|Assembly||Fremont, California, USA (NUMMI) (1995-2010)
Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico (TMMBC)
San Antonio, Texas, USA (TMMTX)
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Compact pickup truck (First gen)
Mid-size pickup truck (Second gen)
|Body style||2-door regular cab
2-door extended cab
4-door crew cab
|Layout||Front-engine, rear-wheel drive / Four-wheel drive|
|Predecessor||Toyota Pickup Truck|
The Toyota Tacoma is a pickup truck manufactured in the U.S. by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota since 1995. The first generation Tacoma, model years 1995½ through 2004, was classified as a compact pickup. The second generation was classified as mid-size. The Tacoma was Motor Trend Magazine's Truck of the Year for 2005.
First generation (1995–2004)
|Production||January 1995 — August 27, 2004|
|Designer||Kevin Hunter (1992, 1993)|
|Body and chassis|
Toyota Land Cruiser Prado
Toyota 4Runner/Hilux Surf
|Engine||2.4 L 2RZ-FE I4 142 hp (106 kW)
2.7 L 3RZ-FE I4 150 hp (112 kW)
3.4 L 5VZ-FE V6 190 hp (142 kW)
|Wheelbase||1995-2000 Regular Cab: 103.3 in (2,624 mm)
2001-04 Regular Cab: 104.3 in (2,649 mm)
Xtracab: 121.9 in (3,096 mm)
|Length||1995-97 Regular Cab 2WD: 174.8 in (4,440 mm)
Xtracab 2WD: 193.3 in (4,910 mm)
1995-97 Regular Cab 4WD: 180.5 in (4,585 mm)
1995-97 Xtracab 4WD: 199.0 in (5,055 mm)
1998-2000 Regular Cab 4WD, 1998-2002 PreRunner Regular Cab 2WD: 183.8 in (4,669 mm)
1998-2002 Xtracab 4WD & PreRunner Xtracab: 202.3 in (5,138 mm)
1998-2002 Regular Cab 2WD: 184.5 in (4,686 mm)
1998-2002 Xtracab 2WD: 203.1 in (5,159 mm)
2003-04 Regular Cab 4WD: 184.4 in (4,684 mm)
2003-04 Xtracab V6 & Double Cab: 202.9 in (5,154 mm)
|Width||66.5 in (1,689 mm)
Between wheel well: 40 in (1,016 mm)
2001-02 Crew Cab: 70.1 in (1,781 mm)
2003-04 Crew Cab: 70.3 in (1,786 mm)
|Height||2WD: 61.0-64.1 in (1549-1628 mm)
4WD: 66.3-67.7 in (1684-1720 mm)
|Curb weight||2WD: 3155 lbs
4WD: 3877 lbs
The Tacoma was introduced in the US in February 1995 as a replacement for the Hilux, which prior to this was marketed in the US under the name Toyota Pickup. Compared with the Hilux, the Tacoma is engineered with a greater priority on ride quality, handling, comfort, and safety over ruggedness and payload capacity. The design is intended to better suit the needs of the US and Canadian pickup truck market, where pickup trucks, particularly compact and mid-sized models, are often used as personal vehicles, and less exclusively for commercial, agricultural, and off road use. The name was derived from the city of Tacoma. Design work was done at Calty Design Research in California from 1990 to late 1992, when Kevin Hunter's final design was chosen and frozen for production in 1993. Patents for the production design were filed in Japan in April 1993 and October 28, 1993 in the United States.
There were a total of three engines available for the Toyota Tacoma:
- 2.4 L four-cylinder rated at 142 hp (106 kW) and 160 lb·ft (217 N·m) of torque
- 2.7 L four-cylinder rated at 150 hp (112 kW) and 177 lb·ft (240 N·m) of torque
- 3.4 L V6 rated at 190 hp (142 kW) and 220 lb·ft (298 N·m) of torque.
The 2.4 L gave a highly useful 29 miles per US gallon (8.1 L/100 km; 35 mpg-imp) (hwy), the 2.7 L gave 26 miles per US gallon (9.0 L/100 km; 31 mpg-imp) (hwy), and the 3.4 L delivered 22 miles per US gallon (11 L/100 km; 26 mpg-imp) (hwy).
Two-wheel drive Tacomas had 5-stud wheel lug patterns. The 2.4 L and 3.4 L engines were available in this vehicle depending on options. Automatic and manual transmissions were available.
