Toyota Supra

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Toyota Supra
1993 JZA80 Toyota Supra SZ.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Also called Toyota Celica Supra
Toyota Celica XX
Production Apr 1978[1]–2002
Assembly Tahara, Aichi, Japan
Toyota City, Aichi, Japan (Motomachi plant)
Body and chassis
Class Sports car
Grand tourer
Body style 2+2 fastback coupe
Layout Front-engine, rear-wheel drive
Chronology
Predecessor Toyota 2000GT

The Toyota Supra is a sports car/grand tourer that was produced by Toyota Motor Corporation from 1978 to 2002. The styling of the Toyota Supra was derived from the Toyota Celica, but it was both longer and wider.[2] Starting in mid-1986, the Supra (in its third generation, Mark III) became a separate model from the Celica. In turn, Toyota also stopped using the prefix Celica and began just calling the car Supra.[3] Owing to the similarity and past of the Celica's name, it is frequently mistaken for the Supra, and vice versa. First, second, and third generation Supras were assembled at Tahara plant in Tahara, Aichi while the MKIV Supra was assembled at the Motomachi plant in Toyota City.

The Supra also traces much of its roots back to the Toyota 2000GT with the main instance being its engine[citation needed]. The first three generations were offered with a direct descendant to the Toyota Crown's and 2000GT's M engine[citation needed]. All four generations of Supra produced have an inline 6-cylinder engine[citation needed]. Interior aspects were also similar, as was the chassis code "A"[citation needed].

Along with this name and car Toyota also included its own logo for the Supra[citation needed]. It is derived from the original Celica logo, being blue instead of orange[citation needed]. This logo was used until January 1986, when the Mark III Supra was introduced. The new logo was similar in size, with orange writing on a red background, but without the dragon design. That logo, in turn, was on Supras until 1991 when Toyota switched to its current oval company logo. (the dragon logo was a Celica logo regardless of what color it was. It appeared on the first two generations of the Supra because they were officially Toyota Celicas. The dragon logo was used for the Celica line until it too was discontinued.)

In 1998, Toyota ceased sales of the Supra in the United States[3] and in 2002 Toyota officially stopped production of the Supra in Japan[citation needed].

As an iconic sports car[citation needed], the Supra has appeared in numerous video games, movies, music videos and TV shows[citation needed]. Some of the most notable appearances include the Gran Turismo, Forza Motorsport, Need for Speed, and Midnight Club series of video games and The Fast and the Furious film series[citation needed].

Mark I (A40; 1978–1981)[edit]

Mark I
1981 Toyota Supra.jpg
Overview
Also called Toyota Celica Supra Mark I
Celica XX
Production Apr 1978 – Jun 1981[1]
Body and chassis
Body style fastback coupe
Platform A40
Related Toyota Carina
Toyota Celica
Powertrain
Engine

1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) M-EU I6
2,563 cc (2.563 L; 156.4 cu in) 4M-E I6

2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-E I6
Transmission

5-speed W50 manual
4-speed A40D automatic

4-speed A43D automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,629 mm (103.5 in)
Length 4,615 mm (181.7 in)
Width 1,651 mm (65.0 in)
Height 1,290 mm (50.8 in)
Curb weight 1,270 kg (2,800 lb)

The first generation Supra was based largely upon the Toyota Celica liftback, but was longer by 129.5 mm (5.10 in)[citation needed]. The doors and rear section were shared with the Celica but the front panels were elongated to accommodate the Inline-6 instead of the stock Celica's 4-cylinder engine. Toyota's original plan for the Supra at this time was to make it a competitor to the very popular Datsun (now Nissan) Z-car[citation needed].

1978[edit]

In April 1978 Toyota began production of the Mark I Supra in Japan, as the Celica XX, and sold alongside the Celica at Japanese dealership sales channels called Toyota Corolla Store

The Japanese Mark I was offered with a 110 hp (82 kW) 2.0 L 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine (M-EU, chassis code MA45) or the 110 hp (82 kW) 2,563 cc (2.563 L; 156.4 cu in) 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine (4M-E, chassis code MA46). The Japanese Supra was equipped with the smaller 2.0 L engine so that buyers wouldn't incur an additional tax under vehicle size and engine displacement regulations. Both engines were equipped with electronic fuel injection.[3][4]

The Supra was first exported outside of Japan in January 1979.[5] The export version of the Mark I was originally equipped with a 110 hp (82 kW) 2,563 cc (2.563 L; 156.4 cu in) 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine (4M-E, chassis code MA46).

Drive train options for the Mark I were either a 5-speed manual (W50) or an optional 4-speed automatic transmission (A40D). Both transmissions featured an overdrive gear. The top gear in the 5-speed was its overdrive gear whereas the automatic transmission featured an overdrive gear that would engage at speeds over 35 mph (56 km/h). The drive train for the Supra retained the T series solid rear axle configuration of the Celica in the Japanese MA45 version and a larger F series (and optional Limited Slip Differential) in the MA46 and MA47. The car also came standard with 4-wheel disc brakes and featured a four-link rear suspension with coil springs, lateral track bar, and stabilizer bar[citation needed]. The front suspension consisted of MacPherson struts and a stabilizer bar.

On the inside of the Supra one had an option of power windows and power locks as part of the convenience package. The convenience package also included cruise control and special door trim with door pull straps, with an optional sunroof. As for standard features, in the center console there was an extendible map light and a flip-top armrest, which provided storage. Some other features were the tilt steering wheel, deep zippered pockets on the backs of the front seats, and tonneau cover under the liftback. The dashboard also contained a state of the art (at the time) AM/FM/MPX 4-speaker stereo radio, analog clock, and tachometer as part of the instrument panel.

1979[edit]

The mid 1979 changes for the 1980 model year US version were mostly cosmetic[citation needed]. The interior received a redesigned center console and a digital quartz clock[citation needed]. On the exterior were redesigned side view mirrors, 14x512" aluminum wheels are now standard (the previous year had steel wheels with plastic wheel covers standard and the aluminum wheels were optional)[citation needed]. In addition body molded mudflaps became available. On the copper metallic and white cars the mudflaps were painted the body color while the mudflaps were left black on all other colors. On the rear of the mudflaps, the word "Celica" was painted in white lettering.[6]

The official Supra Site[3] also notes that there was an addition of optional leather-trimmed seating and automatic climate-control.

