Trangia is a trademark for a line of alcohol-burning portable stoves manufactured by Swedish company Trangia AB in Trångsviken. These stoves are designed primarily for backpackers, with a focus on light weight, durability and simple design. First sold in 1925, Trangia stoves were initially preferred to kerosene (paraffin) pressure stoves because they required only one type of fuel (alcohol, usually in the form of methylated spirit). Trangia's selling point is that the entire packaged stove, including pots, is not significantly larger than a standard camp cooking pot. For this reason the Trangia has retained much of its popularity despite the development of alternative stove fuels and designs.
The standard stove set includes a base, which lifts the burner off the ground and has vents to provide airflow, and a windscreen, which protects the pot and flame (the latter leading to its Swedish nickname, the "stormkök", or "storm kitchen"). The standard stove also includes two billycans (pots), a pot lid/frying pan, an optional teakettle and a handle, commonly referred to as a Billy Grip, used to grip onto the lip of the pots and pans. The entire set is designed to fit together in a single, portable package.
The burner is a small brass cup that looks and functions similar to a beverage-can stove. Fuel is poured into the burner and ignited. The heat from the flame causes the fuel to vaporize, forcing it out of 23 or 24 jets around the top of the burner, and producing a steady cooking flame. The burner includes a removable "simmer ring", which partially blocks the flame in order to reduce heat output. It also includes a sealed lid, so that extra fuel can be stored in the burner.
Alternative burners are available allowing gas cartridges or white gasoline to fuel the Trangia.
The standard stove sets come in several variants, with varying sizes of pots, some with non-stick finishes. Some third party sets are also available, which typically include a Trangia burner and a lightweight base to support the burner and function as a pot stand. These tend to use fuel less efficiently, but are considerably lighter. Similar burner produced by Trangia is also a component in the Swedish military mess kit. The Finnish Defence Forces also use the Trangia, it's given to soldiers when needed so it's not part of the basic equipment.
There is also a Mini Trangia. This consists of a standard burner (with simmer ring), small wind shield, 800ml pot, 15 cm frying pan and pot/pan grip (handle). The entire package weighs just 330 grams, according to Trangia's website. The Mini Trangia is much more portable than the standard-sized Trangia and is even lighter than most liquid-fuelled, pressure stoves (which don't include pots or pans in the weight). However, it is not as windproof as the full-size Trangias, and a self-made wind protector might be needed at an unsheltered and windy location.
Originally, Trangia stoves were made entirely from aluminium (except for the burner, which has always been brass), in order to keep them lightweight. However, aluminum makes for a poor cooking surface, as food sticks to it, and it can add off-tastes to certain foods. Later, Trangia introduced Teflon-coated pots and pans. These are better for cooking, but wear out faster as the Teflon flakes off. More recently introduced is cookware made from titanium, ultra-light aluminum, anodized ultra-light aluminum, and "Duossal" (a portmanteau of "duo", "stainless steel", and "aluminum"), which is aluminum with a stainless steel cooking surface. As of 2008, Duossal is no longer available.
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