 L (1,858 cc) 10R was produced from 1967 through Feb 1971, when it was renamed the 8R-G. The later 8R-G version did not receive a timing chain tensioner in an effort to make it more silent.[6]

Output was 140 hp (104 kW) at 6,400 rpm and 123 lb·ft (166 N·m) at 5,200 rpm.

Applications:

12R[edit]

The 1.6 L (1587 cc) 12R was produced from 1969 through 1988. It was also built in the Philippines as the 12R-M,[8] by Toyota's local affiliate Delta Motors Corporation.
Technical Specs (Finnish Owner's Manual from 1973 Corona Mark 1)
- Four cylinder, 4-stroke, OHV
- Bore & stroke: 80.5 × 78.0mm
- Compression ratio: 8,5:1
- Maximum power: 90 PS/5400rpm SAE

The 12R-LPG, was produced from 1969 through 1983.
Technical Specs : 1975 59KW 80HP redline 4,400 rpm

Applications:

16R[edit]

The OHC 1.8 L (1,808 cc) 16R was produced from 1974 through 1980. Power output as mounted in a 1980 Mark II was 105 PS (77 kW) at 5,600 rpm, while a twin carburetted version produced 110 PS (81 kW) at 6,000 rpm.[9] The 16R-B was produced for the first two years. There was also a 16R-J version for various commercial vehicle applications.

Applications:

18R[edit]

The 18R series shared a 2.0 L (1,968 cc) block; cylinder bore was 88.5 mm (3.48 in) and stroke was 80 mm (3.15 in).

The 2 valve, SOHC versions were as follows:

Code Power kW (hp) Torque N·m (lb·ft) Years Comments
18R[11] 78 (105) 142–145 (105–107) 1971–1981
18R-C 72 (97) at 5500 rpm 143–145 (106–107) at 3,600 rpm 1971–1981 emissions control - worldwide (Californian Standards)
18R-U 75 (100) at 5,500 rpm 152 (112) at 3,600 rpm 1975–1978 emissions control - Japan
18R-E 84 (113) at 5,600 rpm 172 (127) at 4,400 rpm 1974–1975 EFI, Japan only

Applications:

18R-G[edit]

18R-G on an engine stand

The 8-valve DOHC 18R-G and its variations were produced from 1973 to 1982, replacing the 8R-G and providing a performance engine which took advantage of the entire 2-litre limit of Japan's "small car" class.[6] While most 18R-Gs had a head designed and made by Yamaha, a very few had Toyota heads.[citation needed] Yamaha's tuning-fork logo can be seen on the Yamaha heads. Except for the head and related timing components, most parts were shared or interchangeable with the SOHC 18R. Combustion chambers were hemispheric.

18R-G in an engine bay

In 1975, air injection was added to the Japan-market 18R-GR for improved emissions. This used Solex carburettors.[6] A fuel injected and catalyzed Japan-market version, the 18R-GEU, was produced from 1978 through 1982. There was also a catalyzed carburetted version, the 18R-GU.

Competition versions of the 18R-G and -GE include those used in rally Celicas of the period, one of which finished second in the 1977 RAC Rally. These had four-valve heads and were called 152E, they were of 89 x 80 mm bore and stroke and 1,995 or 1,998 cc (depending on the source).[12] The Group 4 rally version of the 152E had two twin-choke carburettors, and developed 240 PS (177 kW) at 9,000 rpm.[13] Higher tuned engines developed as much as 300 PS (221 kW) at 9,200 rpm. German racing team Schnitzer also developed a turbocharged silhouette racing version of the Celica,[12] to take on the Porsche 935. With a KKK turbocharger, the Group 5 Celica developed 560 PS (412 kW) but reliability was less than satisfactory.[14]

Code Power Torque Years Weight Comments
PS kW at rpm kg·m N·m lb·ft at rpm kg lb
18R-G[7][11] 145 107 6,400 18.0 177 130 5,200 1972–1981 170 375
18R-GR[7] 140 103 6,400 17.2 169 124 4,800 1973–1975 low compression for regular fuel
18R-GU[7] 130 96 5,800 16.5 162 119 4,800 1975–1978 182 401 emissions control - Japan.
18R-GEU[15] 135 99 5,800 17.5 172 127 4,800 1978–1982 166 366 EFI, emissions control (Japan).

