Toyota Kijang

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Toyota Kijang
Toyota Kijang Innova 2.0 G (TGN40)
Manufacturer Toyota Astra Motor
Also called Innova/Tamaraw (in the Philippines)
Zace (in Taiwan and Vietnam)
Innova/Unser (in Malaysia and Singapore)
Qualis/Innova (in India)
Stallion/Condor/Venture (in Africa)
Production 1977–present
Assembly Jakarta, Indonesia
Body and chassis
Class Medium MPV
Body style Pickup truck (1977-2004)
Related Toyota Revo
Engine Gasoline
1.2L 3K OHV
1.3L 4K OHV
1.5L 5K OHV
1.8L 7K-C OHV
2.4L 2L
2.5L 2KD-FTV turbodiesel
Transmission 4-speed manual
5-speed manual
4-speed automatic

Toyota Kijang Innova (fifth generation)
Toyota Avanza

Toyota will reinstate the "Kijang" name by 2014 (sixth generation) with Kijang Essential

The Kijang is a pickup and minibus sold in Indonesia and Brunei, made by Toyota. "Kijang", meaning deer/muntjac in Indonesian, was first introduced in Indonesia in 1977 and it has become the most popular car in the country.[citation needed]. This car is also sold in other countries, and is known as the Unser in Malaysia (Innova for the fifth generation), Zace in Taiwan, Qualis and Innova in India, Nepal, and the Philippines, and Stallion and Condor in South Africa. The original Kijang is known as the Revo in the Philippines (see Revo for the history of the Tamaraw and Tamaraw FX).

It is relatively affordable in the markets where sold when compared to four-wheel drive vehicles (the Kijang is a rear-wheel drive) and features high seating capacity, high ground clearance and rugged suspension, popular features in an area with generally poor road conditions and large extended families.

It is manufactured as a CKD (complete knock-down) in almost every country it is sold in, and many of the parts come from each of the markets in which it is sold. The Kijang was designed with ease of manufacture in mind; in 1986 assembly of a Kijang only cost 42% of the cost of assembling the much smaller Corolla 1300.[1]

First generation (1977-1980)[edit]

Toyota Kijang first generation

The prototype was displayed at the 1975 Jakarta Fair, and production began in 1977. The first Kijang was a boxy little pickup truck powered by 1.2 liter 3K engine matched to 4-speed manual transmission. The pickup with rear body and roof was also produced. The Kijang Minibus was built by a local company.

The Kijang first entered the market on 9 June 1977. It was a boxy pickup truck with externally hinged half doors and plastic/canvas windows. Called "KF10" it shared the 3K engine with the Corolla, coupled to a 4-speed manual transmission. It was nicknamed "Kijang Buaya" (English: Crocodile Kijang) because of the long engine hood. The KF10 Kijang car sold 26,806 units until 1981, when replaced by the second generation Kijang.

Second generation (1981-1985)[edit]

Toyota Kijang pickup

The 20-series Kijang retained its boxy style although the body panels were different. Under its slimmer hood was a 1.3 liter 4K engine, which was replaced in 1985 by a 1.5 liter 5K. The only transmission was a 4-speed manual. The facelift model had rectangular headlights. In the Philippines, the Tamaraw was also sold as long wheelbase 30-series.

Third generation (1986-1996)[edit]

Toyota Kijang SSX (KF42) in Indonesia.
Toyota Kijang 1.8 Grand Extra (KF52)

Introduced in late 1986, the Kijang was offered as short wheelbase (KF40 series) and long wheelbase (KF50 series). The Standard Kijang had a 4-speed manual transmission, while the Super Kijang had a 5-speed manual and a better equipped interior. Introduced in this generation was Full Pressed Body minibus built by companies appointed by Toyota. This technique were applied to reduce usage of putties up to 2-5 kg for each car.