1980[edit]

Feb 1980 (1980 MY) Supra
May 1981 (1981 MY) Supra with Sports Performance Package

In August 1980 (for the 1981 model year), the Supra received an upgrade in displacement with the 2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-E engine. It is still a 12-valve SOHC engine, but makes 116 hp (87 kW) and 145 lb·ft (197 N·m) of torque. The cars automatic transmission was changed to the revised Toyota A43D and it gained a revised final drive gearing. Because of the change in engine and transmission they dubbed a new chassis code of MA47. In the final year of the Mark I Supra, it achieved a 0–60 mph time of 10.24 seconds and finished the 1/4 mile in 17.5 seconds at 77.7 mph (125.0 km/h).[7]

Also in 1980 (for the 1981 model year[citation needed]), a new Sports Performance Package became an option, which included sport suspension, raised white letter tires, and front and rear spoilers. This also marked the last year that the 8-track tape player was offered in any Supra.[3][6]


Quick information[edit]

Mark I Quick information by Chassis code
Code Year Engine Power Torque Transmission Market
MA45 Apr 1978 – Aug 1980 1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) M-EU I6 110 hp (82 kW) 136 lb·ft (184 N·m) 5-speed W50 manual
4-speed A40D automatic
Japan
MA46 Apr 1978 – Aug 1980 2,563 cc (2.563 L; 156.4 cu in) 4M-E I6 110 hp (82 kW) 136 lb·ft (184 N·m) Japan
Jan 1979 – Aug 1980 world
MA47 Aug 1980 – Jul 1981 2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-E I6 116 hp (87 kW) 145 lb·ft (197 N·m) 5-speed W50 manual
4-speed A43D automatic
world

Celica XX[edit]

The Celica XX (pronounced as "double X") is the Japanese domestic market name of the MKI and MKII Toyota Celica Supra. It was offered in Japan during the years 1978–1986, with it being redesigned in 1981. The Supra was sold as the Celica XX only in Japan at Japanese dealership sales channels called Toyota Corolla Store, as elsewhere it was sold as the Celica Supra, although they remain popular as grey imports to New Zealand.

The 2000GT was the flagship model of the XX range. Featuring the smaller 2.0-litre six-cylinder DOHC 24-valve 1G-EU, Yamaha took the base 1G-EU and improved it, resulting in the 1G-GEU significantly upping the output of the engine, which also served in the 1985 Toyota Soarer. The smaller-capacity engine meant taxes were less than the bigger 5M-GEU of the 2800GT. 1G-GEU made 160 PS (118 kW) at 6400 rpm.

The 2800GT was the most powerful of the range, featuring the 2.8-litre six-cylinder DOHC 5M-GEU making 175 PS (129 kW) at 5,600 rpm.

The 2000G/S with M-TEU with intercooler made 160 PS (118 kW) at 5400 rpm, as much as the 1G-GEU, but made more torque lower down the rev range, 23.5 m·kgf (230 N·m at 3000 rpm.

The lower-range models, being 2000G/S, were the least powerful, featuring the 1G-EU, which made 125 PS (92 kW) at 5,400 rpm. They also lacked a lot of features found on other models in an effort to lower cost.

List of Celica XX models[edit]

  • 2800GT
  • 2000GT
  • 2000G - turbo
  • 2000S - turbo
  • 2000S
  • 2000G
  • 2000L

Quick information[edit]

Celica XX Quick information by Chassis code
Code Year Model Engine Power Torque Transmission
MA61 1981–1985 2800GT 2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GEU I6 170 hp (119 kW) 150 ft·lbf (203 N·m) 5-speed W58 Manual
4-Speed A43DL Automatic (1981–1983)
4-Speed A43DE Automatic (1984–1985)
MA63 1982 2000G/S - turbo 2.0 L (1988 cc) M-TEU turbo I6 145 hp (108 kW) 156 ft·lbf (211 N·m) 4-Speed A43D Automatic
1983–1985 2.0 L (1988 cc) M-TEU turbo I6 160 hp (119 kW) 170 ft·lbf (230 N·m)
GA61 1981–1985 2000G/S 2.0 L (1988 cc) 1G-EU I6 125 hp (93 kW) 127 ft·lbf (172 N·m) 5-speed W57 Manual
4-Speed A42DL Automatic
2000L 2.0 L (1988 cc) 1G-EU I6 125 hp (93 kW) 127 ft·lbf (172 N·m) 5-speed W57 Manual
1983–1985 2000GT 2.0 L (1988 cc) 1G-GEU I6 160 hp (119 kW) 134 ft·lbf (181 N·m) 5-speed W55 Manual

Mark II (A60; 1981–1986)[edit]

Mark II
2nd-Toyota-Supra.jpg
Overview
Also called Toyota Celica Supra Mark II
Toyota Celica XX
Production Dec 1981[8]–1986
Body and chassis
Body style fastback coupe
Platform A60
Powertrain
Engine

1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) M-TEU I6
1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) M-TE I6
1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) 1G-EU I6
1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) 1G-GEU I6
2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-E I6

2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-GE I6
Transmission

5-speed W58 and W55 manual
4-speed A43DL automatic

4-speed A43DE automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,614 mm (102.9 in)
Length 4,661 mm (183.5 in)
Width 1,720 mm (67.7 in)
Height 1,321 mm (52.0 in)
Curb weight 1,361 kg (3,000 lb)

In late 1981, Toyota completely redesigned the Celica Supra as well as the entire Celica lineup for its 1982 production year[citation needed]. In Japan, they were known as Celica XX, but everywhere else the Celica Supra name was used[citation needed]. Still being based around the Celica platform, there were several key differences, most notably the design of the front end and fully retractable pop-up headlights. Other differences would be the inline-6 still present in the Supra instead of the inline-4 as well as an increase in length and wheelbase to conform with the overall larger engine. Toyota's continued market competition with Nissan is shown by the Supra's use of a rear hatch sun shade to avoid the louvres popularly associated with the Z car. Owing to an increase in the Supra's width, it was no longer regarded as a "compact" under Japanese dimension regulations. In 1981, Japanese buyers were offered an alternative to the Celica XX fastback bodystyle, called the Toyota Soarer coupe, which was offered at a different Japanese Toyota dealership network called Toyota Store, as the Celica XX was sold at Toyota Corolla Store.

