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|Cultural origins||Early 1990s, Germany|
|Typical instruments||Synthesizer, Keyboard, Drum machine, Sequencer, Sampler, DAW, Roland JP-8000|
|Acid, Balearic, Dark, Euro, Goa, Hard, Progressive, Psychedelic, Tech, Uplifting, Vocal
|Raves - Glowsticking|
Trance is a genre of electronic dance music that developed in the 1990s in Germany. It is characterized by a tempo of between 110 and 150 beats per minute, repeating melodic phrases, and a musical form that builds up and down throughout a track. Trance is its own genre, but also will include other styles of electronic music such as techno, house, pop, chill-out, classical music,:16 and film music.
Trance is more melodic and harmonic than any other dance music. It refers to an induced emotional feeling, high, euphoria, chills, and uplifting rush listeners experience. Trance employs aural dynamics to a great degree, a characteristic of virtually all trance songs is the soft mid-song breakdown, beginning with and occurring after the orchestration is broken down and the rhythm tracks fade out rapidly, leaving the melody, atmospherics, or both to stand alone for anywhere from a few seconds to a few minutes. Another common characteristic would be the use of vocals often sung by a female who ranges from mezzo-soprano to soprano. Less often, the female vocals may be in a grand, soaring, or operatic style, which has been described as "ethereal female leads floating amongst the synths".
The origin of the term is uncertain; one theory suggests that the term is derived from the Klaus Schulze album Trancefer (1981) or the early trance act Dance 2 Trance. Other schools of thought argue the name may refer to an induced emotional feeling, high, euphoria, chills, or uplifting rush listeners claim to experience, while other suggestions trace the name to the actual trance-like states the earliest forms of the music attempted to emulate in the 1990s before the genre's focus changed.
Some trace trance's antecedents back to Klaus Schulze, a German experimental electronic music artist who concentrated on blending minimalist music with repetitive rhythms and arpeggiated sounds. In truth it was really Sven Vath, his labels and others in the same group that saw the initial releases of trance. In France, Jean Michel Jarre, an early electronic musician, released two albums in the late 1970s: Oxygène in 1976 and Equinoxe in 1978. Also a possible antecedent, Neil Young's 1982 electronic album, Trans, bears a resemblance to the trance music genre. Another possible antecedent is Yuzo Koshiro's electronic soundtracks for the Streets of Rage series of video games from 1991 to 1994. It was promoted by the well-known UK club-night megatripolis (London, Heaven, thursdays) whose scene catapulted it to international fame.
Examples of early Trance releases include but are not limited to German duo Jam & Spoon's 1992 12" Single remix of the 1990 song The Age Of Love., German duo Dance 2 Trance's 1990 track "We Came in Peace".
As for the roots of contemporary trance, some trace it to Paul van Dyk's 1993 remix of Humate's 'Love Stimulation'. In subsequent years, one genre, vocal trance, arose as the combination of progressive elements and pop music, and the development of another subgenre, epic trance, had some of its origins in classical music., with film music also being influential.
Classic trance employs a 4/4 time signature, a tempo of 125 to 150 BPM, and 32 beat phrases and is somewhat faster than house music. A kick drum is usually placed on every downbeat and a regular open hi-hat is often placed on the upbeat or every 1/8th division of the bar. Extra percussive elements are usually added, and major transitions, builds or climaxes are often foreshadowed by lengthy "snare rolls"—a quick succession of snare drum hits that build in velocity, frequency, and volume towards the end of a measure or phrase.
Rapid arpeggios and minor keys are common features, the latter being almost universal. Trance tracks often use one central "hook", or melody, which runs through almost the entire song, repeating at intervals anywhere between 2 beats and 32 bars, in addition to harmonies and motifs in different timbres from the central melody. Instruments are added or removed every 4, 8, 16, or 32 bars.
In the section before the breakdown, the lead motiff is often introduced in a sliced up and simplified form, to give the audience a "taste" of what they will hear after the breakdown. Then later, the final climax is usually "a culmination of the first part of the track mixed with the main melodic reprise".
