Trailokkanat

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Trailokkanat
สมเด็จพระบรมไตรโลกนาถ
King of Siam (Ayutthaya era)
Reign 1448–1488
Coronation 1448
Predecessor King Boromma Ratchathirat II
Successor King Borommaracha III
Full name
Somdet Phra Ramesuan Boromma Trailokkanat Bophit
Father King Boromma Ratchathirat II
Born 1431
Ayutthaya, Thailand
Died 1488
Ayutthaya, Thailand

Somdet Phra Ramesuan Boromma Trailokkanat Bophit (Thai: สมเด็จพระราเมศวรบรมไตรโลกนาถบพิตร) (1431–1488) was the king of Ayutthaya from 1448 to 1488. He was also known as Phra Chao Chang Phueak (Thai: พระเจ้าช้างเผือก) for his gain of auspicious white elephant. His reign was also known for a massive reforms of Siamese bureaucracy and a successful campaign against Lanna. He was also revered as one of the greatest monarchs of Siam.

King of Sukhothai[edit]

Prince Ramesuan was born in 1431 to King Borommaracha Thirat II or Chao Sam Phraya and his queen from the Kingdom of Sukhothai. He became the Uparaja (lit. Vice-king of crown prince) in 1438. When his cousin, Maha Thammaracha IV of Sukhothai died in 1438, Ramesuan was then technically the king of Sukhothai – though he was too young to be crowned. Upon reaching majority, Borommaracha II sent Ramesuan to Pitsanulok to assume the Sukhothai throne.

Borommaracha II died in 1448, Prince Ramesuan was then crowned as the king of Ayutthaya – thus a personal union between Sukhothai and Ayutthaya.

Reforms[edit]

Main article: Chatusadom

Bureaucracy[edit]

Trailokkanat reformed the Siamese bureaucracy – the system lasted well into the 19th century. He separated civil and military officials, giving them titular ranks and feudal ranks to create the hierarchy of nobility. He also established the circle of cities ranging from the Inner Cities, Outer Cities, to Tributaries. Trailokkanat also ceased the tradition of appointing royal princes to govern cities, as they had always clashed with each other in times of succession. Trailokkanat promulgated the Ayutthayan Law in 1458.

The traditional ministries of Thailand - the Kalahom for the military and the Mahatthai for civilian duties - were introduced by Trailok.

Feudal rank[edit]

Also in his reign in 1454, the Thai royal and noble titles were first codified under the "field-power" system called sakdina (ศักดินา). Fields (na) were reckoned in rai (a plantation, equal to 1600 square metres under metrificattion of traditional measures.) Petty officials were accorded a sakdi (power), of 1, 50 or 400, extending up to 100,000 rai for the uparat (heir-apparent). This system continued until the reforms of King Chulalongkorn at the beginning of the 20th century.

Royal rank[edit]

Trailokkanat adopted the position of uparaja, translated as "viceroy" or "underking", usually held by the king's senior son or full brother, in an attempt to regularize the succession to the throne — a particularly difficult feat for a polygamous dynasty. In practice, there was inherent conflict between king and uparaja, and frequent disputed successions.

Tributary relationships of Cities[edit]

In 1468, Trailok adopted a Mandala-style tributary system, and ranked the cities recognizing him as overlord. Phitsanulok and Nakhon Sri Thamarat were listed among the eight great first-rank cities (Phraya maha nakhon). Mueang Sing, Mueang In and Mueang Phrom were downgraded to be the level of four cities (เมืองจัตวา) under Lopburi.

Foreign relations[edit]

In 1455, Trailokkanat sent envoys to the Sultanate of Malacca. The Siamese had been suspicious of the sultanate since its conversion to Islam. The expedition was mentioned in Portuguese chronicles, written several years later, as not of great significance.[1]

Wars with Lanna[edit]

Main article: Ayutthaya-Lanna War

Yuttittira – a Sukhothai royalty and Trailokkanat’s relative - was a close childhood friend of Trailokkanat. Trailokkanat himself promised him the title of Uparaja. However, after Trailokkanat’s reformes, Yuttittira ended up in the title of the Governor of Pichit. Yuttittira also claimed to be the rightful king of Sukhothai.

The Lanna kingdom under Tilokaraj was so powerful that he led armies down south to subjugate Ayutthaya. In 1456, Yuttittira sought Tilokaraj’s support and led Lanna armies to capture Sukhothai and proceeded further towards Ayutthaya. Trailokkanat, however, led Ayutthayan armies to successfully defeat the Lanna armies.

In 1461, Tilokarat and Yuttittira led the Lanna armies to invade Ayutthaya but without achieving fruitful results and retreated. Trailokkanat then took this opportunity to retake Sukhothai. Trailokkanat, upon seeing the seriousness of the wars, crowned himself as the king of Pitsanulok in 1463 – thus moving his base from Ayutthaya to Pitsanulok – to be able to cope with Lanna wars.

Trailokkanat, accompanied by more than 2,000 followers, was the first Siamese king to be ordained as a monk. The ordination took place at Wat Chula Manee in 1461.

In 1463, the Lanna invaded again. Trailokkanat sent his son, Prince Indraracha, to crush the invading armies. Indraracha defeated Yuttittira but was in turn killed during battles against Nagara – Tilokaraj’s uncle.

Lanna then, however, was plunged by her own internal princely conflicts. In 1474, Trailokkanat finally expelled the Lanna out of his kingdom. Next year, Tilokaraj sought peace settlements.

In Phitsanulok, Trailokkanat ordered the establishment of new temples, as well as the restoration of existing older ones. He ordered the construction a chedi and other buildings on the campus of Wat Ratchaburana, for example.

Legacy[edit]

In 1485, Trailokkanat appointed his son Prince Chaiyachetta (later Ramathibodi II) as the Uparaja and King of Sukhothai. The title "King of Sukhothai" then became a title for Ayutthayan Crown Prince. However, upon Trailokkanat's death in 1488, his two sons inherited the two kingdoms, thus separating the union once again.

Among the institutions named for Trailokkanat include:

Ancestors[edit]

Preceded by
Boromma Ratchathirat II
Kings of Ayutthaya
1448–1488
Succeeded by
Boromarachathirat III
(Intharacha II)
Preceded by
Maha Dharmmaracha IV
King of Sukhothai
(First Reign)

1438–1456
Succeeded by
Yuttittira
Preceded by
Yuttittira
King of Sukhothai
(Second Reign)

1474–1485
Succeeded by
Prince Chettathiraj
(Ramathibodi II)
  1. ^ http://www.bloggang.com/mainblog.php?id=rattanakosin225&month=17-03-2007&group=2&gblog=16