L-type and P-type[edit]

In the North American market, the Celica Supra was available in two distinct models[citation needed]. There was the Performance Type (P-type henceforth) and the Luxury Type (L-type henceforth). While being mechanically identical, they were differentiated by the available options; tire sizes, wheel sizes, and body trim. The P-type had fiberglass fender flares over the wheel wells, while the L-type did not. The P-type was also standard with the more sporty 8-way adjustable seats. The P-type did not get the option of a leather interior until 1983. All editions of the P-Type had the same 14x7-inch aluminum alloy wheels and throughout the years the L-Type had 14x5.5-inch wheels until 1985 when they were changed to a P-type styled 15x6. The L-type also had the option of a digital dash with trip computer; some Canadian models had this option as well as a few rare instances of American models[citation needed]. The digital dash featured a digital tachometer, digital speedometer, and electronic fuel level and coolant level gauges. The trip computer could calculate and display various things such as fuel economy in miles-per-gallon, estimated time of arrival (ETA), and distance remaining to destination. Excluding the 1982 model, all P-types were available with headlight washers as an option, but the L-types were never fitted with such an option. Although gear ratios changed throughout the years all P-types came as standard with a limited slip differential.

1982[edit]

For 1982, in the North American market, the Celica Supra's engine was the 2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) 12-valve (2 valves per cylinder) DOHC 5M-GE. Power output was 145 hp (108 kW) and 155 lb·ft (210 N·m) of torque. The engine utilized an 8.8:1 compression ratio to achieve the power and featured a vacuum advanced distributor. When the car debuted it clocked a 0–60 time of 9.8 seconds and netted a 17.2 second 1/4 mile at 80 mph (130 km/h)[9]

1982 Supra MkII "L-Type"

The standard transmission for this year was the W58 5-speed manual with the A43DL 4-speed automatic transmission being an option for L-types. Both transmissions featured an overdrive gear and the automatic featured a locking torque converter. The top gear in the 5-speed was its overdrive whereas the automatic transmission featured an overdrive gear that would engage at speeds over 35 mph (56 km/h). The 1982 models' rear differential featured a 3.72:1 ratio. The Celica Supra's 4-wheel independent suspension was specially tuned and designed by Lotus and featured variable assisted power rack-and-pinion steering and MacPherson struts up front. As for the rear, it had semi-trailing arm suspension with coil springs and a stabilizer bar[citation needed]. Braking on the Celica Supra was handled by 4-wheel disc brakes[citation needed].

On the inside this generation had standard power windows, power door locks, and power mirrors as well as a tilt steering wheel. The power door lock was located in the center console next to the power mirror control. The analog dash of this year only went to 85 mph (140 km/h) in North America. The optional automatic climate control on the Mark I was renovated and was now seen as a standard feature on the Mark II. Cruise control was standard in this generation. Toyota also included the retractable map light as standard, just like with Mark I Supras. Some options included the addition of a sunroof, two-tone paint schemes, and 5-speaker AM/FM/MPX tuner with cassette. The optional cassette stereo featured a 105-watt power amplifier and a 7-band graphic equalizer to control tone. The standard stereo was a 5-channel AM/FM/MPX tuner. Leather was an option on L-Types this year, but P-types were stuck with standard striped cloth.

The AM/FM antenna was integrated into the front windshield rather than a typical external mast antenna. There was a key lock on the gas tank door (in lieu of remote release) and the hatch and rear bumper were black regardless of paint color for the rest of the car. The P-types were available with an optional rear sunshade above the hatch glass. The lights in the rear featured a reverse light in the center and the door handles opened the doors by pulling sideways. The front nose badge and B-pillar only read "SUPRA" for the first several months of production, but were changed to read "CELICA SUPRA" midway through the model year. L-types had front and rear mudflaps but P-types of this year did not.

1983[edit]

For the 1983 models not much was altered, but there was an increase in power output to 150 hp (112 kW) and 159 lb·ft (216 N·m) of torque from the same 5M-GE. The only real change in the engine area was the switch from a vacuum advanced to an electronic advanced distributor, yet that did not increase the power. Toyota switched to a 4.10:1 rear gear ratio for the P-Type and a 3.73:1 for the L-Type. As for the optional automatic transmission they replaced the A43DL 4-speed with a newly designed A43DE 4-speed. It featured an electronic controller that would adjust its shift pattern for a balance between performance and economy. It was the first in the industry to provide an "Electronically Controlled Transmission" (ECT). This allowed the driver to choose either the "Power" driving mode or "Normal" driving mode at the touch of the button. The Power mode provided the quickest acceleration and the "Normal" mode provided the best all-around performance.

On the inside of the car there were virtually no changes, but changes to the exterior included a switch to a power mast antenna, mudflaps now on all models, and the addition of headlight washers on P-types. All B-pillar and nose badges for cars sold in North America read "Celica Supra" and only P-Types were available in two-tone color schemes.

1984[edit]

1984 Supra MKII "P-Type"

In 1984, Toyota changed quite a bit on the Supra. Power output was increased on the 5-speed models with a bump up to 160 hp (119 kW) and 163 lb·ft (221 N·m) of torque. The increase was achieved by a mixture of a redesigned intake manifold with "D"-shaped intake runners and an increase in compression ratio to: 9.2:1.[2] Another notable change in the 5-speeds was the switch to a 4.30:1 gear ratio in the rear differential. All automatic Supras retained the previous years power numbers, but the rear gear ratio was changed to a 4.10:1.

The most notable exterior change was the switch to wraparound front turn signals. Also on the outside the tail-lights were redesigned and the hatch received a billboard "SUPRA" sticker instead of the smaller sticker, which was previously positioned on the right. The rear hatch and bumper was changed and received the same color as the rest of the car (instead of the black of previous years). The door handles were also switched around, opening by pulling up instead of sideways. This year Toyota also decided to offer two-tone paint schemes on both the P-Type and L-Type.

Some interior controls such as the steering wheel, cruise control, and door lock switch were redesigned. Toyota encompassed a 130 mph (210 km/h) speedometer instead of the traditional 85 mph (140 km/h) one and the automatic climate control display was also changed. The previous year's cassette/equalizer stereo option was now made a standard feature.

1985–1986[edit]

The Supra was altered again in 1985. On the engine side, power output was increased to 161 hp (120 kW) and 169 lb·ft (229 N·m) of torque. The good news was that all Supras this year had that same amount of power (both automatics and 5-speeds). The engine received a redesigned throttle position sensor (TPS) as well as a new EGR system and knock sensor. With the slight increase in power the Supra was able to propel itself from 0–60 mph in 8.4 seconds and netting a 16.1 second quarter mile at 85 mph (137 km/h).[10]

Other changes would be a redesigned, more "integrated" sunshade and spoiler on the rear hatch. The rear spoiler was changed from a one piece to a two piece spoiler. Oddly the L-types of this year were not available with a leather interior, but P-types were. Toyota added a standard factory theft deterrent system and the outside mirrors were equipped with a defogger that activated with the rear defroster. All Supras this year received automatic-off lights that also encompassed an automatic illuminated entry and fade-out system.