Minor changes occurred in 1992. The minibus now received a right-side rear door and adopted a new name, Toyota Original Body, instead of Full Pressed Body. In its creation process, it was fully pressed and used pointed welding. Up to this time, this model can be said as the one and only putty-free Kijang. The trim levels for the minibus were:
- Standard (SX/KF42 & LX/KF52): a very basic Kijang with 4-speed manual, standard dashboard and no power features.
- Deluxe (SSX/KF42 & LSX/KF52): an upgraded version of standard Kijang with new refined dashboard, better quality interior materials, steel rims with center caps, single AC, basic audio system with radio receiver, etc. (Alloy wheel was available as an option.)
- Grand Extra (SGX/KF42 & LGX, KF52): top of the range, luxury model with double blower AC, alloy wheels, suede-covered door trim and seats, power steering, power mirror, power windows, tachometers, upgraded audio system with tape deck and radio receiver (CD player available as optional), alarms and power locks.
- Kijang Rover (SGX-based model, KF42): a carroserie model with more spacious interior, power windows for all 4 doors, new alloy wheels and new rear-end.
- Kijang Jantan (LGX-based model, KF52): a carroserie model with larger trunk capacity, air conditioning system with rear defogger, leather seats and same luxuries as Kijang Rover. (Both Rover and Jantan model has different wheels model and different rear end.)
- Kijang Kencana (KF42/KF52): a carroserie model based on Kijang Rover/Jantan with higher roof and higher ground clearance.

In 1994, the Kijang received a second facelift, including a new grille, new Enkei 14" racing aluminium wheel, new steering wheel, tachometers for deluxe trim, and the larger carburated 1.8-litre (1,781 cc) 7K-C OHV engine. With the introduction of 7K engine, the production of 5K engine was completely stopped. In 17 August 1995, a 4-speed automatic gearbox was introduced as an option for SGX / LGX for the first time throughout the Kijang history. This 1995-1996 version was an anniversary model and it's extremely rare and expensive — it cost Rp 100 million at the time.

The Kijang was sold in India under the name of Qualis. The Qualis was based on the third-generation model, but came with the newer fourth-generation nose.

A version was built and sold in South Africa as the Venture, with the pickup variant called the Stallion.

It was called as the Tamaraw FX in the Philippines when it was introduced in the early 1990s. In the Philippines, the Tamaraw FX was available with the 1.8 litre 7K-C petrol engine, or the 2 litre 2C diesel. Power was 78 hp (58 kW) and 69 hp (51 kW) respectively, allowing for top speeds of 130 or 125 km/h (81 or 78 mph). Standard, Deluxe and GL were the equipment levels offered.

Fourth generation (1997-2004)[edit]

2003 Toyota Kijang LGX in Indonesia.

The new Kijang was more powerful and more refined than its predecessors. The pickup was coded as the 60-series. The minibus, often known as Kijang Capsule, was either the 70-series (short wheelbase, KF70) or the 80-series (long wheelbase, KF80). The pickup model was coded and known as the KF60. Available engine options were:

  • 7K-C, 1.781cc OHV inline-4, 80 bhp / 132 Nm (1997-2000)
  • 7K-E, 1.781cc SOHC EFI inline-4, 87 bhp / 140 Nm
  • 1RZ, 1.981cc SOHC EFI inline-4, 100 bhp / 158 Nm
  • 2L, 2.381cc diesel inline-4, 84 bhp / 160 Nm

The diesel-equipped Kijang was the favorite model in Indonesia, and it could achieve up to 14 kilometres on 1 litre of fuel, which was comparable to the Isuzu Panther (which gave the same rate of engine but with stiffer design). The design cues of this generation of the Kijang later appeared in the last revisions of the Philippines' Revo.

The fourth generation Kijang vehicles were generally released in two series of trims:

  • Long Series
    • LX: Standard (Very basic model without air conditioning, cassette tape player, power windows, tachometer or other luxuries. An air conditioning unit could be added for Rp 950,000, approximately equivalent to US$80.) In Indonesia, the 1997 LX version has 4-speed manual transmission, but starting from the facelift model in 2000, the transmission has changed with 5-speed manual transmission.
    • LSX: Standard Plus (Equipped with standard AC. cassette tape player and tachometer)
    • LGX: Deluxe (Equipped with double blower AC, cassette tape/CD player, power windows and garnish)
    • Krista (long series only): Deluxe Sport Edition (Same as LGX but available in only blue, red, black, silver or green color, and including sports kit and refined interior; the Krista edition also included specially made doortrim.)
A 2003 model of Kijang SSX in Indonesia.
  • Short Series
    • SX: Standard (Without air conditioning, cassette tape player, power windows, tachometer or other luxuries)
    • SSX: Standard Plus (Equipped with standard AC and cassette tape player)
    • SGX: Deluxe (Equipped with doubleblower AC, cassette tape/CD player, power windows and garnish)

The pickup variant was offered with Standard Deck and Flat Deck. Trim levels for the minibus included SX, SSX, SGX (short), LX, LSX, LGX and Krista (long). The short wheelbase and sporty Rangga was also offered for a short time, but this model was not successful in the market, with only a very few units sold.