Four-wheel drive Tacomas had six-stud wheel lug patterns, which had been used on the prior pickups (pre-Tacoma trucks). The truck's frame is fully boxed until immediately after the front leaf spring mount bracket where it transitions into a c-frame section. The 3.4 V6's manual transmission was an R150F while the automatic transmission was an A340F (Aisin code is 30-40LE). From 95-97 Single cab Tacomas had the option of a manual transmission with the 3.4 V6 engine. The aftermarket TRD supercharged 3.4L V6 produced 254 bhp (189 kW) and 270 lb·ft (366 N·m). From 1998 on, the single cabs only got a 2.7 L or a 2.4 L 4-cylinder from the factory. TRD packages started in 1998 (if the V6 engine was selected, a differential locker in the rear came with it).
Prerunner models started in 1998. They share the same front and rear suspension parts and geometry, frame, styling and engine options as the 4x4 Tacomas of this year range. Prerunner Tacomas also had the option of the TRD Off-Road package which (like the 4x4) got a rear differential locker if it was a V6 model (among other suspension variations). The V6 Tacoma automatic transmissions were an A340E. Because of the similarities in the Prerunner and 4x4 models, it is possible to use stock parts to convert a Prerunner to a 4x4.
In its first couple years of production the Tacoma sold very well, attracting many young buyers. The first generation Tacoma underwent a minor headlight upgrade from recessed to flush headlights in 1997 and a total of two cosmetic facelifts: the first in 1998, and the second in 2001. The facelifts mainly entailed grilles (1998, 2001) and tailgate badging and emblems (1998). Mechanical changes included a switch to distributorless ignitions (coil-on-plug) in 1997 and in 1998 longer rear leaf springs. A passenger-side air bag was added for 1998, and the driver's side air bag (added in 1995) was "depowered". Most 4x4 models came with Toyota's Automatic Differential Disconnect (ADD) system after the 2000 model year.
The only extra feature in 2001 was a new crew cab (four-door) model added to the lineup. The crew cab featured four doors, while the extended cabs still opened with two doors. The extended cab featured a 6-foot (2 m) bed while the crew cab featured a 5-foot-5-inch (1.65 m) bed. Many customers were upset with small crew cab beds, but most competitors shared this shortcoming.
In 2001, along with the front facelift, Toyota had also unveiled an S-Runner trim package which included the 3.4-liter V6 engine. It came with 16-inch (410 mm) alloy wheels, and a 5-speed manual transmission with Tokico gas shocks. There were only 200 produced each month from 2001 to 2004. By 2003 the Tacoma had gained 16.5 percent sales from its previous years. The Tacoma's popularity only increased in the next few years. By 2004 it was ahead of the Nissan Frontier, and Dodge Dakota, but still 2.2 percent behind in sales to the Ford Ranger.
In 2008, Toyota proactively announced a 15 year, unlimited mileage corrosion warranty for 1995-2000 model years due to inadequate rustproofing and frame corrosion issues affecting a small number of Tacomas. Toyota will either repair the frame or buyback the truck for 1.5 times its KBB retail value. This was later extended to include 2001-2004 model years, but in these cases when a frame was found to be rusty to the point of perforation, the frame is replaced with a new one instead of a buy back.
On November 21, 2012, Toyota recalled about 150,000 Tacoma mid-size pickup trucks from the model years 2001 to 2004 that were sold primarily in 20 cold-weather U.S. states. The recall involves the spare tire and how it could fall off.