While 1985 was to be the last year of the second generation model, delays in production of the third generation model led to a surplus of second generation Supras. During the first half of 1986 the 1985 Mark II P-type was still offered for sale, with only minor cosmetic changes as well as the addition of a now mandatory rear-mounted third brake light on the hatch. These were all labelled officially as 1986 models. P-types were the only model available in 1986.

Mark IIs around the world[edit]

The second generation Supra came in a variety of options around the world as well as only being offered during select years.

Most of Europe[edit]

  • Sold from 1982 to 1986.
    • 82–83: 2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) DOHC 5M-GE 174 hp (130 kW) and 207 lb·ft (281 N·m) of torque. Analog dash, no fender flares.
    • 84–86: 2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) DOHC 5M-GE 178 hp (133 kW) and 212 lb·ft (287 N·m) of torque. Digital dash, P-Type fender flares.

Great Britain[edit]

  • Sold from 1982 to 1986.
    • 82–83: 2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) DOHC 5M-GE 178 hp (133 kW) and 212 lb·ft (287 N·m) of torque. Analog dash, no fender flares.
    • 84–86: 2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) DOHC 5M-GE 178 hp (133 kW) and 212 lb·ft (287 N·m) of torque. Digital dash, P-Type fender flares.

Australia, Sweden, & Switzerland[edit]

  • Sold from 1984 to 1986.
    • 2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) SOHC 5M-E 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp) and 167 lb·ft (226 N·m) of torque.
    • The Supra in Australia was sold from 1983 to 1986 had a digital dash, fender flares, 14x7-inch wheels, 84 style lights, single piece spoiler, LSD and optional sunroof. This was the only variant and no L Types were offered.
  • In Australia, the Supra (manufactured between 1982 and 1990), was assessed in the Used Car Safety Ratings 2006 as providing "worse than average" protection for its occupants in the event of a crash.

New Zealand[edit]

  • Sold from 1984 to 1985
    • 2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) DOHC 5M-GE 178 hp (133 kW) and 212 lb·ft (287 N·m) of torque. Digital dash, P-Type fender flares.

Japan[edit]

Further information: Toyota Celica XX


Quick information[edit]

Celica Supra (A60-series) quick information by chassis code
Code Year Engine Power Torque Transmission Market
MA61 1982–1983 2,759 cc (2.8 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-GE I6 174 hp (130 kW) 207 lb·ft (281 N·m) 5-speed W57 manual
4-Speed A43DL automatic (1982)
4-Speed A43DE automatic (1983)
EUR GBR
2,759 cc (2.8 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-GEU I6 160 hp (119 kW) 150 lb·ft (203 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual JPN
1984–1986 2,759 cc (2.8 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-E I6 140 hp (104 kW) 167 lb·ft (226 N·m) 5-speed W57 or W58 manual
4-Speed A43DE automatic
AUS CH SWE
2,759 cc (2.8 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-GE I6 178 hp (133 kW) 170 lb·ft (230 N·m) EUR GBR NZL
2,759 cc (2.8 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-GEU I6 160 hp (119 kW) 150 lb·ft (203 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual JPN
MA63 1982 1,988 cc (2.0 L; 121.3 cu in) M-TEU turbo I6 145 hp (108 kW) 156 lb·ft (212 N·m) 4-Speed A43D Automatic JPN
1983–1985 1,988 cc (2.0 L; 121.3 cu in) M-TEU turbo I6 160 hp (119 kW) 170 lb·ft (230 N·m)
MA67 1982 2,759 cc (2.8 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-GE I6 145 hp (108 kW) 155 lb·ft (210 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual
4-Speed A43DL automatic
CAN USA
1983 2,759 cc (2.8 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-GE I6 150 hp (112 kW) 159 lb·ft (216 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual
4-Speed A43DE automatic
1984 2,759 cc (2.8 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-GE I6 160 hp (119 kW) 163 lb·ft (221 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual
2,759 cc (2.8 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-GE I6 150 hp (112 kW) 159 lb·ft (216 N·m) 4-Speed A43DE automatic
1985–1986 2,759 cc (2.8 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-GE I6 161 hp (120 kW) 169 lb·ft (229 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual
4-Speed A43DE automatic
GA61 1982–1985 1,988 cc (2.0 L; 121.3 cu in) 1G-EU I6 125 hp (93 kW) 127 lb·ft (172 N·m) 5-speed W55 manual
4-Speed A43DL automatic
JPN
1982–1985 1,988 cc (2.0 L; 121.3 cu in) 1G-GEU I6 160 hp (119 kW) 134 lb·ft (182 N·m) 5-speed W55 manual

Mark III (A70; 1986–1992)[edit]

A70
3rd Toyota Supra.jpg
Overview
Also called Toyota Supra A70
Production May 1986–1993
Body and chassis
Body style fastback coupe
Platform A70
Powertrain
Engine

1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) 1G-GTE I6
2,491 cc (2.491 L; 152.0 cu in) 1JZ-GTE I6
2,954 cc (2.954 L; 180.3 cu in) Toyota 7M-GE I6

2,954 cc (2.954 L; 180.3 cu in) 7M-GTE I6
Transmission

5-speed W58 manual
5-speed R154 manual

4-Speed A340E automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,596 mm (102.2 in)
Length 4,620 mm (181.9 in)
Width 1,745 mm (68.7 in)
Height 1,310 mm (51.6 in) (1986.5–88)
1,301 mm (51.2 in) (1989–92)
Curb weight 1,537 kg (3,389 lb) (manual)
1,595 kg (3,516 lb) (automatic)

In May 1986, Toyota was ready to release its next version of the Supra. The bonds between the Celica and the Supra were cut; they were now two completely different models. The Celica changed to front-wheel drive, utilizing the Toyota "T" platform associated with the Toyota Corona, while the Supra kept its rear-wheel-drive platform. Though the Mark II and Mark III had similar designs, the engine was updated to a more powerful 3.0 200 hp (149 kW) inline 6. Although only available in naturally aspirated trim in 1986.5, a turbocharged version of the engine was introduced in the 1987 model year. The Supra was now related mechanically to the Toyota Soarer for the Japanese market.

