Ottoman units of measurement

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The list of traditional Turkish units of measurement, aka Ottoman units of measurement, is given below.

History[edit]

The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923), the predecessor of modern Turkey was one of the 17 signatories of the Metre Convention in 1875. For 58 years both the international and the traditional units were in use, but after the proclamation of the Turkish Republic, the traditional units became obsolete. In 1931 by Act No. 1782, international units became compulsory and the traditional units were banned from use starting 1 January 1933.[1]

List of units[edit]

Length
Local name In English Equivalence In modern units [2]
nokta dot 0.219 mm (0.0086 in)
hat line 12 nokta 2.63 mm (0.104 in)
parmak finger 12 hat 31.57 mm (1.243 in)
kerrab or kirab 42.5 mm (1.67 in)
rubu or urup 2 kerrab 85 mm (3.3 in)
ayak or kadem foot 12 parmak 378.87 mm (1.2430 ft)
endaze ell 650 mm (2.13 ft)
arşın ell 68 cm (2.23 ft)
zirai agricultural 2 ayak 757.74 mm (2.4860 ft)
kulaç fathom 1.8288 m (6.000 ft)
berid or menzil range 600 ayak 227 m (745 ft)
eski mil old mile 5,000 ayak 1,894.35 m (1.17709 mi)
fersah league 3 eski mil 5,685 m (3.532 mi)
merhale stage, phase 200 berid 45.48 km (28.26 mi)
Area
Local name In English In modern units
eski dönüm dunam (old) 919 m2 (9,890 sq ft)
büyük dönüm dunam (big) 2,720 m2 (29,300 sq ft)
Volume
Local name In English Equivalence In modern units
şinik peck 9.25 L (2.44 US gal)
kile (İstanbul) bushel 4 şinik 37 L (9.8 US gal)
Weight
Local name In English Equivalence In modern units
kırat carat 0.2004 g (1.002 carats)[3]
dirhem drachma 16 kırat 3.207 g (0.1131 oz)
okka oka 400 dirhem 1.282 kg (2.83 lb)
miskal 1.5 dirhem 4.25 g (0.150 oz)
batman 6 okka 7.697 kg (16.97 lb)
kantar weighbridge 56.449 kg (124.45 lb)
çeki 4 kantar 225.789 kg (497.78 lb)
Volumetric Flow
Local name In modern units
Hilal 0.6526 L/min [4]
Çuvaldız 1.125 L/min
Masura 4.5 L/min
Kamış 9 L/min
Lüle 36 L/min[5]

Time[edit]

The traditional calendar of the Ottoman Empire was, like in most Muslim countries, the Hicri calendar. The Hicri calendar counts from 622 CE with an annual duration of 12 lunar months, which is approximately eleven days shorter than a solar year. In 1839, however, a second calendar was put in use for official matters. The new calendar, which was called the Rumi also began by 622, but with an annual duration equal to a solar year after 1840. In modern Turkey, the Gregorian calendar was adopted as the legal calendar, beginning by the end of 1925. The Hicri calendar is still used when discussing dates in an Islamic context.

See also[edit]

Reference and notes[edit]

  1. ^ Türkiye’nin 75 yılı, Tempo yayınları, İstanbul, 1998, p. 53
  2. ^ Fethi Yücel: Pratik Matematik,Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür yayınları, Ankara, 1963,p.15
  3. ^ In this and following weight units, kg and g mean technically kg-weight or g-weight.
  4. ^ http://www.fofweb.com/History/MainPrintPage.asp?iPin=ESCMW612&DataType=Ancient&WinType=Free
  5. ^ [1]