As is the case with many dance music tracks, trance tracks are usually built with sparser intros ("mix-ins") and outros ("mix-outs") in order to enable DJs to blend them together more readily. As trance is more melodic and harmonic than much electronic dance music, the construction of trance tracks in such a way is particularly important in order to avoid dissonant (or "key clashing," i.e., out of tune with one another) mixes.
More recent forms of trance music incorporate other styles and elements of electronic music such as electro and progressive house into its production. It emphasizes harsher baselines and drum beats which decrease the importance of offbeats and focus primarily on a four on the floor stylistic house drum pattern. The bpm of more recent styles tends to be on par with house music at 120 - 135 beats per minute. However, unlike house music, recent forms of trance stay true to their melodic breakdowns and longer transitions.
Trance music is broken into a large number of sub-genres. Chronologically, the major sub-genres are Classic trance, Acid trance, Progressive trance, Uplifting trance, and Hard trance. Uplifting trance is also known as "Anthem trance", "Epic trance", "Stadium trance", or "Euphoric trance", and has been strongly influenced by classical music both in the 1990s and at present with the development of the sub-genre "Orchestral uplifting trance" or "Uplifting trance with symphonic orchestra" by such artists as Andy Blueman, Soundlift, Arctic Moon, Simon O'Shine etc. Closely related to Uplifting Trance is Euro-trance, which has become a general term for a wide variety of highly commercialized European dance music. Several subgenres are crossovers with other major genres of electronic music. For instance, Tech trance is a mixture of trance and techno, and Vocal trance "combines [trance's] progressive elements with pop music". Balearic beat, which is associated with the laid back vacation lifestyle of Ibiza, Spain, is often called "Balearic trance", as espoused by Roger Shah. The genre Dream trance originated in the mid-1990s, with its popularity then led by Robert Miles.
Music festivals 
The following is a list of dance music festivals that showcase Trance music.
- India: Sunburn Festival launched in December 2007 as South Asia's first electronic music festival, and featured heavyweights like Carl Cox and John '00' Fleming. Located seaside in Goa, on India's west coast, the festival has its roots in Goa trance. Sunburn treated more than 5,000 electro revelers to a three-day party by the beach in December 2008. At the 2009 festival, DJs such as Armin Van Buuren, Roger Sanchez, and Sander van Doorn participated with audience numbers running between 15,000 to 18,000 making it the biggest edition yet.As of the 2010 festival, it showed the likes of Paul Van Dyk and many other DJ's with estimated crowds of 30,000 people.
- Thailand: Full Moon Party Held each month on the island of Koh Phangan. Thousands of people from across the world gather on Haad Rin Nok (Sunrise Beach) to dance under the moonlight.
- Portugal: Boom Festival (the last edition was in Idanha-a-Nova) since 1997. This event is an outdoor festival running every two years with a duration of several days, focusing in psychedelic Goa trance. The festival also features workshops, presentations, and cinema.
- Switzerland: Street Parade – The world's biggest electronic music festival (more than one million visitors attend this event year by year).
- Belgium: Tomorrowland (festival) – The largest Belgian open-air electronic music festival. 2010 had more than 120.000 visitors. Tomorrowland in 2011 will have a capacity of up to 180.000 visitors. DJs such as Armin Van Buuren, Felix The Housecat, Bob Sinclar, Roger Sanchez, and many more.
- United Kingdom: Gatecrasher also promotes sporadic events and have in the past also used venues such as Birmingham N.E.C.
- Armin Only, Jaarbeurs Utrecht, Utrecht: the only DJ to mix at this event is Armin van Buuren. Organized by ALDA Events. Armin Only 2005 was held in Ahoy, Rotterdam. The 2008 and 2010 editions were held in Jaarbeurs Utrecht.
- Dance Valley, Spaarnwoude: an outdoor festival organized by UDC.
- Sensation, Amsterdam Arena. Organized by ID&T.
- Energy, (Formerly Trance Energy) Jaarbeurs, Utrecht: Previously Trance only under the name "Trance Energy", the festival was renamed "Energy" in 2011 and begun to incorporate other genres. Organized by ID&T.
