Toyota ZZ engine
The Toyota ZZ engine family is a straight-4 piston engine series. The ZZ series uses an aluminum engine block and aluminum DOHC 4-valve cylinder heads with iron cylinder liners, a first for Toyota. The camshafts are chain-driven. The two 1.8 L members of the family, the 1ZZ and 2ZZ, use different bore and stroke. The former was optimized for economy and torque, while the latter is a "square" design optimized for high-RPM power. The ZZ family replaced the extremely popular cast-iron block 4A engines.
Toyota engine names are interpreted as follows. The leading number denotes the generation, and the next one or two letters, followed by a hyphen, specify the engine family. The remaining letters, following the hyphen, describe the engine's major features. For example, the 2ZZ-GE can be decoded as being the second generation of the ZZ engine series and features a performance-oriented cylinder head with widely-angled valves (G) and electronic fuel injection (E). See also Toyota engines and how to read their names.
The 1ZZ-FE is a 1.8 L (1794 cc, 225 lb) version built in Buffalo, West Virginia. Its production in Cambridge, Ontario was discontinued in December 2007. Bore is 79 mm and stroke is 91.5 mm. Output is between 120 hp (89 kW) at 5600 rpm with 122 ft·lb (165 N·m) of torque at 4400 rpm, and 140 hp (104 kW) at 6400 rpm with 125.8 ft·lb (170.6 N·m) of torque at 4200 rpm. It uses multi-point fuel injection, has VVT-i (on later versions) and features fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods, a one-piece cast camshaft, and either a cast aluminum intake manifold or a molded plastic one.
A bolt-on TRD supercharger kit is available on the 2003–2004 Corolla, Matrix, and Vibe. The bolt-on TRD supercharger kit can also run on other vehicles with the non VVT-i or VVT-i versions of the 1ZZ-FE. Custom fabrications are needed for those vehicles.
- Toyota Corolla CE/LE/S/VE, Fielder, Runx (Japan), Altis (Asia)
- Toyota Allion
- Toyota Premio
- Toyota Vista and Vista Ardeo
- WiLL VS
- Toyota Caldina
- Chevrolet Prizm
- Pontiac Vibe
- Toyota Celica GT
- Toyota Matrix XR
- Toyota Avensis
- Toyota Opa
- Toyota Isis
- Toyota Wish
- Lotus Elise
Toyota announced a voluntary recall of Toyota Corollas and Matrixes equipped with 1ZZ-FE engines. The issue, which affects units sold from 2005 to 2008, involves the engine control module, and includes the potential for it to develop a crack on the module's circuit board, which can result in the car not starting, the transmission shifting harshly, or the engine stalling. Additionally, Pontiac announced a voluntary recall of Pontiac Vibes from years 2005 to 2008 for the same issue.
The 1ZZ-FED is similar to the 1ZZ-FE but is built in Shimoyama, Japan. Output is 140 hp (104 kW) at 6400 rpm with 126 ft·lb (171 N·m) of torque at 4200 rpm. It uses MFI fuel injection, VVT-i and light weight, cast rods.
Special modified 1ZZ-FE that can run on E100 Ethanol.
- Toyota Corolla (Brazil only)
The 2ZZ-GE is a 1.8 L (1796 cc or 109.6 in³) version built in Japan. Bore is 82 mm (3.23") and the stroke is 85 mm (3.35"). It uses MFI fuel injection, has VVTL-i, and features forged steel connecting rods. Compression ratio is 11.5:1, necessitating "premium" gasoline (91 octane or above in the (R+M)/2 scale used in North America). Power output for this engine varies depending on the vehicle and tuning, with the Celica GT-S, Corolla T-Sport, Lotus Elise and Lotus Exige offering 141 kW (189 hp) but the American versions of the 2003 Corolla, Matrix, and Pontiac Vibe versions only developing 180 hp with all later years offering anywhere from 173 hp in 2004 to 164 hp in 2006 due to a recurved powerband. The differing power figures from 2004 through 2006 are due to changes in dynamometer testing procedures. The Australian variant Corolla Sportivo has 141 kW@7600 and 181N·m torque. Due to noise regulations, Toyota recalled them for a flash of the PCM to up their output to classify them in the more lenient "sports car" noise category. The Corolla Compressor and Lotus Exige S add a supercharger with intercooler to achieve 225 hp (168 kW), while the Exige 240R's supercharger increases output to 240 hp (179 kW). The addition of a non-intercooled supercharger to the Elise SC produces 218 hp (163 kW) with a considerable weight saving. The supercharged engines are not labeled 2ZZ-GZE.
Unique to the ZZ family, the 2ZZ-GE utilizes a dual camshaft profile system (the "L" in VVTL-i, known by enthusiasts and engineers alike as "lift") to produce the added power without an increase in displacement or forced induction. The 2ZZ-GE was the first production engine to combine cam-phasing variable valve timing with dual-profile variable valve timing in the American market. The table below lists the specifications of the two camshaft profiles.
|Duration||Valve lift||Duration||Valve lift|
Excluding the 2003 MR2 and European Celicas with the 1ZZ engine, the 2ZZ engine is also the only model in the ZZ engine family to use a six-speed manual transmission, as well as the only one to have been available with a four-speed Tiptronic-style automatic. These gearboxes were unique to this engine; since then, only a few Toyota engines have been paired with either a six-speed manual or a Tiptronic-style automatic (and only one other engine, the 4GR-FSE, has received both.)
