Trams in Graz
|Graz tramway network|
|A Cityrunner tram in Jakominiplatz, 2007.|
|Locale||Graz, Styria, Austria|
|Operator(s)||Holding Graz (since 2007)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)
|Route length||59.8 km (37.2 mi)|
|Passengers (2012)||53.56 million|
|Website||Holding Graz Linien (German)|
The Graz tramway network is a network of tramways forming an important part of the public transport system in Graz, which is both the capital city of the federal state of Styria, Austria, and the second largest city in Austria.
In operation since 1878, the network presently has six daytime lines, and five evening and Sunday lines. As of 2012[update], the Graz tram network ran on an almost 60 kilometres (37 mi) of route, and served 53.56 million passengers. It is operated by the Graz Linien division of Holding Graz, the city owned utility company who also operate the city's bus network and the Schlossbergbahn funicular railway. The trams form part of the integrated fare system for Styria known as the Verbund Linie.
In 1941, the Kleinbahn Graz–Mariatrost, a metre gauge electric railway that had linked Graz with the suburb of Mariatrost since 1898, was converted to standard gauge and became part of the tram network. The resulting long outer section of tram route 1 still retains many light railway features, with its off-street routing and long stretches of single track.
The Graz tram network reached a peak in 1950, with 40 km (25 mi) of routes in service. Growing car ownership, and the growth of residential areas in outer reaches of the city not served by the trams, lead to a fall in tram usage and eventually, after 1950, the closure of several tram routes. The city introduced trolleybuses in 1941 to serve the outer areas of the city, but these were replaced by motor buses by 1967.
In the 1990s, with the city's narrow central streets proving ill-suited to large quantities of private car traffic, the city adopted a policy of improving and expanding public transport, with modernisation and extension of the tramway. The area around Jakominiplatz was developed as the main tram and city bus interchange from 1995, whilst extensions to Puntigam, Liebenau Murpark and St Paul followed in 2006 and 2007.
In 2001, Graz was the launch customer for the Bombardier Transportation's Cityrunner design, with the acquisition of 18 27 m (89 ft) long five-section trams. These were the city's first 100% low-floor trams, although the concept was introduced in 1999 by the fitting of new low-floor centre sections to 12 existing trams.
In 2007, Graz ordered 45 Stadler Variobahn trams for delivery between 2009 and 2015. These vehicles proved controversial, with complaints over noise and vibration levels. Initially confined to routes 4 and 5, the trams started operating on the east-west axis in 2013, after modifications and imposition of a speed limit.
In 2012, a new routing was adopted to serve Graz Hauptbahnhof, the city's main railway station, which was previously the terminus of a branch off the tram network and some distance from the main westbound tram route. Trams on the main line now serve a new tram station in a trench in the station forecourt, reached by new tram tunnels. This allows the station to be served by four of the city's six routes.
- Line 1: Eggenberg/UKH – Hauptbahnhof – Jakominiplatz – Mariatrost
- Line 3: Laudongasse – Hauptbahnhof – Jakominiplatz – Krenngasse
- Line 4: Andritz – Jakominiplatz – Liebenau/Murpark
- Line 5: Andritz – Jakominiplatz – Puntigam
- Line 6: Laudongasse – Hauptbahnhof – Jakominiplatz – St. Peter
- Line 7: Wetzelsdorf – Hauptbahnhof – Jakominiplatz – St. Leonhard/LKH
- Lines 1, 5 and 7: as above
- Line 13: Krenngasse – Jakominiplatz – Liebenau/Murpark
- Line 26: Jakominiplatz – St. Peter
Graz's tram network is built to standard gauge and is electrified using overhead line at 600 V DC. The network is largely double track, with some 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) of single track on the northern, former light railway, section of line 1, and just over 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) towards the southern terminus of line 5. Most of the track is at grade, with the exception of the subsurface tram stop, with linking tunnels, at the main railway station, and a short tunnel just before the southern terminus of line 5.