In the year 2000, the Kijang got a new front end. The 2.0-litre engine was offered in the LGX and Krista models. Another minor change was given in 2003 with new grille, rear garnish, and some small changes with its features.

Fourth generation Kijang, in Indonesia, was changed three times: a. First edition (1997 - early 2000): The body's steel was thicker than 2nd edition. The window was still equipped with a rubber seal. It used 1.8-litre gasoline and 2.4 diesel. b. Second edition (2000–2003): Thinner body-steel was used to decrease production cost; therefore, the new model was sold as the same price as the 1st model. It used compound sealant for the rear window, while the front windscreen was still using rubber seals. The design of the front panel was slightly changed (mostly on the driver's side). For this model (and upwards) customers could choose which engine they wanted to use - the original (but renewed) 2.0-litre gasoline engine, a 2.4-litre diesel engine or the new 1.8-litre EFI engine. c. Third edition (2003–2005): LSX and LGX series and SGX for short series were now equipped with suede doortrim (the older model used carpet-like doortrim made from plastic). The interior changed into full beige color (the older models' color is mostly grey).

A version was built and sold in South Africa as the Condor.

Fifth generation (2004-2014)[edit]

Main article: Toyota Innova

In late 2004, Toyota launched the new Kijang, with the introduction of the new Avanza as a cheaper version to replace non-premier Kijangs. The new Kijang is more luxurious and expensive than the previous generation. This all new Kijang is called the Kijang Innova. The Innova was an MPV powered by either a 2.0-liter 1TR-FE VVT-i Gasoline, a 2.7-liter 2TR-FE VVT-i Gasoline, or a 2.5 liter 2KD-FTV D4-D Common Rail Diesel. Although the exterior design is quite similar to the WISH which has a monocoque chassis, the Kijang Innova has a body-on-frame chassis using the Hilux platform. It was part of Toyota's IMV program together with the Hilux Vigo pickup truck and Fortuner SUV.

Variants available in Indonesia:

Variant Description
J Basic model of the Innova, only equipped with power steering, windows, mirrors and auto door locks.
E Basic-deluxe model of the Innova with additional luxuries that comes with features like single DIN audio, double blower AC, steel rims with center caps, etc.
G Middle-range model of the Innova with all the features from E, featuring 15" alloy wheels, parking sensor, 2-DIN audio with 4 speakers and 2 tweeters, in-dash 6 CD changer, rear wiper, etc.
V Middle-top model of the Innova with all the features from G. This variant got new alloy wheels, MID, 2 DIN audio system with MP3, WMA, iPod connectivity, climate control AC with digital layout and dual zone, rear defogger, optitron instrument panel, 12V power outlet, parking camera, 4-spoke steering wheel with leather cover and audio controls, in-dash 6 CD changer, 6 speakers and 2 tweeters, leather seats and wooden trim.
Luxury Top model of the Innova with all the features based on G or V. This variant got an aerokit, captain individual seats on 2nd row, wood panel and Luxury emblem.

The Innova MPV sold in large numbers in India (where it's known as an MUV)- primarily serving the tourist taxi market and fleet operations of large technology business process outsourcing companies. It also enjoyed large markets in Malaysia, East Timor and Philippines. In the Philippines, it replaced the Tamaraw/Tamaraw FX/Revo line in the process, as the Toyota MPV sold there became simply known as the "Innova".

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Tang, Roger Y. W. (October 1990). "The Auto Makers and their Related Party Transactions in Indonesia". Asia Pacific Journal of Management (Kluwer Academic Publishers) 7 (2): 75. doi:10.1007/BF01731423. 

External links[edit]