TransJakarta

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TransJakarta
Transjakarta logo 2012.PNG
Overview
Locale Jakarta, Indonesia
Transit type bus rapid transit
Number of lines 12, 3 (planned)
Number of stations more than 200
Daily ridership more than 450,000 passengers per day
Website TransJakarta Busway
Operation
Began operation January 25, 2004
Operator(s) Unit Pengelola TransJakarta Busway
Technical
System length around 200km
System map
Schematic route map of current & future corridors

TransJakarta is a bus rapid transit (BRT) system in Jakarta, Indonesia. It was the first BRT system in Southern and Southeast Asia. The TransJakarta system began operations on January 25, 2004. TransJakarta was designed to provide Jakarta citizens with a fast public transportation system to help reduce rush hour traffic. The buses run in dedicated lanes and ticket prices are subsidized by the regional government. As of 2014, the buses carried more than 350,000 passengers per day with more than 500 buses in operation and more than a hundred in maintenace and for reserve.[1] The subsidy per passenger-ticket in 2011 was around Rp 2,900 ($0.29) and for 2012 the subsidy is expected be around Rp 2,100 ($0.21) per passenger-ticket.[2] Currently TransJakarta has the world's longest BRT system (208 km in length), with 12 primary routes and 10 cross-corridor routes. Three more corridors are due to commence construction in 2014 or 2015 and will be partially elevated whereas the existing corridors are at ground level.[3] In addition there are 18 'feeder' routes that continue past the end of the exclusive busways into the municipalities surrounding Jakarta and use special buses that allow for boarding at either ground level or the TransJakarta station platforms.

Characteristics[edit]

The characteristics of TransJakarta as listed in an Asian Development Bank study were:[4]

  • Closed Trunk System without a Feeder System
  • Elevated Platform for Rapid Boarding and Alighting
  • Public Sector Bus Procurement and Private Sector Bus Operation
  • Operating at 65,000 passengers/day (higher than projected) (2004)

History and problems[edit]

TransJakarta bus on the dedicated bus lane

The first TransJakarta line opened to the public on January 15, 2004. Following two weeks in which it was free to use, commercial operations started on February 1, 2004.

TransJakarta was built to provide a fast, comfortable, and affordable mass transportation system. To accomplish those objectives, the buses were given lanes restricted to other traffic and separated by concrete blocks on the streets that became part of the busway routes.

Operations[edit]

Normal operating times are from 5:00am to 10:00pm with some routes have extended hours until 11:00pm. Three routes have limited overnight services providing 24-hour operation.

The buses run along the following routes:

  • January 15, 2004: Corridor 1, (Blok M to Kota) (soft launch)
  • February 1, 2004: Corridor 1, (Blok M to Kota) (commercial service)
  • January 15, 2006: Corridor 2, (Pulo Gadung to Harmoni) and Corridor 3, (Kalideres to Pasar Baru) opened
  • January 27, 2007: Corridor 4, (Pulo Gadung to Dukuh Atas 2), Corridor 5, (Kp. Melayu to Ancol), Corridor 6, (Halimun to Ragunan) and Corridor 7, (Kampung Rambutan to Kampung Melayu) opened
  • February 21, 2009: Corridor 8, (Lebak Bulus to Harmoni) opened
  • December 31, 2010: Corridor 9, (Pluit to Pinang Ranti) and Corridor 10, (PGC Cililitan to Tanjung Priok) opened.
  • March 18, 2011 Corridor 9 was the only corridor serving until 11.00 pm. Followed by Corridor 1, with transit point with Corridor 9 at Semanggi shelter. The night service however, only stops at a certain shelters only.[5][6]
  • May 20, 2011 Corridor 2 and Corridor 3 initialized to serve until 11.00pm, but only open 9 shelters out of 22 on Corridor 2 and 9 out of 13 shelters on Corridor 3 remain open during the extended hours.[7]
  • July 1, 2011 Corridors 4 to 7 began their late night service, so all corridors now has already deployed late night service except for Corridor 8.[8]
  • September 28, 2011 3 feeder bus routes launched with Route 1 from West Jakarta Municipal Office to Daan Mogot, Route 2 from Tanah Abang to Medan Merdeka Selatan and Route 3 from SCBD to Senayan. The fare will be Rp.6,500 ($0.72), which cover tickets for both the feeder service and TransJakarta buses. But the feeder routes eventually shut down because of low number of riders.[9]
  • December 13, 2011: Transjakarta began to separate male and female passengers, in which the commuter rail network has already done the separation earlier. The woman-only areas located between middle door and driver cabins.
  • December 28, 2011: Corridor 11, (Kp. Melayu to Pulo Gebang) opened.
  • February 14, 2013: Corridor 12, (Pluit to Tanjung Priok) opened.
  • May 19, 2014: The extension of Corridor 2, (Pulo Gadung to Harapan Indah) opened.