The new Mark III Supra engine, the Toyota 7M-GE, was the flagship engine of Toyota's arsenal. Both versions of the engine contained 4 valves per cylinder and dual overhead cams. The turbocharged 7M-GTE engine was Toyota's first distributor-less engine offered in the US which used coil packs sitting on the cam covers and a cam position sensor driven by the exhaust camshaft.[11] It was equipped with a CT26 turbocharger and was rated at 230 hp (172 kW) at 5600 rpm while the naturally aspirated 7M-GE engine was rated at 200 hp (149 kW) at 6000 rpm. Further refinement on the turbo model increased power to 232 hp (173 kW) and 254 lb·ft (344 N·m) in 1989. This was mostly due to a redesign of the wastegate. All models used the same tire size of 225/50R16 on 16x7 inch wheels. Spare tires were full-sized but on steel wheels.

Owing to a large error in the factory head bolt torque specifications (likely owing to switching away from using an asbestos head gasket in lieu of a copper one), all of these engines had severe problems with blown head gaskets. Toyota never issued a recall for any of the affected vehicles. The problem could be easily fixed by replacing the head gasket and torquing the head bolts to 75 lb·ft (102 N·m) of torque. However, owing to the lack of a recall or appropriate service bulletin, the head gasket problem would recur in another 75,000 miles or so if the gasket was replaced and the bolts were retorqued to the erroneous service manual specifications of 56 lb·ft (76 N·m). With the head bolts torqued correctly, the engines were otherwise extremely durable.

The naturally aspirated came as standard issue with the W58 manual transmission. The turbo versions included the more robust R154 manual transmission. Both were available with the optional 4-speed A340E automatic transmission.

The third-generation Supra represented a great deal of new technology. In 1986, options available for the Supra included 3-channel ABS and TEMS which gave the driver 2 settings which affected the damper rates; a third was automatically activated at WOT, hard braking, and high speed maneuvering. HKS also made a "TEMS Controller" to hack the system and activate it on the fly, though the controllers are now nearly impossible to find.

ACIS (Acoustic Controlled Induction System), a method of controlling air compression pulses inside the intake piping to increase power, was also a part of the 7M-GE's technological arsenal. All models were fitted with double wishbone suspension front and rear. A targa top was offered along with a metal power sliding sunroof (added in '91).

Total Supra MkIII's produced: 108,565

1986[edit]

The third generation Supra was introduced in May 1986 as a free standing model, officially separating it from the Celica. Whereas the Celica became a front-wheel-drive sport coupe, the Supra retained its image as a rear-wheel-drive sports/GT car. The new Supra would continue to move upscale and become a showcase for Toyota technology. Originally meant to be released in 1985, production delays caused the model to actually be introduced mid year.[citation needed] The all new Supra was powered by a 3.0-liter DOHC inline six-cylinder engine rated at 200 bhp. Notable features included an electronically controlled independent suspension (called the Toyota Electronic Modulated Suspension – TEMS), and a removable Sport-Roof panel (Targa top).

Production: 33,283[12]

1987[edit]

The first Supra Turbo was introduced in 1987. The inter-cooled, turbo charged version of the 3.0-liter inline 6-cylinder engine boosted power to 230 hp (172 kW; 233 PS) 240 lb·ft (325 N·m). The Turbo model also included an engine oil cooler and integrated rear spoiler. The sports package, which was standard on the Turbo and optional on the base model, included a limited slip differential (LSD), TEMS, and headlamp washers. A new Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) was optional on both models. Also in 87 a new beige/tan color combination was implemented, and only 1000 models were produced with this scheme.

Production: 29,907[12]

1988[edit]

Not much changed for the 1988 year, with the exception of the dropping of two-toned brown exterior paint. The turbo spoiler brake light changed from a square, to a trapezoid shape. Seat pattern was changed from squares to lines, and "foil" on climate control and switch gear changed from light to dark gray.

Production: 19,596[12]

1989[edit]

During the year of 1989, modifications to the wastegate actuator, feed location and engine management netted another 2 hp (1 kW) on the turbo model. The engine mount and brace were also changed in late 1989, with the exact date not known as of this writing. The changes made to the cross member and mounts made to accommodate the 1JZ engine for Japan models. The protective body molding was also changed by taking away the steel reinforcement. This made the molding lighter and prevented the rusting problem on the previous years. The "white package" was introduced as well, featuring white body molding and white wheels. Interior choices were limited to blue and burgundy only. Other than pure cosmetics, there was nothing different from other models. All models received rear 3 point seat belts to replace the previous years' two point lap belts. New tail lights, front bumper with integrated lower grille (as opposed to the previous years' detachable grille), side mirrors, turn signals, upper grilles, foglights, steering wheel, door panels, climate control, window switches and bezels, and stereo. Addition of coat hooks on B-pillar and removal of rear seat pockets round out interior changes. Turbo models received three piece spoiler with integrated LED brake light. 1989 also marked the end of headlight washers in the U.S. and SuperMonitor; an advanced system offered by Toyota able to calculate miles able to be traveled on current tank, ability to check vehicle codes from inside the cabin, among other features.

Production: 14,544[12]

1990[edit]

For the 1990 model year, changes included larger protective laminate in front of rear wheels, lower redline (owing to the heavier crank with cylinders 2 & 5 counterbalanced), redesigned steering wheel with cruise control relocated to a stalk on the right side. In addition to an airbag and airbag indicator light on dash, there was also a redesign of the left side switch panel, which replaced one of the coin slots with the dimmer. Lower dash panel became a two piece design, which was also much heavier than the previous one piece panel owing to a change in material. Finally the memory lever on the steering column was removed.

Production: 6,419[12]

1991[edit]

1991–1992 Supra (US)

For the 1991 model year, the wheel design was changed to 5-spoke wheels. Both models wore 16x7 aluminum alloy wheels that were fitted with 225/50/16 tires and full-sized spares on steel wheels. Body molding changed in color to better match the exterior. The front "Supra" emblem was also changed to the current corporate oval Toyota symbol. The speedometer was also revised, and included more lines in the speedometer, that were removed in 1989, but still did not have as many (one line per mph) as 86.5 to 1988 models. New interior colors shadow gray and deep red were introduced, which marked the end of medium gray, tan and burgundy. Blue became only available on white packages, and those with blue paint. Burgundy was replaced with white package-only deep red. Every other body color received shadow gray, with leather interiors retaining medium gray seats and interior inserts. Front speakers were changed from 3.5" to 6.5" and the speaker cover was also enlarged to accommodate them.

