Toyota Type A engine

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The Type A engine was a straight-6 engine produced from 1935 through 1947 by Toyota.

The Type B was a technically more advanced version of the Type A.

The Type C was a straight-4 engine derived from the Type A.

Many parts were interchangeable between the Type A, Type B and Type C engines (e.g. pistons, valves, rods). Many of the same parts were also interchangeable with the Chevrolet Stovebolt engine, from which it was derived.

The Type E was a copy of a DKW engine.

The Type S was a straight-4 engine that replaced the Type A, B and C in Toyota's passenger cars.

Type A[edit]

Type A
1935 Toyota A Type engine.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1935-1947
Combustion chamber
Configuration I6
Displacement 3,389 cc (3.4 L; 206.8 cu in)
Cylinder bore 84.1 mm (3.3 in)
Piston stroke 101.6 mm (4.0 in)
Cylinder block alloy iron
Cylinder head alloy iron
Valvetrain OHV
Combustion
Fuel system carburettor
Fuel type Gasoline
Output
Power output 62 PS (46 kW; 61 hp)

The Type A engine was Toyota's first production engine, being produced from 1935 through 1947.

This engine was a 3,389 cc (3.4 L; 206.8 cu in) pushrod, overhead valve, 6-cylinder, three bearing engine copied from the 1929-36 Chevrolet Gen-1 3 bearing Stovebolt L6 OHV engine. By virtue of a modified intake manifold it produced 62 PS (46 kW), while the Chevrolet engine produced 60 PS (44 kW). GM used a number of local Japanese suppliers for the smaller engine parts (e.g. carburettors). Toyota was able to use the same suppliers for its cars. The parts were identical enough that pistons, rods, valves, etc. could be used in both the Chevrolet and Toyota engines interchangeably. There are several recorded instances of parts intended for one being used to repair the other.[1]

Toyota had initially considered copying the Ford flathead V8 because it was the most popular engine in Japan at the time. However, the machining of 2 separate banks of cylinders would add too much to the production cost, so the Chevrolet engine was copied instead.[1]

Other references to the Chevy engine claim different power figures. Different manufactures used different measuring techniques (e.g. with or without the generator/alternator connected), engines differed from year to year and that some manufacturers simply lied. In this case, Toyota did back to back comparisons using the same techniques, so it is likely that the Toyota engine did in fact produce slightly more power than the Chevy engine on which it was based. Also, the Chevy engine was likely to be a year or two old, so the current Chevy engine may have produced even more power.

Applications[edit]

  • A1 prototype car
  • AA sedan
  • AB cabriolet
  • G1 truck
  • GA truck

Type B[edit]

Type B
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1937-1955
Combustion chamber
Configuration I6
Displacement 3,386 cc (3.4 L; 206.6 cu in)
Cylinder bore 84.1 mm (3.3 in)[2]
Piston stroke 101.6 mm (4.0 in)[2]
Cylinder block alloy iron
Cylinder head alloy iron
Valvetrain OHV
Compression ratio 6.4:1[2]
Combustion
Fuel system carburettor
Fuel type Gasoline
Output
Power output 62-82 HP
Chronology
Successor Toyota F engine

The 3,386 cc (3.4 L; 206.6 cu in) Type B was produced from 1937 through 1955 as a more technically advanced version of the Type A. The design was based on the Chevrolet 207 engine, and built under license but with metric dimensions and minor revisions to suit the local market. It had a four-bearing crank and shaft-mounted rocker arms, as did the Chevrolet engine.

The Type B was succeeded by the similar 3.9 L Type F in 1955. The Type F is based on the larger G.M.C. 1939-63 L6 OHV engine in the same way that the Type A and Type B were based on the Chevrolet engines of their times.

An unrelated 4-cylinder diesel engine introduced in the 1970s was also called the Type B.

Applications[edit]

  • AC sedan
  • GB truck
  • 1951-1955 BX truck (82 PS)[3]
  • BJ Jeep (later renamed the Land Cruiser)
  • BH26 Police Patrol Car
  • BH28 Ambulance

Type C[edit]

Type C
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1939-1941
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 2,259 cc (2.3 L; 137.9 cu in)
Cylinder bore 84.1 mm (3.3 in)[4]
Piston stroke 101.6 mm (4.0 in)
Cylinder block alloy iron
Cylinder head alloy iron
Valvetrain OHV
Compression ratio 6.4:1
Combustion
Fuel system carburettor
Fuel type Gasoline
Output
Power output 49 PS (36 kW; 48 hp)
Torque output 152 N·m (112 lb·ft) @ 1400 rpm

The 2,259 cc (2.3 L; 137.9 cu in) Type C was produced from 1939 through 1941. It was formed by removing 2 cylinders from a Type A engine.

Applications[edit]

Type E[edit]

Type E
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1938
Combustion chamber
Configuration I2 two-stroke
Displacement 585 cc (0.6 L; 35.7 cu in)[4]
Combustion
Fuel system carburettor
Fuel type Gasoline

The 585 cc (0.6 L; 35.7 cu in) Type E was produced in 1938 only for the prototype EA sedan. It was a copy of the two-stroke engine used in the DKW F7.

Applications[edit]

Type S[edit]

Type S
1947 Toyota S Type engine.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1947-1959
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 995 cc (1.0 L; 60.7 cu in)
Cylinder bore 65 mm (2.6 in)[4]
Piston stroke 75 mm (3.0 in)
Cylinder block alloy iron
Cylinder head alloy iron
Valvetrain side valve
Compression ratio 6.5:1
Combustion
Fuel system carburettor
Fuel type Gasoline
Output
Power output 27 PS (20 kW; 27 hp)
Torque output 98 N·m (72 lb·ft) @ 2400 rpm
Chronology
Predecessor None
Successor Toyota P engine

The 995 cc (1.0 L; 60.7 cu in) Type S was produced from 1947[5] through 1959. It was unrelated to previous Toyota engines, being designed by reverse-engineering a 1930s Adler Trumpf Junior's engine.[citation needed]

Applications[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Japan's Toyota with Stovebolts", Bob Hall, in "Special-Interest Autos", March–April 1977
  2. ^ a b c Toyota Land Cruiser Data Library
  3. ^ Barr, Jonathan, ed. (July–September 2003). "Working Classics: 1951 Toyota BX Truck". The Japanese Restorer in Australia (Bald Hills, Queensland, Australia) (4): 23. 
  4. ^ a b c "The Japanese Automobile Industry: Technology and Management at Nissan & Toyota", Michael Cusumano, Cambridge (Mass.) & London: The Harvard Univ. Press, 1985, ISBN 0-674-47256-X
  5. ^ "Fifty Years of Toyota Concept Cars", in "the wheel extended", vol 17, no.3, 1987, Toyota Motor Corporation, ISSN 0049-755X