Delhi Agreement

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Delhi Agreement
Transfer of Population Under the Terms of Delhi Agreement
International border at Wagah - evening flag lowering ceremony.jpg
Flags of India and Pakistan being lowered
Type Population transfer
Context Cold war
Drafted 17 April 1973
Signed April 9, 1973; 41 years ago (1973-04-09)
Location New Delhi, India
Sealed 19 September 1973
Effective 8 August 1973
Condition Ratification by both parties
Expiration August 28, 1974 (1974-08-28)
Expiry 1 July 1974
Mediators Interior ministries of India and Pakistan
Negotiators Foreign ministries of India and Pakistan
Signatories Swaran Singh
(Minister of External Affairs)
Aziz Ahmed
(Foreign Minister of Pakistan)
Parties  India
Ratifiers Parliaments of India and Pakistan
Depositary Indira Gandhi
Prime Minister of India
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Prime Minister of Pakistan

The Delhi Agreement was a trilateral agreement and bilateral treaty signed between India and Pakistan on 9 April 1973.[1] The treaty was signed by the foreign ministers of India and Pakistan in New Delhi, following the Simla Agreement in 1972.[1]

Under the terms of this agreement, thousands of non-Bengali and Urdu-speaking Biharis, including 195 former armed forces and civilians officers, were subjects of population transfer to Pakistan from India and Bangladesh.[2] Concurrently, Bangladesh worked together with India to propose the treaty to resolve the humanitarian crises, but did not became a party to the treaty.[1] Overseen by the UNCHR, this agreement resolved the humanitarian crises and it cleared the way for state recognition of Bangladesh by Pakistan.[1]

The treaty ended on 1 July 1974, and a total of 230,439 persons migrated to Pakistan and Bangladesh. According to UN, around 121,695 Bangladeshis were moved from Pakistan to Bangladesh, and 108,744 from Bangladesh to Pakistan.[2] In 1974, General Niazi was a last Pakistan armed forces general who was symbolically repatriated to Pakistan from Wagah border.[2]


  1. ^ a b c d Levie, Howard S. "The Indo-Pakistani Agreement of August 28, 1973". Vol. 68, No. 1 (Jan., 1974), pp. 95–97. American Journal of International Law. Retrieved 16 February 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c UN. "Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees". UNCHR. UNCHR. Retrieved 16 February 2013.