Production: 3,623[12]

1992[edit]

For 1992 leather shadow gray interiors received black seats and inserts. Non-turbo models lost the option of a targa top, and a new optional subwoofer was available. Subwoofer-equipped Supras did without the rear bins, and wooden "floorboard." Instead rear carpet was molded to the spare tire, and there was a cut-out for the woofer housing.

Production: 1,193[12]

JZA70 and GA70[edit]

The Supra was also available in two non-export models in Japan, the JZA70 with a 2.5 L 280 PS (206 kW) twin-turbo 1JZ-GTE, known as 2.5GT Twin Turbo (JZA70), and the GA70 with a 2.0 L 210 PS (154 kW) twin-turbo 1G-GTE and non turbo 1G-GEU.

A special version of the 1JZ-GTE equipped JZA70, the 2.5 Twin Turbo R, had a Torsen differential, Bilstein suspension, larger diameter sway bars, Recaro seats, Momo wheel and gear knob and matching interior trim. The front lip included front brake ducts. The Twin Turbo R introduced the color option Metallic Dark Green.

Turbo A[edit]

The Turbo-A was Toyota's evolution model for [Group A] Japanese Touring Car Championships (JTCC) all over the world which required a minimum homologation run of 500 units which were only sold in Japan and was produced between August and September 1988. Thus the term 88 Spec A. Some noted differences between the standard Supra 3.0 GT and the Turbo-A model are both cosmetic and some mechanical. The engine came with a special head that had less valve shrouding, and clearance cut for higher lift cams. TRD sourced cams helped increase valve lift and the stock CT-26 turbo had a slightly larger inducer. The intercooler had extra rows of cooling tubes and the intercooler piping was larger in diameter. The turbo-A had a 65mm throttle body, instead of the standard 7M-GTE 60&mm size.

The fuel management used a MAP system, instead of the standard Karmen Vortex AFM and is a popular and easy swop-out for stand-alone management systems. The front bumper and the 3-piece spoiler and taillights were used on all Japanese market and US market cars. European market vehicles starting in 1989 instead of the typical 86–88 set, were sold in a stealthy plain white, without decals or the 3-piece tailgate spoiler. The front nose however features an additional "Turbo A duct" to add airflow to the heat exchangers. Also unique was the side decal and rear badging ("3.0GT Turbo A") and a black paint job (paint code 202) on Japanese and US market cars. All Japanese Turbo-As came standard with grey leather interior featuring a Momo-sourced steering wheel and shift knob. European models have velour, once again rendering them incognito among the lesser 3.0GT models. Its engine bay features a 266 hp (198 kW) 7M-GTEU.

The car did not win as many races as hoped as it was bumped up a class due to engine size. Being a 3.0L, it was forced to run with more weight whereas the equally powerful, higher revving but slightly smaller capacity R32 Skyline GTR did not have the same weight restriction. It was soon outperformed by the Skyline GT-R R32 when it made its debut in 1990. For the Japanese Touring Car Championship (JTCC), Toyota would in 1991 switch to racing the Corolla Levins instead in the lower category until the series final year in 1993. However in the less 'limited' racing, like Group B Rally Championships, National Drag racing, Hill climbs, Sprint Events and Clubmans series, the Supra Turbo-A did considerably better.

All Turbo-A cars were fitted with a TRD-sourced torque-vectoring mechanical limited-slip differential with 50:50 left:right lockup on full throttle. TRD was also responsible for the thick rear-anti squat tram-rods which was integral to the multi-link rear suspension setup to control rear squat under hard acceleration and launching.

Quick information[edit]

Mark III Quick information by Chassis code
Code Year Engine Power Torque Transmission Market
MA70 May 1986 – May 1993 2,954 cc (2.954 L; 180.3 cu in) Toyota 7M-GE I6 200 hp (149 kW; 203 PS) 196 lb·ft (266 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual
4-speed A340E automatic
CAN EUR USA
2,954 cc (2.954 L; 180.3 cu in) 7M-GTE turbo I6 230 hp (172 kW; 233 PS) 240 lb·ft (325 N·m) 5-speed R154 manual
4-speed A340E automatic
CAN EUR JPN USA
GA70 May 1986 – 1992 1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) 1G-GEU I6 160 hp (119 kW; 162 PS) 130 lb·ft (176 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual
4-speed A340E automatic
JPN
1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) 1G-GTE twin-turbo I6 205 hp (153 kW; 208 PS) 180 lb·ft (244 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual
4-speed A340E automatic
JPN
JZA70 1990–1993 2,491 cc (2.491 L; 152.0 cu in) 1JZ-GTE twin-turbo I6 276 hp (206 kW; 280 PS) 268 lb·ft (363 N·m) 5-speed R154 manual
4-speed A340E automatic
JPN

Mark IV (A80; 1993–2002)[edit]

Mark IV
'93-'95 Toyota Supra.jpg
Overview
Also called Toyota Supra Mark IV
Production Dec 1992[13]–Aug 2002
Assembly Toyota City, Aichi, Japan (Motomachi plant)[14]
Body and chassis
Body style fastback coupe
Platform A80
Related Toyota Soarer (Z30)
Lexus SC (first generation)
Ohno Naomi III[15]
Powertrain
Engine

2,997 cc (2.997 L; 182.9 cu in) Toyota 2JZ-GE I6

2,997 cc (2.997 L; 182.9 cu in) Toyota 2JZ-GTE I6
Transmission

5-speed W58 manual
6-speed V16x manual

4-speed A340E automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,550 mm (100.4 in)
Length 4,515 mm (177.8 in) (1993–1998)
4,514 mm (177.7 in) (1999–2002)
Width 1,811 mm (71.3 in)
Height 1,265 mm (49.8 in) (1993–1998)
1,275 mm (50.2 in) (1999–2002)
Curb weight 1,460 kg (3,219 lb) (non-turbo)
1,550 kg (3,417 lb) (turbo)

