Translative case

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The translative case (abbreviated TRANSL) is a grammatical case that indicates a change in state of a noun, with the general sense of "becoming X" or "change to X".

In the Finnish language, this is the counterpart of the Essive case, with the basic meaning of a change of state. It is also used for expressing "in (a language)", "considering it's a (status)" and "by (a time)". Its ending is -ksi. Examples:

  • pitkä "long", venyi pitkäksi "(it) stretched long"
  • englanti "English", englanniksi "in English"
  • pentu "cub", Se on pennuksi iso "For a cub, it is big"
  • musta aukko "black hole", (muuttui/muuntautui) mustaksi aukoksi "(turned into) a black hole"
  • kello kuusi "(at) six o' clock", kello kuudeksi "by six o' clock"

Examples in Estonian:

  • must auk "black hole", (muutus/muundus) mustaks auguks "(turned into) a black hole"
  • kell kuus "(at) six o' clock", kella kuueks "by six o' clock"

Examples in Hungarian. The ending is -vá / -vé after a vowel; assimilating to the final consonsant otherwise:

  • "salt", Lót felesége sóvá változott "Lot's wife turned into salt"
  • fiú "boy; son" fiává fogad "adopt as one's son"
  • bolond "fool" bolonddá tett engem "He made a fool out of me."

Examples in Esperanto. The suffix is -iĝ:

  • blanka "white" blankiĝi "to turn white"