Second generation (2005–present)
|Production||September 14, 2004–present|
|Designer||Akira Yamaguchi, Yusuke Fukushima (2001)|
|Body and chassis|
|Layout||Front engine, rear-wheel drive/four-wheel drive|
Toyota Land Cruiser Prado
Toyota 4Runner/Hilux Surf
Toyota FJ Cruiser
|Engine||2.7 L 2TR-FE I4 (159 hp)
4.0 L 1GR-FE V6 (236 hp)
|Wheelbase||Regular Cab 4WD & PreRunner: 110.0 in (2,794 mm)
Access Cab: 127.8 in (3,246 mm)/127.2 in (3,231 mm)
Double Cab Long Bed: 140.9 in (3,579 mm)
Regular Cab 2WD: 109.4 in (2,779 mm)
|Length||Regular Cab: 190.4 in (4,836 mm)
Access Cab: 208.1 in (5,286 mm)
Double Cab Long Bed: 221.3 in (5,621 mm)
|Width||2WD Extended: 74.6 in (1,895 mm)
2WD Regular: 72.2 in (1,834 mm)
4WD: 74.7 in (1,897 mm)
X-Runner: 74.0 in (1,880 mm)
|Height||Extended Cab & 4WD Regular: 69.9 in (1,775 mm)
Double Cab: 70.1 in (1,781 mm)
Regular Cab 2WD: 65.7 in (1,669 mm)
2005-06 X-Runner: 65.2 in (1,656 mm)
2007-Present X-Runner: 72.2 in (1,834 mm)
|Curb weight||(3550 lb)
On February 4, 2004 at the Chicago Auto Show, Toyota unveiled a bigger and more powerful Tacoma. This new Tacoma was available in eighteen different configurations, that included three cab configurations, four transmissions, two engines, and two bed lengths. The three cab configurations consist of regular cab, access cab, and double cab. The transmissions come in 4-speed automatic, 5-speed automatic, 5-speed manual, and 6-speed manual. Beds are: 6 ft (1.8 m) long bed, and 5 ft (1.5 m) short bed. The Tacoma's 4.0-liter 1GR-FE V6 took the place of the original 3.4-liter 5VZ-FE V6. The new V6 had many enhancements, such as a tow rating of 6,500 lb (2,948 kg), and a payload capacity of 1,650 lb (748 kg). It produces 236 horsepower (176 kW) and 266 lb·ft (361 N·m) of torque. The smaller, but all-new 2.7-liter 2TR-FE 4-cylinder alternative in less expensive models is rated at 159 hp (119 kW) and 180 lb·ft (244 N·m). of torque.
Toyota also introduced an X-Runner trim, which replaces the slow selling S-Runner trim from the previous generation. The X-Runner features the 1GR-FE paired to a six-speed manual transmission, 18 in (457 mm) alloy wheels, lowered two inches from the factory and included an X-Brace suspension package. Toyota also included a Down-Hill Assist Control (DAC) and Hill-Start Assist Control (HAC), with models that were equipped with the optional Toyota Racing Development (TRD) Off-Road package. DAC automatically applies braking during downhill descents while HAC prevents the vehicle from rolling backwards on hills. A rear locking differential, or limited-slip differential were also some optional features. Every Tacoma was manufactured with a composite inner bed that includes a deck rail system with four tie down cleats, hook-pins, storage boxes. TRD package equipped Tacomas also feature an in-bed 115V/400W AC power outlet. The tie down cleats are rated to hold up to 220 lb (100 kg).
The 2006 model Tacoma was a bit different from the 2005 model. The 2006 model made some options standard. Toyota also added 2 new interior colors for the 2007 model year. 2008 models are carry-ons from 2007. For 2009 safety features were added and the Tacoma no longer offers a mechanical limited slip differential rather an open differential which uses individual wheel braking to simulate a mechanical LSD or "Auto-LSD". TRD off-road models continue to come equipped with a locking rear differential. The second generation Tacomas were assembled in Tijuana, Mexico and Fremont, California while the plastic/composite beds were all built in Mexico. However, in August 2009 Toyota announced that it would relocate Tacoma production from Fremont to San Antonio, Texas.
A minor facelift came for 2009, including a slightly revised grille on some models, new LED taillamps, and on the X-Runner, TRD Offroad and TRD Sport models includes smoked headlamp trim. Auxiliary audio input now comes standard. The Access/Double Cab trucks have two new ceiling mounted speakers and available backup monitor. Four new exterior colors are also added to the Tacoma.
After the bankruptcy of GM, GM ended the NUMMI venture. Following the decision of GM, and in order to avoid the first Toyota owned and operated unionized plant, Toyota terminated all Corolla and Tacoma production at the Fremont plant. In 2010 all Tacoma production was moved to Toyota's Texas plant in San Antonio. The Tacoma will be built alongside the Tundra. This brought a total of approximately 1,000 new jobs to San Antonio
The 2012 model year refresh featured a restyled front bumper, headlights, grille, hood, new interior and a shark fin antenna for the SiriusXM satellite radio. The 2013 model year comes with touch screen audio system.
SG Automotive manufactures a truck with a similar grille and headlights called the Huanghai Major in China.
Safety and structural integrity
The Tacoma comes standard with anti-lock brakes, brake assist, and electronic brakeforce distribution. In 2008, a rollover sensor was added which would deploy the side curtain airbags in the event of rollover in Tacomas equipped with the optional side airbags. Beginning with the 2009 model year, all Tacomas feature Toyota's Star Safety System which added Vehicle Stability Control and traction control. Front row side torso airbags and side curtain airbags for both rows also become standard as well as active head restraints.