With this version Toyota took a big leap in the direction of a more serious high-performance car. Again using subframe, suspension,and drivetrain assemblies from the Z30 Soarer (Lexus SC300/400), test model pre-production started in December 1992 with 20 models,[13] and official mass production began in April 1993.[13] The new Supra was completely redesigned, with rounded body styling and featured two new engines: a naturally aspirated Toyota 2JZ-GE producing 220 hp (164 kW; 223 PS) at 5800 rpm and 210 lb·ft (280 N·m) at 4800 rpm of torque and a twin turbocharged Toyota 2JZ-GTE making 276 hp (206 kW; 280 PS) and 318 lb·ft (431 N·m) of torque for the Japanese version. The styling, while modern, does seem to borrow some elements from Toyota's first grand touring sports car, the Toyota 2000GT. For the export model (America/Europe) Toyota upgraded the Supra turbo's engine (smaller, steel wheeled turbochargers, bigger fuel injectors, etc.). This increased the power output to 320 hp (239 kW; 324 PS) at 5600 rpm and 315 lb·ft (427 N·m) at 4000 rpm.[13] The turbocharged variant could achieve 0–60 mph in as low as 4.6 seconds and 1/4 mile (402 m) in 13.1 seconds at 109 mph (175 km/h).[16] The turbo version was tested to reach over 285 km/h (177 mph), but the cars are restricted to just 180 km/h (112 mph) in Japan and 250 km/h (155 mph) elsewhere. European versions of the car also had an air intake on the hood. Drag coefficient is .31 for the naturally aspirated models and .32 for the turbo models but unknown with the rear spoiler.

The twin turbos operated in sequential mode, not parallel. Initially, all of the exhaust is routed to the first turbine for reduced lag. This resulted in boost and enhanced torque as early as 1800 rpm, where it already produced 300 lb·ft (410 N·m) of torque. At 3500 rpm, some of the exhaust is routed to the second turbine for a "pre-boost" mode, although none of the compressor output is used by the engine at this point. At 4000 rpm, the second turbo's output is used to augment the first turbo's output. Compared to the parallel mode, sequential mode turbos provide quicker low RPM response and increased high RPM boost. This high RPM boost was also aided with technology originally present in the 7M-GE in the form of the Acoustic Control Induction System (ACIS) which is a way of managing the air compression pulses within the intake piping as to increase power.

For this generation, the Supra received a new 6-speed Getrag/Toyota V160 gearbox on the turbo models while the naturally aspirated models made do with a 5-speed manual W58, revised from the previous version. Each model was offered with a 4-speed automatic with manual shifting mode. Turbo models were equipped with larger brakes and tires. All vehicles were equipped with 5-spoke aluminium alloy wheels and a space saver spare tire on a steel wheel to save weight and space.

Toyota took measures to reduce the weight of this new model. Aluminium was used for the hood, targa top (when fitted), front crossmember, oil and transmission pans, and the suspension upper A-arms. Other measures included hollow carpet fibers, magnesium-alloy steering wheel, plastic gas tank and lid, gas injected rear spoiler, and a single pipe exhaust. Despite having more features such as dual airbags, traction control, larger brakes, wheels, tires, and an additional turbo, the car was at least 200 lb (91 kg) lighter than its predecessor. The base model with a manual transmission had a curb weight of 3,210 lb (1,460 kg). The Sport Roof added 40 lb (18 kg) while the automatic transmission added 55 lb (25 kg). It had a 51:49 (front:rear) weight distribution. The turbo model weighed 3,450 lb (1,560 kg) for the manual, automatic added another 10 lb (4.5 kg). Weight distribution was 53% front/47% rear. The Supra was heavier than the spartan Mazda RX-7 and all aluminium bodied Acura/Honda NSX, but it was lighter than the Nissan 300ZX and Mitsubishi 3000GT VR-4.[17]

For the 1996 model year in the US, the turbo model was only available with the automatic transmission owing to OBD-II certification requirements. The targa roof was also made standard on all turbo models. For 1997, manual transmission returned for the optional engine along with a redesign of the tail lights, headlights, front fascia, chromed wheels, and other minor changes such as the radio and steering wheel designs. All 1997 models included badges indicating "Limited Edition 15th Anniversary". All turbo models came standard with the rear spoiler. For 1998, updates were a 3-spoke steering wheel and redesigned radio. In Japan, the turbo engines were installed with VVT-i. The SZ-R model was also updated with the introduction of a six-speed Getrag V161 transmission, the same used for the twin-turbo RZ models.

The stock Mark IV Supra chassis has also proven an effective platform for roadracing, with several top 20 and top 10 One Lap Of America finishes in the SSGT1 class. Despite its curb weight, in 1994 the Mark IV managed remarkable skidpad ratings of 0.95 lateral g's (200 ft) and 0.98 lateral g's (300 ft)[18] The Mark IV Supra also featured a four-sensor four-channel track tuned ABS system with yaw control whereby each caliper is sensored and the brakes are controlled individually according to the speed, angle, and pitch of the approaching corner. This unique Formula One-inspired braking system allowed the Supra Turbo to record a 70 mph (113 km/h) -0 braking distance of 149 ft (45 m),[19] the best braking performance of any production car tested in 1997 by Car and Driver magazine. This record was finally broken in 2004 by a Porsche Carrera GT, which does it in 145 ft (44 m) .

The US and UK market Supra featured bigger injectors, steel turbines and bigger inlet cam and had emissions in the range of 259 g/km CO
2
despite the addition of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The Japanese market Supra had CO
2
emissions in the range of 224 g/km.[citation needed]

By the late 90s, sales of all sporty coupes were declining in North America, so the Supra was withdrawn from the Canadian market in 1996 and the US in 1998. The Turbo was not available in 1998 in California Air Resources Board (CARB) states. Production continued in Japan until August 2002, ceasing owing to restrictive emission standards.

Possible successor[edit]

Rear view: 2007 Toyota FT-HS
Front view: 2007 Toyota FT-HS

Motor Trend has reported a possible Supra successor could be based on the Toyota FT-HS (Future Toyota-Hybrid Sport),[20] which debuted at the 2007 North American International Auto Show. A Supra successor could be powered by a 3.5-liter V-6 hybrid system generating over 400 hp. Toyota says it is not rushing the Supra successor but instead is waiting to see how the sales and interests of its GT86/FR-S goes.[21]

In 2010, Toyota applied for a trademark to the Supra name. The trademark must be used within three years for it to be valid.[22] In December 2011, Autoguide reported a possible Supra replacement that would sit above the Toyota 86.[23] Tetsuya Tada, the chief engineer of the Toyota 86/Scion FR-S told reporters in Germany "the president (Akio Toyoda) has asked me to make a successor to the Supra as soon as possible."[24]