On Sunday June 1, 2014 24-hour operation began on three corridors — the Blok M-Kota route (Corridor 1), Pinang Ranti-Pluit route (Corridor 9) and Kalideres-Pasar Baru route (Corridor 3). Service will be provided by 18 buses with 2 buses in reserve and service frequency will between 30 minutes and an hour.[10][11]

In order to promote gender equity, TransJakarta is increasing the number of female driver recruits. The projected proportion is 30% of the total.

Problems[edit]

A number of design and operational problems have been identified. Despite having an 'exclusive' bus lane other vehicle using the lanes are a common problem. Depot maintenance shops and special gas stations (most bus uses CNG) often have long lines of buses restricting the availability of buses for service. The CNG powered buses also have suffered from higher fuel consumption than expected (1 litre for 1.3 km vs. 2.1 km as specified) and high oil and moisture content requiring extra maintenance.[12] Other problems identified were: a lack of feeder bus services, a lack of adequate transfer information and transfer facilities and a lack articulated buses.[13] A 2010 survey showed 75% of passengers transferred from medium or micro buses to the TransJarkara buses and it was estimated if 'direct service' operations were implemented (i.e. multiple stopping points at some stations with bypass lanes and some services continuing beyond the trunk corridors) patronage would increase by 50%.[14] A feeder bus service called APTB was introduced in 2012.

In May 2013 it was reported the system was losing passengers due to unpredictable service frequency, worsening travel times and poor maintenance of the infrastructure and vehicles. The problem of excluding private vehicles from busway was ongoing.[15] By November 2013, after a campaign to 'sterilize' the lanes improved travel times, reports indicate patronage had increased by 20,000 per day up to between 330,000 and 355,000.[16]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

From January to July 2010 there were 237 accidents involving TransJakarta buses, resulting in 57 injuries and eight deaths. Accidents occurred due to pedestrians crossing the busway and cars making u-turns. In 2011, in an effort to stop non TransJakarta vehicles using the bus lanes, the Jakarta Police Chief suggested that TransJakarta buses should run against the direction of traffic flow.[17] Usually non-TransJakarta vehicles used busway lanes during peak hours between 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. and 4 p.m. to 7 p.m.[18]

On January 12, 2012 a policeman from Indonesian Police Headquarters, who is hired by Securicor, fired his gun near the ear of a TransJakarta officer, after threatening to kill him. The policeman was angry after the TransJakarta officer stopped the Securicor car from entering the busway lane which only allows TransJakarta buses, ambulances and firefighter to enter. The police spokesman said that the policeman will be charged by criminal law or disciplinary sanction.[19][20][21]

Hijack[edit]

On March 12, 2012 four TransJakarta buses were hijacked by alleged university students at the Medan Merdeka Selatan street. The buses were then driven to the front of the Universitas Kristen Indonesia (Christian University of Indonesia) campus. Three drivers were able to escape from their buses, but one driver was prevented from leaving and forced to drive the hijackers to their destination. Bus' fire extinguishers, glass-breaking hammers and driver's jackets were also taken.[22]

Buses[edit]

Each bus is constructed with passengers' safety in mind. For example the body frame is constructed using Galvanyl (Zn - Fe Alloy), a strong and rust-resistant metal. There are also eight or ten glass-shattering hammers mounted on some of the window frames, and three emergency doors for fast evacuation during an emergency. There are also two fire extinguisher at the front and back of the buses.

