Tramways in Île-de-France

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Île-de-France tramway
Tramway-T.svg
Paris tramway-T2.jpg
Tram on line T2 in Issy-les-Moulineaux
Overview
Native name Tramways d'Île-de-France
Locale Paris, Île-de-France, France
Transit type Tram
Number of lines 8
Number of stations 186[1][2]
Operation
Began operation 1992
Operator(s) RATP / SNCF
Technical
System length 104.7 km (65.1 mi)[1][2][3]
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge for conventional lines
Tramway
Tramway-T.svg
Paris region public transport
(M) Métro lines
(1) Line 1 (7bis) Line 7bis
(2) Line 2 (8) Line 8
(3) Line 3 (9) Line 9
(3bis) Line 3bis (10) Line 10
(4) Line 4 (11) Line 11
(5) Line 5 (12) Line 12
(6) Line 6 (13) Line 13
(7) Line 7 (14) Line 14
(RER) RER lines
(A) Line A (D) Line D
(B) Line B (E) Line E
(C) Line C
[T] Suburban rail (Transilien)
({{[1]}}) Saint-Lazare ({{[1]}}) Nord
({{[1]}}) ({{[1]}}) ({{[1]}}) ({{[1]}})
({{[1]}}) La Défense ({{[1]}}) Est
({{[1]}}) ({{[1]}})
({{[1]}}) Montparnasse ({{[1]}}) Lyon
({{[1]}}) ({{[1]}})
Airport shuttles
({{[1]}}) CDGVAL ({{[1]}}) Orlyval
Bus
({{[1]}}) Bus (RATP) ({{[1]}}) Noctilien
  Bus (Optile)  
(T) Tramway
(1) Tramway T1 (5) Tramway T5
(2) Tramway T2 (6) Tramway T6
(3a) Tramway T3a (7) Tramway T7
(3b) Tramway T3b (8) Tramway T8
(4) Tramway T4
Other
({{[1]}}) Montmartre funicular

The French region of Île-de-France, encompassing the capital city of Paris, currently has nine operational modern tram lines (French: Tramways d'Île-de-France) – if counting Lines 3a and 3b as separate lines – and is planning additional lines. Of the existing lines, seven are operated by its public transport authority, RATP, which also operates the Paris Métro and most bus services. One line (T4) is operated the French national rail operator SNCF. Three of the lines serve Paris. The eight lines are generally unconnected, although connections between lines T2 and T3a, and T3a and T3b, already exist, with additional connections between lines T1 and T5 opened in 2013 and between lines T1 and T8 opened in 2014; however, the final design of the entire planned tram network is fairly integrated.

History[edit]

Trams of the former network, seen near the Pont au Change in central Paris

From 1855 to 1938, Paris was served by an extensive tramway network, predating the metro by nearly a half-century. The last of these first generation tram routes, to Versailles, was closed in 1957.

Originally horse-powered, Paris trams used steam, and later pneumatic engines, and electricity.

The funicular that operated in Belleville from 1891 to 1924 is sometimes erroneously thought of as a tramway, but was actually a cable car system.

The first of a new generation of trams in Paris, line T1 opened in 1992, with line T2 opening in 1997, line T4 on November 18, 2006, and line T3 on December 16, 2006. The newest lines, T5 and T7, opened on July 29, 2013 and November 16, 2013, respectively.

Lines[edit]

Line Opening[4] Length Stations Operator
Tramway-T.svg Logo Paris tram ligne1.svg 1992[5] 17 km (11 mi)[citation needed] 36 RATP
Tramway-T.svg Logo Paris tram ligne2.svg 1997[5] 17.9 km (11.1 mi)[citation needed] 24 RATP
Tramway-T.svg Logo Paris tram ligne3a.svg 2006[5] 12.2 km (7.6 mi)[citation needed] 25 RATP
Tramway-T.svg Logo Paris tram ligne3b.svg 2012[5] 9.9 km (6.2 mi)[citation needed] 18 RATP
Tramway-T.svg Logo Paris tram ligne4.svg 2006[2] 8 km (5.0 mi)[2] 11[2] SNCF
Tramway-T.svg Logo Paris tram ligne5.svg 2013[5] 6.6 km (4.1 mi)[5] 16[5] RATP
Tramway-T.svg Logo Paris tram ligne6.svg 2014[3] 14 km (8.7 mi)[3] 21[3] RATP
Tramway-T.svg Logo Paris tram ligne7.svg 2013[5] 11.2 km (7.0 mi)[5] 18[5] RATP
Tramway-T.svg Logo Paris tram ligne8.svg 2014[3][6] 8.5 km (5.3 mi)[3][6] 17[3][6] RATP
TOTAL: 104.7 km (65.1 mi)[1][2][3] 186[1][2][3]
Tram on line T1 in Noisy-le-Sec

T1[edit]

Line T1 connects Saint-Denis to Noisy-le-Sec, parallel to the Paris northern city limit. It opened in 1992, and the extension to Noisy-le-Sec was completed in December 2003. An extension west to Asnières and Gennevilliers opened in November 2012, and a continuation to Nanterre is planned. An eastwards extension to Montreuil and to the Val de Fontenay RER station is planned and expected to be open in 2017.