Applications:

19R[edit]

The 2-valve SOHC 2.0 L (1,968 cc) 19R was produced from 1974 through 1977. Cylinder bore was 88.5 mm (3.5 in) and stroke was 80.0 mm (3.1 in). Its dimensions are the same as of the 18R, but it featured TTC-V, Toyota's licensed version of Honda's CVCC stratified charge combustion system. Output is 80 PS (59 kW). The 19R was a short-lived experiment by Toyota, and was only offered in Japanese market cars.

Applications:

20R[edit]

The two-valve SOHC 2.2 L (2189 cc) 20R was produced from 1975 through 1980. Cylinder bore was 88.4 mm (3.48 in) and stroke was 88.9 mm (3.5 in). Aluminum alloy heads were used.

Initial output was 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 rpm (90 hp in California) and 120 lb·ft (162 N·m) at 2,800 rpm. Power was down slightly from 1978 through 1979 at 95 hp (71 kW) at 4800 rpm and 122 lb·ft (165 N·m) at 2400 rpm. The final version, from 1979 through 1980, was down again at 90 hp (67 kW) at 4800 rpm (still at 95 hp in Canada) and 122 lb·ft (165 N·m) at 2400 rpm.

Applications:

21R[edit]

The 2-valve SOHC 2.0 L (1,972 cc) 21R was produced from 1978 through 1987.
Cylinder bore was 84 mm (3.31 in) and stroke was 89 mm (3.5 in).

Output in 1978, constrained by emissions, was 105 hp (78 kW) at 5,200 rpm and 116 lb·ft (157 N·m) at 3,600 rpm. Air injection and emissions equipment for the 21R-C (1982–1985) dropped power down to 90 hp (67 kW) at 5,000 rpm. The air-injected Japanese version, the 21R-U, produced 105 hp (78 kW) at 5,200 rpm and 120 lb·ft (162 N·m) at 3,600 rpm but dropped to 101 hp (75 kW) at 5,400 rpm and 114 lb·ft (154 N·m) at 4,000 rpm in 1986.

Applications:

22R[edit]

The 8-valve SOHC 2.4 L (2,366 cc) 22R was produced from 1981 through 1997.
Cylinder bore was 91.9 mm (3.62 in) and stroke was 88.9 mm (3.5 in).

Initial output was 97 hp (72 kW) at 4,800 rpm and 129 lb·ft (174 N·m) at 2,800 rpm.
By 1990 the 22R was producing 108 hp (81 kW) at 5,000 rpm and 138 lb·ft (187 N·m) at 3,400 rpm.

22R-E engine fitted in a 1989 Hilux Surf

The first fuel injected 22R-E engines appeared in August 1982.
Output of these engines is commonly rated at 105 hp (78 kW) at 4,800 rpm and 137 lb·ft (185 N·m) at 2,800 rpm.

In 1985, the engine was significantly reworked, output was up to 114 hp (84 kW) at 4,800 rpm and 140 lb·ft (190 N·m) at 3,600 rpm. Many parts from the newer 22R-E are not compatible with those from the older pre-1985 engine. Non-compatible parts include the cylinder head, block, pistons and many of the associated parts such as the timing chain and cover, and water and oil pumps (although the oil pump internals are the same). These changes also affected the 22R, therefore one can consider the 85-95 22R-E as a fuel injected version of the 85-90 22R with only minor differences, if any.

Toyota swapped the dual row timing chain used in older engines for a single row chain with plastic guides in 1983. This system reduced drag on the engine, but was occasionally problematic. Every 80,000 to 140,000 miles the chain would sometimes stretch to the point that the hydraulic-operated chain tensioner can not take up any more slack. When this happens, the timing chain impacts the driver's side chain guide, breaking the plastic within a few hundred miles of driving and creating a noticeable chattering sound in the front of the engine, especially when cold. If the engine continues to be operated after the guide breaks the chain will stretch rapidly (an unfortunate characteristic of single row chains). The loose chain causes inaccurate ignition timing which usually results in noticeable rough running. In continued operation, the chain can jump a tooth on the drive sprocket or break entirely, with either case resulting in engine damage from valve-piston collisions. Also, the stretched chain will slap against the side of the timing cover due to the broken guide, and can wear through the cover and into the coolant passage behind the water pump. This will cause coolant to drain into the crankcase / oil pan, possibly causing damage to internal engine components such as the bearings, crankshaft, camshaft as well as damage caused by overheating due to the lack of coolant (since it has drained into the engine oil).