The Mercedes-Benz OH and Hino RG air-conditioned buses are painted red and yellow, with a picture of a young Brahminy Kite, which looks very similar to a bald eagle grasping a tree branch with three snakefruit on it. The buses use special fuel which is (a mix of diesel and biodiesel). For Corridor 2 (bus colors: blue and white) and 3 (bus colors: yellow and red), the buses are CNG-fueled Daewoo buses imported from South Korea. Due to various coachbuilders being involved and design tweaks applied over time, the exterior and interior appearance, quality, and comfort varies between busses operating in the same corridor.

The capacity of each bus is 30 seated and 55 standing passengers, though during rush hours these numbers are often exceeded by up to 80 passengers per bus.

TransJakarta also operates Chinese-made Huanghai, Zhongtong, Ankai, local-made Komodo and Inobus articulated buses on long and straight corridors, such as Corridor 5.[23]

The passenger doors are higher than on normal buses so that passengers can only board from designated shelters. The doors employ automated folding mechanisms which can be manually controlled by the driver. Because the normal folding doors cannot open properly when the bus is overcrowded, buses on corridors II and III use sliding doors in order to accommodate the surge of passengers during rush hours. Protective full-height acrylic glass barriers are installed behind passenger seats close to the sliding door mechanism.

Seats in all buses face the aisle to optimize passengers' movement during rush hours. Corridor 1 buses use comfortable cushioned bus seats, the buses from subsequent corridors have less cushioned, hence less comfortable, seats.

Each bus is equipped with an electronic board and speakers that announce the name of shelters in two languages, Indonesian and English. Each bus is also equipped with a bi-directional radio transceiver to allow the driver to provide and receive updated information regarding traffic jams, road accidents or lost items.

To keep the air fresh, especially during rush hours each bus is equipped with automatic air freshener dispensers which periodically spray car fragrance.

In August 2011, TransJakarta operator has installed cameras on one bus for a trial period. The plan is to install 4 cameras on all buses gradually in efforts to improve services such as to inform passengers waiting for buses about how crowded approaching buses are and prevent sexual harassment on its service.[24]

In mid-November 2014, all TransJakarta Corridors is served by around 500 buses. There are another 400 buses are not operational, because too old, in damage or in repair.[25]

Shelters[edit]

View from the Shelter's stairs.

TransJakarta shelters are different from ordinary bus stops. They are usually located in the middle of the road and are reached by elevated bridges. The stop in front of the well-known Sarinah shopping center on Jalan Thamrin in Central Jakarta has elevators.

The shelters are made of from aluminum, steel, and glass. Air ventilation works through fins on the aluminum part of the shelters. Floors are made from tread plate, although newer shelters now use concrete. The shelters are equipped with platform screen doors. Some of the connecting elevated bridge ramps have gentle slopes (with some exceptions) to accommodate the disabled. One disadvantage of some of the ramps is that passengers need to walk a relatively long way up the ramps and then double back to reach the boarding shelters. The floors of the bridge are mostly tread plates although some are made from concrete. One problem with the tread plate is that considerable noise is generated by the movement of passengers across the tread plate surfaces. Another problem is that some of the tread plate surfaces can become very slippery during the rainy season. There are no sanitary facilities in most of the shelters.

Bus stops are open from 05:00 – 22:00 although opening hours can be extended if there are passengers still waiting at closing time. Shelters often become extremely overcrowded because of long and sometimes unpredictable intervals between buses. According to a report from the Indonesian Consumers Protection Foundation in 2011, the most common complaint from passengers about the service offered by Transjakarta was the lengthy waiting time for buses at some of the main shelters.[26]

A free daily internal bulletin, 'Trans Kota', is occasionally available at selected shelters. The content includes sport, showbusiness, crime, health, various tips and tricks, consumer information and TransJakarta news.

