Traditional Korean musical instruments

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Buk, Korean traditional drum

Traditional Korean musical instruments comprise a wide range of string, wind, and percussion instruments.

String[edit]

Korean string instruments include those that are plucked, bowed, and struck. Most Korean string instruments use silk strings, except as noted.

Plucked[edit]

  • Gayageum (hangul: 가야금; hanja: ) – A long zither with 12 strings; modern versions may have 13, 17, 18, 21, 22, or 25 strings
  • Geomungo (hangul: 거문고; hanja: – A fretted bass zither with six strings that is plucked with a bamboo stick
  • Daejaeng (hangul: 대쟁; hanja: ) – A long zither with 15 strings, slightly larger than the gayageum; it was used during the Goryeo period but is no longer usedphoto
  • Seul (hangul: 슬; hanja: ) – A long zither with 25 strings, derived from the Chinese se; used today only in Munmyo jeryeak (Korean Confucian ritual music)photo
  • Geum (hangul: 금; hanja: ) – A 7-stringed zither, derived from the Chinese guqin; also called chilheyongeum; used today only in Munmyo jeryeak (Korean Confucian ritual music)photo
  • Gonghu (hangul: 공후; hanja: ) – Harps (no longer used). There were four subtypes according to shape:
    • Sogonghu (hangul: 소공후; hanja: ; literally "small harp") – harp with angled sound box, 13 strings, and a peg that is tucked into the player's beltphoto
    • Sugonghu (hangul: 수공후; hanja: ; literally "vertical harp") – vertical harp without sound box and 21 stringsphoto
    • Wagonghu (hangul: 와공후; hanja: ; literally "lying down harp") – Arched harp with a large internal sound box and 13 stringsphoto
    • Daegonghu (hangul: 대공후; hanja: ) – large vertical harp with 23-strings
  • Bipa (hangul: 비파; hanja: 琵琶) – A pear-shaped lute with four or five strings (subtypes include the 5-stringed hyangbipa, which is also called jikgyeongbipa; and the 4-stringed dangbipa)
  • Wolgeum (hangul: 월금; hanja: ) – A lute with a moon-shaped wooden body, four strings, and 13 frets; no longer used
  • Cheolhyeongeum (hangul: 철현금; hanja: ) – A steel-stringed zither plucked with a stick and played with a slide in the manner of a slide guitar, developed in the 20th centuryphoto 1photo 2
  • Ongnyugeum (hangul: 옥류금; hanja: ) – A large modernized box zither with 33 nylon-wrapped metal strings, developed in North Korea in 1973; pronounced ongryugeum in North Koreaphoto 1photo 2photo 3
  • Oungum (hangul: 어은금) - A pear-shaped lute with five strings similar to hyangbipa; used only in North Korea[1]

Bowed[edit]

Struck[edit]

Wind[edit]

Flutes[edit]

  • Daegeum (hangul: 대금; hanja: or ) – A large transverse bamboo flute with buzzing membrane
  • Junggeum (hangul: 중금; hanja: or ) – A medium-sized transverse bamboo flute without buzzing membrane
  • Sogeum (hangul: 소금; hanja: or ) – A small transverse bamboo flute without buzzing membrane
  • Danso (hangul: 단소; hanja: ) – A small notched vertical bamboo flute
  • Tungso (hangul: 퉁소; hanja: ) – A long notched vertical bamboo flute; originally called tongso
  • Yak (hangul: 약; hanja: ) – A notched vertical bamboo flute with three finger holes; used in Munmyo jeryeak (Korean Confucian ritual music)
  • Ji (hangul: 지; hanja: ) – An ancient vertical bamboo flute with a protruding notched blowhole and five finger holes (one in the back and four in the front), used only in aak; derived from the Chinese chí; used also in Munmyo jeryeak (Korean Confucian ritual music)
  • Jeok (hangul: 적; hanja: )
  • So (hangul: 소; hanja: ) – A pan flute; derived from the Chinese paixiao; used only in Munmyo jeryeak (Korean Confucian ritual music)
  • Dangjeok (hangul: 당적; hanja: ) – A small transverse bamboo flute of Tang Chinese origin, slightly smaller than the junggeum
  • Hun (hangul: ; hanja: ) – A globular flute made of baked clay originating from prehistoric times; end-blown like a shakuhachi making it not an ocarina (which is a whistle design)

Oboes[edit]