The turbocharged 22R-TE (sold from late 1985 through 1988) produced 135 hp (101 kW) at 4,800 rpm and 173 lb·ft (234 N·m) at 2,800 rpm.

These engines are extremely well known for their durability, decent fuel efficiency and good low to mid range torque.

However, its weakness is high-end power. The 22R has a large displacement and a strong block, but its comparatively long stroke and restrictive head limit its use in high revving applications. Thus, the Toyota 18R-G, 2T-G, 4A-GE and 3S-GE 4-cylinder engines are better suited for performance applications.

A popular modification to the 22R is to use a 20R head. This head has smaller combustion chambers, giving a higher compression ratio, which then allows more power to be developed. The 20R head also flows better than the 22R head, which improves high RPM power. The 20R head is a simple bolt-on modification for the pre-1985 block, but also requires the use of the 20R intake manifold, making it impossible to use with the 22RE EFI system.[19] For the later, 1985 onwards, 22R block, further modifications are required.[20]

Code Power kW (hp) Torque N·m (lb·ft) Years Comments
22R 72 (97) at 4,800 rpm 174 (129) & 2,800 rpm 1981–1990 carb, dual row timing chain ('81-'82)

carb, single row timing chain ('83-'90)

22R 81 (108) at 5,000 rpm 187 (138) & 3,400 rpm 1990–1995
22R-E 78 (105) at 4,800 rpm 185 (137) & 2,800 rpm 1983–1984 EFI, single row timing chain
22R-E 84 (114) at 4,800 rpm 190 (140) & 3,600 rpm 1985–1997 EFI, single row timing chain
22R-TE 101 (135) at 4,800 rpm 234 (173) & 2,800 rpm 1986–1988 turbocharged, single row timing chain

Applications:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Corona 1500 Parts Catalog, No.53282-67
  2. ^ Piston Ring Sets Price List 18, Tokyo, Japan: Riken Corporation, November 2008, p. 71 
  3. ^ 愛される車づくり。トヨタはあすにいどみます。 [Lovable car manufacture. Toyota dares to defy tomorrow.] (catalog) (in Japanese), Toyota Motor Co., 1972, p. 1 
  4. ^ a b c Toyota Corona Deluxe, Parts Catalog, No.53212-68
  5. ^ Wagon: Corona Mark II Wagon (sales sheet) (in Japanese), Toyota 
  6. ^ a b c d All About the Toyota Twin Cam, 2nd ed., Tokyo, Japan: Toyota Motor Company, 1984, p. 27 
  7. ^ a b c d e Toyota Twin Cam, p. 6
  8. ^ "Toyota Vehicle Identification Manual". Toyota Motor Sale Co., Ltd. - Export Parts Department. 1984. 97913-84. 
  9. ^ Braunschweig, Robert; Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, eds. (March 6, 1980). "Automobil Revue '80" 75. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag, AG. p. 504. 
  10. ^ New Mark II Van, Brochure (in Japanese) (Toyota Motor Co.), December 1976: 16, retrieved 2013-01-15 
  11. ^ a b Celica brochure. Toyota Japan. 1973. 
  12. ^ a b Toyota Twin Cam, p. 25
  13. ^ "Toyota RA40 Celica, Modified 18R engine". Retrieved 2011-11-08. 
  14. ^ Chong, Rod (2009-02-19). "Bigger Than Life: The Schnitzer Celica". Speedhunters.com. Retrieved 2011-01-31. 
  15. ^ Toyota Twin Cam, p. 7
  16. ^ Hajek, Alexander. "Toyota Carina A12". Toyota Oldies. Retrieved 2012-10-03. 
  17. ^ 自動車ガイドブック [Automobile Guide Book] (in Japanese) (Japan: Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association) 23: 99. 1976-10-20. 0053-760023-3400.  Check date values in: |year= (help)
  18. ^ 自動車ガイドブック [Japanese Motor Vehicles Guide Book] (in Japanese) (Japan: Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association) 25: 295. 1978-10-10. 0053-780025-3400.  Check date values in: |year= (help)
  19. ^ "Toysport - 22R Tech Notes". 2000. Retrieved 2009-10-07. 
  20. ^ "LC Engineering - Using a 20R Head on an 85-95 22RE Block". 2004. Retrieved 2009-10-07. 

See also[edit]