Transit-timing variation is a method for detecting exoplanets by observing variations in the timing of a transit. This provides an extremely sensitive method capable of detecting additional planets in the system with masses potentially as small as that of Earth. "Timing variation" asks whether the transit occurs with strict periodicity or if there's a variation.
The first significant detection of a non-transiting planet using transit-timing variations was carried out with NASA's Kepler satellite. The transiting planet Kepler-19b shows transit-timing variation with an amplitude of 5 minutes and a period of about 300 days, indicating the presence of a second planet, Kepler-19c, which has a period that is a near-rational multiple of the period of the transiting planet.
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- The Transit Timing Variation (TTV) Planet-finding Technique Begins to Flower