T2[edit]

Tram on line T2

Line T2 (Trans Val-de-Seine) connects Pont de Bezons with Porte de Versailles via La Défense. It opened in 1997 between La Défense and Issy Val-de-Seine, mostly on converted SNCF right-of-way. An extension from Issy Val-de-Seine to Porte de Versailles opened in 2009 and a second extension from La Défense to Pont de Bezons opened in 2012.

T3a and T3b[edit]

Tram on line T3a at Porte de Gentilly

Line T3 is the first modern tramway in Paris proper. It is divided into two sections called T3a and T3b. The line is also known as the tramway des Maréchaux because it follows the boulevards des maréchaux, a series of boulevards that encircle Paris along the route of the former Thiers Wall (built 1841–44). The boulevards are, with three exceptions, named for Napoleon's First Empire marshals (maréchaux).

T3a connects Boulevard Victor – Pont du Garigliano RER station in the western part of the 15th arrondissement with Porte de Vincennes metro station in the 12th arrondissement.

T3b connects Porte de Vincennes with Porte de la Chapelle in the 18th arrondissement. T3b should be extended to Porte d'Asnières in 2017.

T4[edit]

Tram on line T4 in Livry-Gargan

Line T4 is an 8-kilometre (5.0 mi), 11-stop[2] tram-train line, operating in part on SNCF lines, connecting Bondy RER station with Aulnay-sous-Bois station. It opened on November 18, 2006. Unlike the other tramways in Île-de-France, T4 is operated by SNCF. A new branch of this tram-train line will be opened in 2017.

T5[edit]

Lines T5 and T6 use Translohr technology, featuring rubber tyred vehicles guided by a single central rail.

Tramway T5[7] runs on tyres (i.e. Translohr)[8] along a mainly segregated "track" on the busy Route Nationale 1 (similar to the systems in Nancy or Caen), replacing the often busy bus lines 168 and 268. The 6.6-kilometre (4.1 mi) route[8] serves 16 stops[8] between Saint-Denis, Pierrefitte-sur-Seine, Sarcelles and Garges-lès-Gonesse. It has an interchange with T1 at its southerly terminus marché de Saint-Denis and with RER D at Garges-Sarcelles.[9] Line T5 opened in July 2013.[10]

T6[edit]

A 14-kilometre (8.7 mi) route on tires (with 1.6 kilometres (0.99 mi) in tunnel) serving 21 stations (including 2 underground) will be built from Châtillon - Montrouge (terminus of metro ligne 13) to Viroflay - Rive Droite (Transilien railway station). The majority of the line opened in 2014, with the balance to open in 2016.

T7[edit]

An 11.2-kilometre (7.0 mi) route serving 18 stations[5] between Villejuif (terminus of Paris Métro Line 7) serving Rungis and Orly and terminating at Athis-Mons opened on 16 November 2013.[11] The line will be extended in 2018 to Juvisy-sur-Orge.

T8[edit]

Saint-Denis (Porte de Paris) - Épinay-sur-Seine (Quartier d'Orgemont), with a branch to Villetaneuse

Formerly to be known as "Tram'y", this 8.46-kilometre (5.26 mi) line was planned to serve 17 stations by 2013. Villetaneuse is also planned to be a future station on the new Tangental North line. An extension was also planned to the future RER E station proposed at Évangile. Construction began in 2010, and services are expected to begin in 2014.[11]

Planned lines[edit]

Several new lines of tramway and trams on tires have been planned in the region and on 11 February 2009 every project was re-assessed and given a "T" number by the STIF (the regional transport council of the Île-de-France). Posters began to appear in the metro from April 2009 promoting the entire 8‑route T system. In 2020 with all the new tram lines and extension planned the tram network will be 152 kilometres (94 mi) long.[citation needed]

T9[edit]

Planned line between Paris Porte de Choisy and the city of Orly, expected in 2020.

T10[edit]

Planned line from Antony to Clamart in the southwest suburbs of Paris, expected in 2021.

TVM[edit]

The Trans-Val-de-Marne (fr) bus line, which runs in a designated bus lane and is intended to provide rapid transit southeast of Paris in the département of Val-de-Marne, is operated by RATP. Despite beginning with a T, it is not a part of the tramway network.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "RATP’s tram network in Île-de-France". RATP. Archived from the original on 2014-04-26. Retrieved 2014-04-25. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "BIENVENUE SUR LA LIGNE T4" [WELCOME TO THE T4 LINE]. sncf.com (in French). SNCF Transilien. 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-13. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "2014, the next year of the tram". RATP. Retrieved 2014-12-16. 
  4. ^ "RATP’s tram network in Île-de-France". RATP. Retrieved 2014-12-16. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "2013, another year of the tram". RATP. Retrieved 2014-12-16. 
  6. ^ a b c "Paris opens tram Route T8". Railway Gazette International. 16 December 2014. Retrieved 2014-12-16. 
  7. ^ "Tramway 5 - le T5 en ligne" [Tramway 5 - The T5 line] (in French). RATP. Retrieved 2013-09-13. 
  8. ^ a b c "le T5 en ligne - Le projet - L'essentiel" [The T5 line - the project - essentials] (in French). RATP. Retrieved 2013-09-13. 
  9. ^ http://www.anous.fr/paris/traffic/un-nouveau-tram-en-banlieue/3897.html[dead link]
  10. ^ "Home - In Ile-de-France - Extending the network - Tramway - Créations : T5". Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  11. ^ a b "Citadis remains popular in Paris". Railway Gazette International. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 2014-07-12. 

External links[edit]