  • Piri (hangul: 피리; hanja: 觱篥) – A cylindrical oboe with a bamboo body. There are four varieties of piri:
    • Hyang piri (hangul: 향피리; hanja: )
    • Se piri (hangul: 세피리; hanja: )
    • Dang piri (hangul: 당피리; hanja: )
    • Dae piri (대피리)
  • Taepyeongso (hangul: 태평소; hanja: ; also called hojok) – A conical oboe with a wooden body and metal bell
    • Jangsaenap (hangul: 장새납)

Mouth organs[edit]

  • Saenghwang (hangul: 생황; hanja: 笙簧) – A free reed mouth organ with 17 bamboo pipes; derived from the Chinese sheng
  • U (hangul: 우; hanja: ) – A free reed mouth organ, large in size; derived from the Chinese yu; no longer used
  • Hwa (hangul: 화; hanja: ) – A free reed mouth organ with 13 bamboo pipes; derived from the Chinese he; no longer used
A player of the nabal

Horns[edit]

  • Nabal (hangul: 나발; hanja: 喇叭) – Long metal trumpet
  • Nagak (hangul: 나각; hanja: 螺角) – Sea shell horn; also called sora

Percussion[edit]

Chimes[edit]

Drums[edit]

  • Buk (hangul: 북) – A barrel drum used primarily in pansori, pungmul, and samulnori. The term buk is also used in Korean as a generic term to refer to any type of drum.
    • Pungmul-buk – used in pungmul
    • Sori-buk – used to accompany pansori
  • Janggu or Janggo (hangul: 장구 or 장고; hanja: or ) – A double-headed hourglass-shaped drum generally played with one stick and one hand
  • Galgo (hangul: 갈고; hanja: ) – Double-headed hourglass-shaped drum similar to the janggo but played with two sticks and thinner drum heads; sometimes called yanggo or yangjanggo; no longer commonly used [1]
  • Jingo (hangul: 진고; : ) – Largest barrel drum
  • Jeolgo (hangul: 절고; hanja: ) – Barrel drum
  • Jwago (hangul: 좌고; hanja: ) – A barrel drum in a wooden frame
  • Geongo (hangul: 건고; hanja: ) – Huge barrel drum
  • Yonggo (hangul: 용고; hanja: ) – A barrel drum with a dragon painted on its shell; used in daechwita
  • Eunggo (hangul: 응고; hanja: ) – Barrel drum suspended from a frame
  • Sakgo – (hangul: 삭고; hanja: ) – A long barrel drum suspended from a wooden frame
  • Gyobanggo (hangul: 교방고; hanja: ) – Flat drum suspended from a frame
  • Junggo (hangul: 중고; hanja: ) – Flat drum suspended from a frame; similar to the gyobanggo but larger
  • Sogo (hangul: 소고; hanja: ) – A small hand-held drum
  • Nogo (hangul: 노고; hanja: ) – A set of two drums pierced by a pole
  • Nodo (hangul: 노도; hanja: ) – A set of two small drums on a pole, which is twisted to play; used in ritual music
  • Yeongdo (hangul: 영도; hanja:) – Four drums on a pole, which is twisted to play; used in ritual music
  • Noedo (hangul: 뇌도; hanja: )) – six small drums hung in a frame; used in ritual music
  • Noego (hangul: 뇌고; hanja: ) – Three small barrel drums on a pole, which is twisted to play; used in ritual music
  • Do (도) – single pellet drum on a pole

Gongs[edit]

Cymbals[edit]

  • Jabara (hangul: 자바라; also called bara, bal, or jegeum) – pair of large brass cymbals

Other[edit]

  • Bak (hangul: 박; hanja: ) – A wooden clapper used in ancient court and ritual music
  • Bu (hangul: 부; hanja: ) – A clay pot used in Confucian ritual music; derived from the Chinese fǒu
  • Chuk (hangul: 축; hanja: ) – A wooden box, played by hitting a stick on the inside, used to mark beats or sections; derived from the Chinese zhù; used in ancient ritual music
  • Eo (hangul: 어; hanja: ) – A wooden percussion instrument carved in the shape of a tiger with a serrated back, played by running a bamboo whisk across it to mark the ends of sections; derived from the Chinese
  • bongos an instrument from egypt

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.uriminzokkiri.com/contents/photobook/Minsok/htm/96.htm
  2. ^ ko:중해금
  3. ^ ko:대해금
  4. ^ ko:저해금

External links[edit]

Listening[edit]

Video[edit]