- Amsterdam dance event, One of the worlds trance and electronic music festivals held every year in Amsterdam in October.
- A State of Trance, Armin van Buuren's weekly radio show A State of Trance celebrates every 50th episode with an event. Episode 400 was held in Rotterdam. Episodes 500, 550 and 600 were held in the Brabanthallen, Den Bosch.
- Electronic Family. A Trance only festival. This year for the third time in the Amsterdamse Bos, Amsterdam. Organized by ALDA Events.
North America 
- Canada: Bal en Blanc is a rave party that is hosted annually, in April during Easter holiday weekend, in Montreal. This event usually has two separate rooms, one catering to house music and the other to trance music. It usually lasts for more than 14 hours.
United States 
Electronic Dance Music festivals in the US feature various EDM genres such as Trance, House, Techno, Electro, Dubstep, Breaks, and Drum & Bass:
- Ultra Music Festival, an annual outdoor electronic music festival that occurs in March in the city of Miami, Florida.
- Electric Daisy Carnival, an annual massive organized by Insomniac Events that was held in Southern California from 1997 to 2010, and was moved to Las Vegas in 2011. In 2009, the festival was expanded to a two day event.
- Nocturnal Festival, are annual events held in southern California and Thorndale, Texas organized by Insomniac Events, held at the NOS Events Center in San Bernardino in either August or September.
- Beyond Wonderland, an electronic dance festival in Southern California organized by Insomniac Events
- Electric Zoo Festival, an annual electronic music festival held over Labor Day weekend in New York City on Randall's Island Park.
- Electric Forest Festival 4 day Annual festival in Michigan bringing very large crowds
- Doof - A type of outdoor dance party, generally held in a remote country area or just outside big cities in surrounding bush or rainforests and similar to raves or teknivals.
- Defqon.1 Festival - A music festival that mostly plays hardstyle and related genres such as hardcore techno, hard house and hard trance, the event has been hosted in Sydney in mid-September since 2009 at the Sydney International Regatta Centre.
- Bom, Coen (2009). Armin Only: A Year in the Life of the World's No. 1 DJ. Oxford, UK: Dutch Media Uitgevers BV. ISBN 978-90-488-0323-1: p. 15
- "Trance". Allmusic. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Fassbender, Torsten (2008). The Trance Experience. Knoxville, Tennessee: Sound Org Inc. ISBN 978-0-2405-2107-7: p. 15, 16, 17, 19
- Webber, Stephen (2008). DJ Skills: The Essential Guide to Mixing and Scratching. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Press. ISBN 978-0-240-52069-8: p. 35
- Snoman, Rick (2009). The Dance Music Manual: Tools, Toys, and Techniques – Second Edition. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Press. ISBN 0-9748438-4-9: p. 251, 252, 253, 266
- Hewitt, Michael (2009). Composition for Computer Musicians. Knoxville, Tennessee: Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-59863-861-5: p. 9
- "Goa Trance". Allmusic. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Hawkins, Erik (2004). The Complete Guide to Remixing. Boston, MA: Berklee Press. ISBN 0-87639-044-0: p. 51
- ": Jean Michel Jarre Official Website :: Biography :: Biography :". Jeanmicheljarre.com. Retrieved 2011-05-26.
- Lundin, Glen (Feb 1999). "Trans". Indy Rock News (Indianapolis) 2 (2). "[It's] hard to ignore the likeness in timbre, texture, tenor, and name of Trans album and trance"
- McNeilly, Joe (April 19, 2010). "Game music of the day: Streets of Rage 2". GamesRadar. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- Ryan. "Streets of Rage 2 Original Soundtrack (US): Review". Square Enix Music Online. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- "Streets of Rage 3 review - Sega Megadrive". Mean Machines. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- Hewitt, Michael (2008). Music Theory for Computer Musicians. Boston, MA: Course Technology. ISBN 978-1-59863-503-4
- Paterson, Angus. "Above & Beyond talk shop on Australian tour & ’trance 2.0’". inthemix. nthemix Pty Ltd. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
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