With the exception of the short tunnelled sections, and the former light railway section of line 1, all of the system is street based, with varying degrees of segregation. As the trams are single-ended, with doors on only one side, all terminal locations are equipped with turning loops, and all tram stops are to the nearside of the tram.
|261–283||SGP/Lohner||1963–1965||19,560||6||6,000||40/75||Tw 262 rebuilt as work vehicle, some vehicles already withdrawn, complete withdrawal scheduled from 2009.|
|291–293||SGP Wien||1966–1976||20,335||6||6,000||Acquired from Vienna, in scheduled service since 12 November 2007.|
|521–537||Duewag||1971–1973||25,900||8||6,000||59/88||Acquired from Duisburg, withdrawal scheduled from 2010.|
|581–584||Locally built||1995–1997||26,220||8||6,000||58/97||Rebuilt from series 260, middle segment installed 1999, withdrawal scheduled from 2010.|
|601–612||SGP Graz||1986–1987||27,000||8||6,000||41/126||Low-floor middle segment installed 1999.|
|651–668||Bombardier Transportation||2000–2001||27,000||6||6,000||54/90||To Bombardier's standard, 100% low-floor, Cityrunner design.|
|201–245||Stadler Rail||2009–2015||27,000||6||6,000||54/90||To Stadler Rail's standard, 100% low-floor, Variobahn design.|
Tickets and fares
The Graz tramway network is entirely within zone 101 of the Verbund Linie, an integrated tariff for public transport throughout Styria. Zone 101 tickets are valid on all trams, and all city buses with single or double digit route numbers. They are also valid on regional buses, which have three digit route numbers, and trains, but only within the boundary of the zone.
Tickets are available for different periods of validity, including one hour, 24 hours, a week, a month or a year, and allow unlimited changes of vehicle within the validity period. Tickets can be purchased from ticket machines on board the trams or at the major stops, from tobacconists, or from a central office. They are also available by SMS text message or via a smartphone app.
Aimed at visitors to the city, there is also a three day ticket which allows unlimited travel within the city for three days, as well as giving reduced admission charges at selected attractions. The ticket is available at hotels and other accommodation, at the city tourist information office, at ticket sale counters at the Schloßbergbahn funicular, and at Graz Airport.
A new extension of line 7 in order to serve the new medical campus of the University of Graz in Stiftingtalstraße is planned for completion in 2016. The line will be extended by one stop from the current terminus at St. Leonhard.
- "Liniennetzplan Graz" [Public Transport Network of Graz]. holding-graz.at (via: http://www.holding-graz.at/linien/linienuebersicht.html) (in German). Holding Graz. September 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- "Dienstleister für Generationen - Geschäftsbericht der Holding Graz 2012" [Supplier for Generations - Business Report of Holding Graz 2012]. holding-graz.at (via: http://www.holding-graz.at/holding-graz/unternehmen/geschaeftsbericht.html) (pdf) (in German). Holding Graz. August 2013. p. 47. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- Pulling, Neil (August 2013). "System Factfile 71: Graz, Austria". Tramways & Urban Transit (Ian Allan Ltd / Light Rail Transit Association). pp. 340–343.
- Wegenstein, Peter (1994). Bahn im Bild 94 - Die Straßenbahn von Graz (in German). Vienna: Verlag Pospischil. p. 6.
- "Probleme mit Variobahn offiziell für beendet erklärt" [Problems with Variobahn officially declared finished]. Kleine Zeitung (in German). 12 April 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- Schwandl, Robert (2010). Schwandl's Tram Atlas Schweiz & Österreich. Berlin: Robert Schwandl Verlag. ISBN 978 3 936573 27 5. (German) (English)
- "Graz - Straßenbahnnetzplan" [Graz - Tram track plan]. http://doprava.unas.cz/ (in German). January 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
- Kaiser, Wolfgang (2004). Straßenbahnen in Österreich. München: GeraMond. pp. 126–127. ISBN 3765471984.
- Holding Graz Linien – Sekretariat Technische Services Straßenbahn.
- "Tickets & Tarife" [Tickets & Fares] (in German). Holding Graz. Retrieved 2003-07-29.
- "Graz 3-Days Ticket". Verbund Linie. Retrieved 2003-07-29.
- "Verlängerung der Linie 7" [Extension of line 7] (in German). Holding Graz. Retrieved 2003-07-30.