In late 2013, AutoBlog reported a Supra successor concept was coming to the January 2014 North American International Auto Show.[25] On January 13, Toyota unveiled its' new FT-1 concept car. Little is known about this new concept car; other than that it has a front engine and rear wheel drive layout. Toyota did also state their new concept car draws inspiration from Toyota's past sports cars like the 2000GT, Supra, MR-2, and 2007 FT-HS concept car. Toyota did not state whether the FT-1 would use the Supra name, or if it was even bound for production. However, Toyota did say if the FT-1 is approved from production to expect a price tag of around US$60,000.[26]

On February 10, 2014, Toyota submitted an application to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to renew the Supra trademark.[27]

Motorsport[edit]

Awards[edit]

United States timeline[edit]

  • 1979 – Celica Supra Mark I introduced with 2,563 cc (2.563 L; 156.4 cu in) SOHC 4M-E I6 engine.
  • 1981 – Mark I engine displacement upped to 2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) with SOHC 5M-E I6 engine.
  • 1982 – Mark II Celica Supra introduced with a 2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) DOHC 5M-GE I6 engine.
  • 1986–1986.5 Mark III Supra introduced on its own platform with 2,954 cc (2.954 L; 180.3 cu in) DOHC 7M-GE I6 engine.
  • 1987 – Option of turbocharger to 2,954 cc (2.954 L; 180.3 cu in) DOHC 7M-GTE engine that produces 230 hp (172 kW) 245 lb·ft (332 N·m).
  • 1989 – Restyled. Turbo power increase to 232 hp (173 kW) & 250 lb·ft (339 N·m).
  • 1993–1993.5 Mark IV Supra introduced with 2,997 cc (2.997 L; 182.9 cu in) turbo (2JZ-GTE) or non-turbo (2JZ-GE) DOHC engine.
  • 1996 – Turbo only available with automatic transmission owing to OBD2 certification requirements. Targa roof standard on all turbo models.
  • 1997 – Manual transmission available on turbo models. Restyled front bumper and grey (instead of black) taillight surrounds. Restyled headlights, now black on the inside with chrome rings (all chrome previously) and a clearer lens. All 1997 labeled as 15th Anniversary model. New grey dash panels to replace the previous black. Japanese production stopped in September.
  • 1998 – Slight restyling of interior. 3-spoke steering wheel introduced. Slightly updated seat design (headrest is no longer separate) VVT-i on non-turbo models which increased power. Turbos not available in states that require California emissions.
  • 1999 – Export of Mark IV Supra halted in the U.S., production in Japan continues.
  • 2002 – Production of Mark IV Supra halts.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Toyota Celica Parts Catalogue 1977–1981. Toyota. 
  2. ^ a b "FAQ: What is the history of the Toyota Supra?". toyota.com. Retrieved December 22, 2006. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Vehicles : Supra" (Press release). USA: Toyota. Archived from the original on November 30, 2007. Retrieved April 28, 2013. 
  4. ^ "The History Of Toyota's M Engines". eds.au.com. Retrieved December 22, 2006. 
  5. ^ Toyota Celica parts catalog USA & Canada (revised final), RA4#, MA4#. Toyota. June 1985. 49212R81. 
  6. ^ a b "MK I Celica Supra History". celicasupra.com. Archived from the original on December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 22, 2006. 
  7. ^ "1981 Toyota Celica Supra Road Test Data & Specifications" (JPG). Supra vs. Supra. Motor Trend. February 1982. p. 46. Retrieved December 22, 2006. 
  8. ^ "Toyota Vehicle Identification Manual", Toyota Motor Corporation, Overseas Parts Department, Catalog No.97913-84, 1984, Japan
  9. ^ "1982 Toyota Celica Specifications". Toyota Celica Supra. Car and Driver. October 1981. p. 42. Retrieved December 22, 2006. 
  10. ^ "Car and Driver test results" (JPG). Having it All. Car and Driver. May 1985. p. 74. Retrieved December 22, 2006. 
  11. ^ "FSM" (PDF). Toyota Mark III Supra: Factory Service Manual. 1990. Retrieved January 11, 2008. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g "Toyota Supra". Musclecarclub.com. Retrieved November 7, 2012. 
  13. ^ a b c d "Toyota Supra MKIV : MKIV Specifications". Mkiv.supras.org.nz. August 7, 2009. Retrieved October 11, 2010. 
  14. ^ "Toyota Supra Turbo: Leaner and Meaner - Tech Data" (JPG). Motor Trend (March): 57. 1993. Retrieved April 27, 2013. 
  15. ^ "Naomi III". OHNO Car Craft. Retrieved April 27, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Toyota Supra Turbo: Think of it as a Lexus for Smokey Yunick" (JPG). Car and Driver (March): 41. 1993. Retrieved April 27, 2013. 
  17. ^ "The 300 Horsepower Club". Road & Track. March 26, 2003. Retrieved April 27, 2013. 
  18. ^ "1993 Supra Turbo". Road & Track (March). 1993. Retrieved April 27, 2013. 
  19. ^ "Toyota 2000GT". Car & Driver (March). 1997. Retrieved April 27, 2013. 
  20. ^ "2007 Toyota FT-HS Concept – Latest News, Features, and Auto Show Coverage". – AutomobileMag.com. December 20, 2006. Retrieved October 11, 2010. 
  21. ^ Lyon, Peter (December 12, 2011). "Report: We Hear: New Toyota Supra in Pipeline, Coming with 400-HP Hybrid". Motor Trend. Retrieved December 16, 2011. 
  22. ^ Korzeniewski, Jeremy (July 30, 2010). "Report: Toyota secures trademark for Supra name – Autoblog". Autoblog.com. Retrieved October 5, 2010. 
  23. ^ Siu, Jason (December 6, 2011). "Toyota Supra Successor One Of Two New Models Being Considered". Retrieved November 12, 2012. 
  24. ^ Ee, Samuel (November 13, 2012). "Report: Toyota to let loose two more sports cars after the 86 – AsiaOne". asiaone.com. Retrieved January 28, 2014. 
  25. ^ Miersma, Seyth (December 2013). "Report: Toyota to shock with Supra concept for Detroit Auto Show?". autoblog.com. Retrieved January 27, 2014. 
  26. ^ Reynolds, Kim (January 13, 2014). "Toyota FT-1 Concept First Look: Akio's Assault Vehicle: Futuristic Sports Car Melds F1 Influences With Supra Styling". motortrend.com. Retrieved January 27, 2014. 
  27. ^ Collett, Trevor (February 17, 2014). "Toyota Supra Name Back On The Table, US Patent Application Filed – The Motor Report". themotorreport.com.au. Retrieved February 17, 2014. 

External links[edit]