Training effect

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Training effect refers to specific changes in muscular, cardiovascular, and neurohumoral systems that lead to improvement in functional capacity and strength due to regular endurance or resistance training.[1] It has also been defined as a reaction to the adaptive responses of the body created by a training program[2] or as "an elevation of metabolism produced by exercise".[3]

Kenneth H. Cooper for the United States Air Force discovered this effect in the late 1960s and coined the term.[4][dubious ]

The measured effects were that muscles of respiration were strengthened, the heart was strengthened, blood pressure was sometimes lowered and the total amount of blood and number of red blood cells increased, making the blood a more efficient carrier of oxygen. VO2 Max was increased.


The exercise necessary can be accomplished by any aerobic exercise in a wide variety of schedules - Cooper found it best to award "points" for each amount of exercise (as laid out in the detailed tables in his classic 1968 book "Aerobics" ISBN 0-553-20992-2, reprinted and expanded several times) and require 30 points a week to maintain the Training Effect.

Cooper instead recommended a "12-minute test" (the Cooper test) followed by adherence to the appropriate starting-up schedule in his book. As always, he recommends that a physical exam should precede any exercise program. (A newly-recognized effect is that of Exercise hypertension, for which there is a medical test.)

The physiological effects of training have received much further study since Cooper's original work. It is now generally considered that effects of exercise on general metabolic rate (post-exercise) are comparatively small and the greatest effect occurs for only a few hours. Though endurance training does increase the VO2 max of many people, there is considerable variation in the degree to which it increases VO2 max between individuals.[5]

Tudor Bompa has classified training effect into three categories: immediate training, delayed, and cumulative.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Awtry, Eric H.; Balady, Gary J. (2007). "Exercise and Physical Activity". In Topol, Eric J.. Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine (3rd ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkin. p. 83. ISBN 9780781770125. Retrieved February 9, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b Bompa, Tudor O.; Haff, G. Gregory (2009) [1983]. "Basis for Training". Periodization: Theory and Methodology of Training (5th ed.). Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. pp. 12–13. ISBN 9780736085472. Retrieved July 20, 2012. 
  3. ^ Lee, Buddy (2010). Jump Rope Training (2nd ed.). Human Kinetics. p. 207. ISBN 9780736089784. Retrieved February 9, 2011. 
  4. ^ Cooper, K. (1985) The aerobics program for total well-being: Exercise, diet, and emotional balance. NY: Bantam.
  5. ^ Bouchard, Claude; Ping An; Treva Rice; James S. Skinner; Jack H. Wilmore; Jacques Gagnon; Louis Perusse; Arthus S. Leon; D. C. Rao (September 1, 1999). "Familial aggregation of VO(2max) response to exercise training: results from the HERITAGE Family Study." (abstract). Journal of Applied Physiology 87 (3): 1003–1008. PMID 10484570. Retrieved 2007-07-17.