Training Within Industry
The Training Within Industry (TWI) service was created by the United States Department of War, running from 1940 to 1945 within the War Manpower Commission. The purpose was to provide consulting services to war-related industries whose personnel were being conscripted into the US Army at the same time the War Department was issuing orders for additional matériel. It was apparent that the shortage of trained and skilled personnel at precisely the time they were needed most would impose a hardship on those industries, and that only improved methods of job training would address the shortfall . By the end of World War II, over 1.6 million workers in over 16,500 plants had received a certification.
The four basic training programs (10-hour sessions) developed by TWI were developed by experts on loan from private industry. Because of the intensity of the situation, a large number of experimental methods were tried and discarded. This resulted in a distilled, concentrated set of programs. Each program had introductory programs called "Appreciation Sessions" that were used to sell the programs to top management and introduce the programs to middle management of a company. Each program also had 'Train-the-Trainer' programs and handbooks called "Institute Conductor's Manual" for the master trainers. The TWI Service also developed a number of "Staff Only" training programs to support staff development and to improve the implementation success.
The TWI trainers had to be invited to a factory in order to present their material. In order to market the service, they developed the Five Needs of the Supervisor: every supervisor needs to have Knowledge of the Work, Knowledge of Responsibility, Skill in Instructing, Skill in Improving Methods, and Skill in Leading. Each program was based on Charles Allen's 4-point method of Preparation, Presentation, Application, and Testing.
The 10-hour Sessions were:
- Job Instruction (JI) - a course that taught trainers (supervisors and experienced workers) to train inexperienced workers faster. The instructors were taught to break down jobs into closely defined steps, show the procedures while explaining the key points and the reasons for the key points, then watch the student attempt under close coaching, and finally to gradually wean the student from the coaching. The course emphasized the credo, "If the worker hasn't learned, the instructor hasn't taught".
- Job Methods (JM) - a course that taught workers to objectively evaluate the efficiency of their jobs and to methodically evaluate and suggest improvements. The course also worked with a job breakdown, but students were taught to analyze each step and determine if there were sufficient reason to continue to do it in that way by asking a series of pointed questions. If they determined some step could be done better by eliminating, combining, rearranging, or simplifying, they were to develop and apply the new method by selling it to the "boss" and co-workers, obtaining approval based on safety, quality, quantity, and cost, standardizing the new method, and giving credit.
- Job Relations (JR) - a course that taught supervisors to deal with workers effectively and fairly. It emphasized the lesson, "People Must Be Treated As Individuals".
- Program Development (PD) - the meta-course that taught those with responsibility for the training function to assist the line organization in solving production problems through training.
There was also a short-lived course that taught union personnel to work effectively with management.
Relationship to Lean
Although the TWI program funding for application of the programs in the USA by the government ended in 1945, The US government did fund the introduction to the war-torn nations of Europe and Asia. Several private groups continued to provide TWI in the US and abroad. Channing Dooley, Walter Dietz, Mike Kane and Bill Conover (collectively known as "the Four Horsemen") continued the development of the 'J' programs by establishing the TWI Foundation. This group was responsible for continuing the spread of TWI throughout Europe and Asia. The Director of one of the district offices established TWI, Inc., and was hired by the US Government to provide TWI training in Japan. It was especially well received in Japan, where TWI formed the basis of the kaizen culture in industry. Kaizen, known by such names as Quality Circles in the West, was successfully harnessed by Toyota Motor Corporation in conjunction with the Lean or Just In Time principles of Taiichi Ohno. In the Foreword to Dinero's book "Training Within Industry", John Shook relates a story in which a Toyota trainer brought out an old copy of a TWI service manual to prove to him that American workers at NUMMI could be taught using the "Japanese" methods used at Toyota. Thus, TWI was the forerunner of what is today regarded as a Japanese creation.
TWI had a direct impact on the development and use of kaizen and Standard Work at Toyota. These fundamental elements are embedded within the functional system at Toyota and Job Instruction is taught and used within Toyota today. The kaizen methodology is a direct descendant of Job Methods, and most likely Job Relations had an impact on the development and function of the Team and Group Leader structure in Toyota.
Many of the points above should look familiar to students of W. Edwards Deming: the PDCA style of the training programs, the JI litany about failure being on the shoulders of the instructor, and even the JI and JM methods themselves. Deming lectures frequently included statements similar to the JR slogan, "People Must Be Treated As Individuals."
Why it disappeared from the United States
More than 100 leading companies in the US supported the TWI Foundation following the war as they continued to develop these programs. TWI Conferences were held until 1952. The principles of the TWI programs found their way into general training processes across the nation. The original Job Instruction program was part of the business program at the University of Chicago until 1967. A few consultants offered versions of the programs into the 1980s.
One theory for the disappearance of TWI within the U.S. after the war is the simple fact that North American industry faced little serious competition in 1945. With no competition to an efficient industry, few saw the need to continue to improve. At the same time, foreign industries had been decimated. The defeated countries needed to establish new industry but to reject the old culture. For that purpose, TWI trainers were brought to Europe by the occupying forces there, and to Japan by MacArthur during the occupation.
Another theory is that after the war, everyone went back to "business as usual". The workforce returning from war moved back to their previous jobs without any idea of the new culture. Most of the workforce trained through TWI went back to their previous jobs. This caused TWI culture to fade away.
- Toyota Production System
- General McArthur's Occupation of Japan
- Occupied Japan / Occupation of Japan
- Dinero, Donald (2005). Training Within Industry: The Foundation of Lean. Portland, OR: Productivity Press. ISBN 9781563273070.
- Warren, Mark (2012). New Zealand TWI: Appreciation, Operating and Follow Up Programs. US: Lulu. ISBN 9781105722639.
- Warren, Mark (2010). The TWI Report - 2nd Edition. US: Lulu. ISBN 9780557279203.
- Official archives of the War Manpower Commission, also see SME site above for Archives downloads
- Roots of Lean - Training Within Industry: The Origin of Kaizen, Jim Huntzinger
- Why Standard Work is Not Standard, Article on TWI's relationship to Standard Work by Jim Huntzinger
- The 2nd Coming - A TWI Primer written by Dwayne A. Butcher