Transcription factor II B

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General transcription factor IIB
Protein GTF2B PDB 1c9b.png
PDB rendering based on 1c9b.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols GTF2B ; TF2B; TFIIB
External IDs OMIM189963 MGI2385191 HomoloGene1158 GeneCards: GTF2B Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE GTF2B 208066 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 2959 229906
Ensembl ENSG00000137947 ENSMUSG00000028271
UniProt Q00403 P62915
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001514 NM_145546
RefSeq (protein) NP_001505 NP_663521
Location (UCSC) Chr 1:
89.32 – 89.36 Mb
Chr 3:
142.77 – 142.78 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) is one of several general transcription factors that make up the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex.[1] It is encoded by the TFIIB gene.[2][3]

Transcription factor IIB localizes to the nucleus where it forms a complex (the DAB complex) with transcription factors IID and IIA. The protein serves as a bridge between transcription factor IID, which initially recognizes the promoter sequence, and RNA polymerase II.[4] It is involved in the selection of the transcription start site; mutations in TFIIB cause a shift in the transcription start site.[5]


Transcription factor IIB makes protein-protein interactions with the TATA-binding protein (TBP) subunit of transcription factor IID,[6][7] and the RPB1 subunit of RNA polymerase II.[7]

Transcription Factor IIB makes sequence-specific protein-DNA interactions with the B recognition element (BRE), a promoter element flanking the TATA element.[8][9] The role of TFIIB in the vast number of human promoters lacking TATA and BRE elements remains unclear.

Recent study shows that TFIIB links transcription inhibition with the p53-dependent DNA damage response.[10]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Lewin, Benjamin (2004). Genes VIII. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. pp. p636–637. ISBN 0-13-144946-X. 
  2. ^ Ha I, Lane WS, Reinberg D (1991). "Cloning of a human gene encoding the general transcription initiation factor IIB". Nature 352 (6337): 689–95. doi:10.1038/352689a0. PMID 1876184. 
  3. ^ Heng HH, Xiao H, Shi XM, Greenblatt J, Tsui LC (1994). "Genes encoding general initiation factors for RNA polymerase II transcription are dispersed in the human genome". Hum. Mol. Genet. 3 (1): 61–4. doi:10.1093/hmg/3.1.61. PMID 8162052. 
  4. ^ "Entrez Gene: GTF2B general transcription factor IIB". 
  5. ^ Lee TI, Young RA (2000). "Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes". Annu. Rev. Genet. 34: 77–137. doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.34.1.77. PMID 11092823. 
  6. ^ Tang H, Sun X, Reinberg D, Ebright RH (1996). "Protein-protein interactions in eukaryotic transcription initiation: structure of the preinitiation complex". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (3): 1119–24. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.3.1119. PMC 40041. PMID 8577725. 
  7. ^ a b Bushnell, David A; Westover KD, Davis RE, Kornberg RD (Feb 2004). "Structural basis of transcription: an RNA polymerase II-TFIIB cocrystal at 4.5 Angstroms". Science (United States) 303 (5660): 983–8. doi:10.1126/science.1090838. PMID 14963322. 
  8. ^ Lagrange T, Kapanidis AN, Tang H, Reinberg D, Ebright RH (1998). "New core promoter element in RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription: sequence-specific DNA binding by transcription factor IIB". Genes and Development 12 (1): 34–44. doi:10.1101/gad.12.1.34. PMC 316406. PMID 9420329. 
  9. ^ Littlefield O, Korkhin Y, Sigler PB (1999). "The structural basis for the oriented assembly of a TBP/TFB/promoter complex". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 96 (24): 13668–13673. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.24.13668. PMC 24122. PMID 10570130. 
  10. ^ "TFIIB dephosphorylation links transcription inhibition with the p53-dependent DNA damage response". doi:10.1073/pnas.1207483109. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]