The large Harmoni Central Busway (HCB) shelter on Jalan Gadjah Mada, Central Jakarta, is built over the Ciliwung River. It is a transit point between Corridors 1, 2, 3, and 8. This 500-person shelter has 3 bus bays. Although many trees had to be sacrificed during the construction of it, an old banyan tree was not chopped down because it was considered rich in historical value. However, in October 2006 this tree was vandalized by people from the Pemuda Persatuan Islam religious group. Their motive was to show that the tree does not possess supernatural qualities.

Ticketing and fares[edit]

A typical ticket booth and gantry in the network

The cost of a TransJakarta ticket since its initial operation is a flat rate of Rp 2,000 ($0.22) at concessional times (05.00a.m. to 07.00a.m.) and Rp 3,500 (about 30 US cents) all other times. Passengers who wish to change direction or transit to other corridors do not need to pay again, provided they do not exit the shelter. An exception is in effect at the line terminus.

Passengers can purchase a single-journey paper ticket at the ticket booth in the shelter. Since 2013, Transjakarta introduced the using of prepaid cards or e-tickets for passenger use. The prepaid cards that are eligible as ticket are bank-issued cards of BRI BRizzi, BCA Flazz, BNI TAPCASH, Mandiri e-money, Bank DKI JakCard, and Bank Mega MegaCash. The prepaid cards can be purchased and topped-up at any ticket booth in the shelter throughout the system, or at the ATM of the issuing bank. The prepaid cards, except for Bank DKI JakCard and Bank Mega MegaCash, are also valid as ticket in the Jabodetabek Commuter Train system as of June 2014, easing the integration plan between the BRT and the commuter train system.[27] In April and May 2014, the Transjakarta management started the compulsory use of the e-tickets at several terminus in the system.[28] In mid-October 2014, 56 percent passengers have used e-tickets.[29]

Passengers[edit]

During rush hours, people from upper or middle classes (one of the main targets of TransJakarta) usually prefer to use private cars or taxis to avoid inconvenience of the overcrowded Transjakarta buses even though they have to bear with traffic jams instead. Many passengers are thus lower-middle-class people who are ex-users of other less comfortable and/or more expensive commercial buses.

This situation is at odds with one of the initial objectives of TransJakarta which was to reduce traffic jam during rush hours by persuading private car owners to use comfortable public transport.

There is a special program for the student groups called Transjakarta goes to school. Participants in program there are assigned a dedicated bus. The aim is to train students to stand in line, be decent, and prefer public transport than personal vehicles.

Routes[edit]

There are 12 active corridors and 3 more planned with construction due to commence once tenders are let, possibly before the end of 2014:[30][31]

Corridor # Origin-Destination Opened BRT Standard[32]
TransJakarta Corridor 1 Kota - Blok M [33][34] 15 January 2004 Silver
TransJakarta Corridor 2 Pulo Gadung - Harmoni 15 January 2006 Bronze
TransJakarta Corridor 3 Kalideres - Pasar Baru 15 January 2006 Bronze
TransJakarta Corridor 4 Pulo Gadung - Dukuh Atas 2 27 January 2007 Bronze
TransJakarta Corridor 5 Ancol - Kampung Melayu 27 January 2007 Bronze
TransJakarta Corridor 6 Dukuh Atas 2 - Ragunan 27 January 2007 Bronze
TransJakarta Corridor 7 Kampung Melayu - Kampung Rambutan 27 January 2007 Basic BRT
8 Lebak Bulus - Harmoni 21 February 2009 Basic BRT
9 Pluit - Pinang Ranti 31 December 2010 Basic BRT
10 Tanjung Priok - PGC 2 31 December 2010 Basic BRT
11 Kampung Melayu - Pulo Gebang 28 December 2011 Basic BRT
12 Pluit - Tanjung Priok [35][36] 14 February 2013 Basic BRT
13 Blok M - Pondok Kelapa (planned) (TBC)
14 Manggarai - University of Indonesia (planned) (TBC)
15 Ciledug - Blok M (planned) (TBC)

