Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic

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Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic
Armenian: Անդրկովկասի Սովետական Սոցիալիստական Ֆեդերատիվ Հանրապետություն
Azerbaijani: Zaqafqaziya Sosialist Federativ Sovet Respublikası
Georgian: ამიერკავკასიის საბჭოთა ფედერაციული სოციალისტური რესპუბლიკა
Russian: Закавказская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика

 

 

1922–1936
 

 

Flag Coat of arms
Location of the Transcaucasian SFSR within the Soviet Union.
Capital Tbilisi
Languages Georgian
Azerbaijani
Armenian
Russian
Government Soviet socialist republic
History
 -  Established 12 March 1922
 -  Disestablished 5 December 1936
Area
 -  1922 186,100 km² (71,854 sq mi)
Currency Transcaucasian ruble
A map of the Transcaucasian region during the Soviet era.

The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Russian: Закавказская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика – ЗСФСР, Zakavkazskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsalisticheskaya Respublika – ZSFSR), also known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Transcaucasian SFSR and the TSFSR, was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union that existed from 1922 to 1936.[1] It consisted of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. As they were separated from Russia by the Caucasus Mountains, they were known traditionally as the Transcaucasian Republics.

History[edit]

The roots of Transcaucasian condominium state trace back to dissolution of the Russian Empire in 1918, following the October Revolution, when the provinces of the Caucasus seceded and formed their own federal state called the Transcaucasian Federation. Competing ethno-national interests and World War I confrontation with the Ottoman Empire led to the dissolution of the Transcaucasian Federation two months later, in April 1918.[1]

The three successor states lasted until the end of the Russian civil war that was being fought across the mountains, when they were made Soviet Republics by the Red Army, and reorganized as a single republic in March 1922.[1] It was incorporated into the Soviet state in December. In 1936, the republic was dissolved and divided among the Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijan SSRs.[1]

Names in the languages of the constituent republics[edit]

  • Armenian: Անդրկովկասի Սովետական Սոցիալիստական Ֆեդերատիվ Հանրապետություն
Andrkovkasi Sovetakan Soc‘ialistakan Federativ Hanrapetut‘yun
  • Azerbaijani:   Загафгазија Совет Федератив Сосиалист Республикасы  
Zaqafqaziya Sovet Federativ Sosialist Respublikası
  • Georgian: ამიერკავკასიის საბჭოთა ფედერაციული სოციალისტური რესპუბლიკა
Amierk'avk'asiis Sabch'ota Pederatsiuli Sotsialist'uri Resp'ublik'a

Stamps and postal history[edit]

1923 two-kopeck stamp.

Before 1923, each of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan issued its own postage stamps. The Federation began issuing its own stamps on September 15, 1923, and superseded the separate republics' issues on October 1. The first issues consisted of some of the stamps of Russia and Armenia overprinted with a star containing the five-letter acronym of the federation inside the points. Massive inflation having set in, this was followed by an issue of the Federation's own designs, four values of a view of oil fields, and four with a montage of Soviet symbols over mountains and oil derricks, values ranging from 40,000 to 500,000 rubles. The 40,000 руб and 75,000 руб were then surcharged to 700,000 rubles. On October 24, the stamps were re-issued with values from 1 to 18 gold kopecks. Starting in 1924, the Federation used stamps of the Soviet Union.

Most of the stamps of the Federation are not especially rare today, with 1998 prices in the US$1–2 range, although the overprints on Armenian stamps range up to US$200.[citation needed] As might be expected from a short period of usage, used stamps are less common than unused and covers are not often seen.

Heads of state[edit]

Chairs of the Union Council
Name Dates Party
Nariman Narimanov March–December 1922 Communist Party of Azerbaijan
Polikarp Mdivani March–December 1922 Communist Party of Georgia
Aleksandr Myasnikyan March–December 1922 Communist Party of Armenia
Chairmen of the Presidium of the USSR CEC from TSFSR
Name Dates Party
Nariman Narimanov 1922-1925 Communist Party of Azerbaijan
Gazanfar Musabekov 1925-1938 Communist Party of Azerbaijan
Chairs of the Central Executive Committee
Name Period For
Mikhail Tskhakaya (1st time) 1922–1927 Georgia
Samad aga Aliyev 1922–1929 Azerbaijan
Sarkis Ambartsumyan 1922–1925 Armenia
Sarkis Kasyan 1927–1931 Armenia
Filipp Makharadze (1st time) 1927–1928 Georgia
Mikhail Tskhakaya (2nd time) 1928–1931 Georgia
Gazanfar Musabekov 1929–1931 Azerbaijan
Filipp Makharadze (2nd time) 1931–1935 Georgia
Armenek Ananjan 1931–1935 Armenia
Sultan Majid Afandiyev 1931–1936 Azerbaijan
Sergo Martikiyan 1935–1936 Armenia
Avel Enukidze March–May 1935 Georgia
Filipp Makharadze (3rd time) 1935–1936 Georgia

See also[edit]

References[edit]