Toyota commissioned Yamaha to design the 2ZZ-GE based on Toyota's ZZ block and the engine is similar to a typical street bike engine, in that it utilizes a nearly square stroke ratio allowing for high-RPM operation and producing a power peak near the top of the RPM range. The high-output cam profile is not activated until approximately 6,200 rpm, (lift set-points are between 6,000-6,700 rpm depending on the vehicle) and will not engage until the engine has reached at least 60° celsius (140° fahrenheit.) The Toyota PCM electronically limits RPM to about 8200 RPM via fuel and/or spark cut. The "lift" engagement and the engine redline vary by application. Lotus 2ZZ-GEs are rev limited to 8500 RPM, for example, whereas Celicas were rev limited to 7900 to 8200 RPM in North America, depending on the model year. The first Japanese versions were rev limited to 8600 rpm with a peak of 190 hp. Consequently, it is impossible to "over-rev" the engine with the throttle alone; a downshift from a higher gear must be involved. A typical "over-rev" can damage the oil pump, commonly disintegrating the lobe ring, resulting in damage similar to the picture at right. The oil pump is the Achilles heel of the 2ZZ, though incidents are rare and usually occur due to fault of the driver. Even the briefest period of oil starvation is usually fatal to this engine design.
High pressure cast aluminum alloy engine block had Metal Matrix Reinforced (MMC) cylinder walls. MMC is a reinforcement material composed of ceramic parts and fibers.
For the first few years of production, the engines were notorious for failing "lift bolts". This did not damage the engine, but would hamper performance as the high output cam profile was unable to properly engage. Toyota fixed the problem in late 2002 with a redesigned bolt that was installed on later engines. Earlier engines with the problematic bolts can be fixed via a Toyota-issued TSB simply requiring the new bolt to be installed in place of the old one.
The 2004 and newer Matrix and Corolla XRS models were equipped with smog pumps and have an extra hole above each exhaust port in the engine head and manifold where air is injected to achieve complete fuel burning before the exhaust stream reaches the catalyst. All 2ZZ-GE heads from 03/03 onwards carry this modification even if the vehicle does not have the air injection system.
- Toyota Celica SS-II (Japan, 187 hp/190 PS)
- Toyota Celica GT-S (USA, 180 hp)
- Toyota Celica 190/T-Sport (UK, 189 hp)
- Toyota Corolla Sportivo (Australia, 189 hp (141 kW)/180 Nm)
- Toyota Corolla TS (Europe, (189 hp/192 PS))
- Toyota Corolla Compressor (Europe, supercharged, 222 hp/225 PS)
- Toyota Corolla XRS (USA, 164/170 hp)
- Toyota Corolla Fielder Z Aero Tourer (Japan, 187 hp/190 PS)
- Toyota Corolla Runx Z Aero Tourer (Japan, 187 hp/190 PS)
- Toyota Corolla RunX RSi (South Africa, 141 kW/180 Nm)
- Toyota Matrix XRS (USA, 164-180 hp)
- Pontiac Vibe GT (USA, 164-180 hp)
- WiLL VS 1.8
- Lotus Elise (North America/UK, 190 hp)
- Lotus Exige (US/UK, 190 hp NA & 243 hp supercharged)
- Lotus 2-Eleven (US/UK, supercharged, 252 hp)
The 3ZZ-FE is a 1.6 L (1598 cc) incarnation built in Japan. It is found in the Asian Toyota Corolla Altis which is available in countries such as Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan and in the Toyota Corolla sedan sold in Sri Lanka. In South Africa the motor can be found in the RunX 160 and Corolla 160. The entire exterior design and chassis is the same as the American Corolla. Bore is 79.0 mm and the stroke is 81.5 mm. Max. output is 109 hp (81 kW) @ 6000 rpm. Max. torque is 110 lb·ft (150 Nm) @ 3800 rpm. Features SMP pistons v/s Toyota made in 1ZZ-FE engine. Uses 10W40 semi synthetic lubricant.
- Toyota Corolla (Europe & Middle East, 109 hp)
- Toyota Corolla Altis 1.6E (Asian, 110 hp)
- Toyota Corolla RunX 160 (South African, 81 kW @ 6000 and 146 Nm @ 4400)
- Toyota Corolla XLi (Brazil, 110 hp)
- Toyota Avensis (Europe, 109 hp)
The 4ZZ-FE is a 1.4 L (1398 cc) version. Bore is 79.0 mm and stroke is 71.3 mm. Output is 95 hp (71 kW) at 6000 rpm with 96 ft·lb (130 N·m) of torque at 4400 rpm.
- Toyota Corolla
- Toyota Auris
- Toyota RunX 140
- "Toyota engines". Toyoland.com. Retrieved 2012-11-23.
- http://toyotacelicaonline.com/engine.htm Toyota Celica Online - Engine Number
- http://www.spyderchat.com/1zzfe.pdf 1ZZ-FE SAE technical paper from Toyota
- "Lotus Elise S - Vehicle Description". Group Lotus PLC. Retrieved 2008-06-24.[dead link]
- "The Next Band Wagons" - Motor Trend, Chris Walton. May 2002
- "Lotus Elise R - Vehicle Description". Group Lotus PLC. Retrieved 2008-06-24.[dead link]
- Chris Walton (2006-06-28). "Full Test: 2006 Lotus Exige". Edmunds Inc. Retrieved 2008-06-24.
- Greg N. Brown. "Newcomers: 2007 Lotus Exige S". MotorTrend. Source Interlink Media, Inc. Retrieved 2008-06-24.
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