Given the smaller size of pickup trucks in the Tacoma's category, crash testing for these sized trucks lags with how well most full size trucks perform. However, in an Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) test of the Tacoma and other small trucks, only the side airbag equipped Tacoma received the highest overall rating of "Good" in the side impact test. The Tacoma also is rated "Good" in the frontal offset crash test. In 2009 with the active head restraints the Tacoma is given the IIHS's Top Safety Pick award.
The most noticeable downside to the build is the weak body panels that are attached to the side of the truck's bed. They are very easily dented as compared to the material quality of the cabin's shell.
|Side Rear Passenger|
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2013)|
The Tacoma came in two TRD packages: Sport and Off-Road. The Sport is targeted more towards improved road performance, while the Off-Road is more geared towards the off-road enthusiast.
Both: available in 2wd or 4wd, electronic LSD (Limited Slip Differential)
TRD sport = painted rear bumper, 17" wheels, no skid plates, color keyed grille, mirrors and door handles, non-functioning hood scoop. Linear Rate springs that give you a stiffer ride. Bilstein Shocks
TRD off road = chrome rear bumper, 16" wheels, skid plates, chrome grille, no hood scoop and locking rear differential. Not available in Double Cab models with long-bed configuration. Progressive rate springs that give you more subtle ride, and get stiffer as the springs are compressed. A-TRAC, Hill Descent assist, Hill Start assist. Offroad has a Smaller diameter roll bar. This gives the Offroad more wheel articulation and smoother ride but allows for more body roll. All-Terrain tires. heavy duty front Tow Hook.
The Toyota X-Runner is a limited production trim. The X-Runner is only available in three colors per year, and only five colors total. From 2005 to 2008 the X-Runner was available in Speedway Blue, Radiant Red and Black Sand Pearl. In 2009 Radiant Red was discontinued and replaced with Barcelona Red Metallic. For the 2012 model year Speedway Blue is discontinued and replaced with Nautical Blue Metallic.
Key differences between the X-Runner and the other packages include tweaks to the suspension, hood scoop, ground effects kit, driving lights, sports wheel and tires, and a 3.15 Final Drive ratio (3.73 for V6 PreRunner and 4X4). Toyota added a rear-mounted X-Brace to stiffen up the rear end (hence the name X-Runner). The chassis was further stiffened by adding two more support braces to the frame. An optional big brake kit by TRD is also available on the X-Runner; which consists of a 332 mm slotted rotor and 4 piston caliper. The BBK (big brake kit) was designed by StopTech. The X-runner comes with an Aisin RA60 6-speed manual transmission produced by Aisin Seiki Co.
Toyota Racing Development
In 1998 Toyota added a new Toyota Racing Development (TRD) off road package. The package includes off road tires, 16-inch alloy wheels, TRD dampers, a locking rear differential, and the TRD graphics.
Toyota Racing Development offers a TRD supercharger for the FJ Cruiser and Tacoma equipped with 4.0-liter V6 engine, available through Toyota dealerships. The supercharger increases the Tacoma's power output to 304 hp (227 kW) from the original 236, and the torque output to 334 lb·ft (453 N·m).
This all-new TRD supercharger is compatible on all 2005 through 2013 model year Toyota Tacoma trucks, and 2007 and 2009 model year FJ Cruiser SUV. This supercharger system features Eaton roots-type rotating components in a one-piece integral manifold, iridium spark plugs, and a five-rib serpentine drive belt system. It produces about six pounds of boost pressure.
The supercharger, when installed by an authorized Scion or Toyota dealer, has the same warranty as powertrain, five years or 60,000 miles (97,000 km), or the balance of the new car warranty, whichever is greater. When not installed by an authorized dealer, the supercharger is covered by a 12-month, 12,000-mile (19,000 km) parts-only warranty. The manufacturer's suggested retail price of the TRD supercharger is $4,500, not including installation.
American special forces use
||This section possibly contains original research. (October 2012)|
During Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation Enduring Freedom, multiple Toyota Tacomas have been observed in use by special forces units of the U.S. Army. Typically, they have been Double Cab models, with SR5 and TRD packages.
Despite the fact that the Hilux, from which the Tacoma is descended, is extremely common in the Middle East, the special forces found it to be easier to purchase Tacomas from American dealerships, modify them appropriately, and ship them to their areas. The gasoline engine used is significantly quieter than the diesel engines used in the HMMWV and some Hilux models. These were modified by eliminating the factory radio, along with almost all exterior lights and door buzzers. The front headlights have been modified to work in IR, in order to work with night vision. The engines are unmodified, but the vehicles have been fitted with brush guards, Warn winches, and a rollbar with a machine gun mount.
|Calendar Year||US Sales|
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