In addition to the 15 main corridors, TransJakarta, in cooperation with other public transportation companies, provides feeder buses to passengers from suburbs outside Jakarta to bus termini.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Corry Elyda (May 5, 2014). "After 10 years, Transjakarta sets basic standards of service". Jakarta Post. 
  2. ^ "Penumpang Trans-Jakarta 2011 Naik 32%". January 3, 2012. 
  3. ^ "Construction of elevated Transjakarta road in the works". Jakarta Post. June 26, 2014. 
  4. ^ "BRT – CASE STUDY 5 - Annex 5 Case Studies and Lessons - Module 2: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT): Toolkit for Feasibility Studies". Sti-india-uttoolkit.adb.org. Retrieved 2012-01-31. 
  5. ^ 'Penumpang Busway Malam Hari Naik Terus', The Jakarta Post, 28 April 2011.
  6. ^ "Transjakarta hours to be extended". The Jakarta Post. 2011-04-29. Retrieved 2012-01-31. 
  7. ^ "Commuters want better Transjakarta maintenance". The Jakarta Post. 2011-05-21. Retrieved 2012-01-31. 
  8. ^ "Busway operational hours extended". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2012-01-31. 
  9. ^ "Transjakarta feeder service begins today". September 28, 2011. 
  10. ^ "Jakartans welcome 24-hour Transjakarta services". Jakarta Post. June 2, 2014. 
  11. ^ http://www.transjakarta.co.id/news.php?id=plQ=
  12. ^ http://www.uncrd.or.jp/content/documents/5EST-B2B4.pdf
  13. ^ http://adbleadership.asia/resources/transport_sector_casestudy/Transport%20Sector%20Case%20Study_Jakarta%20BRT.pdf
  14. ^ "Implementing Low Carbon Public Transportation-Direct Service Report 2012". ITDP Indonesia. Retrieved 2014-08-28. 
  15. ^ "Transjakarta could lose yet more passengers". Jakarta Post. May 8, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Transjakarta Passengers Increase After Sterilization". Tempo. 28 November 2013. 
  17. ^ "Jakarta welcomes plan to impose counter-flow lane for TransJakarta", The Jakarta Post, 2 October 2010, retrieved 2011-03-13 
  18. ^ "Busway struggles to provide decent service". The Jakarta Post. 2011-05-13. Retrieved 2012-01-31. 
  19. ^ "Petugas Transjakarta Diancam Pakai Senjata". January 12, 2012. 
  20. ^ "Polisi Tembak Petugas Jaga Jalur Transjakarta". January 12, 2012. 
  21. ^ "Oknum Polisi Penembak Petugas "Busway" Dinas di Mabes". January 13, 2012. 
  22. ^ "Mahasiswa Pembajak Transjakarta Curi Perlengkapan Bus". Retrieved March 2, 2012. 
  23. ^ Mengenal Ragam Bus TransJakarta Archived 11 February 2011 at WebCite
  24. ^ "Busway soon to be equipped with cameras". August 24, 2011. 
  25. ^ Dian Anditya Mutiara (November 20, 2014). "Transjakarta dari Foton Gantikan Bus di Koridor 2 dan 3". 
  26. ^ Novia E. Ruslistia, 'Complaints went unheeded in 2011, YLKI tells Transjakarta', The Jakarta Post, 22 December 2011.
  27. ^ "Tiket dan Tarif". 
  28. ^ "E-Ticket Transjakarta Bikin Ribet". April 22, 2014. 
  29. ^ "56 Persen Penumpang Transjakarta Sudah Gunakan E-Ticketing". October 23, 2014. 
  30. ^ "Construction of Blok M-Ciledug Transjakarta corridor set to begin". Jakarta Post. August 7, 2014. 
  31. ^ TransJakarta Map Archived 11 February 2011 at WebCite
  32. ^ "Transjakarta Corridor 1 Achieved Silver Standard". Retrieved 2014-08-24. 
  33. ^ "102 Bus Gandeng TransJakarta Siap Beroperasi". January 23, 2012. 
  34. ^ Bus Gandeng TransJakarta Baru Asal China Mulai Beroperasi Hari Ini
  35. ^ "Jokowi Resmikan TransJakarta & Transportasi Air". February 14, 2012. 
  36. ^ "36 Bus TransJ Siap Layani Koridor 12 Pluit - Tanjung Priok". February 14, 2013. 

External links[edit]