Transliteration of Ancient Egyptian

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

In the field of Egyptology, transliteration is the process of converting (or mapping) texts written in the Egyptian language to alphabetic symbols representing uniliteral hieroglyphs or their hieratic and Demotic counterparts. This process facilitates the publication of texts where the inclusion of photographs or drawings of an actual Egyptian document is impractical.

It should be emphasised that transliteration is not the same as transcription. Transcription seeks to reproduce the pronunciation of a text. For example, the name of the founder of the Twenty-second dynasty is transliterated as ššnq but transcribed Shoshenq in English, Chéchanq in French, Sjesjonk in Dutch, and Scheschonq in German.

Due to the exact details regarding the phonetics of ancient Egyptian not being completely known, most transcriptions depend on Coptic for reconstruction or are theoretical in nature. Egyptologists, therefore, rely on transliteration in scientific publications.

Standards[edit]

As important as transliteration is to the field of Egyptology, there is no one standard scheme in use for hieroglyphic and hieratic texts. Some might even argue that there are as many systems of transliteration as there are Egyptologists. However, there are a few closely related systems that can be regarded as conventional. Many non-German-speaking Egyptologists use the system described in Gardiner 1954, whereas many German-speaking scholars tend to opt for that used in the Wörterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache (Erman and Grapow 1926–1953), the standard dictionary of the ancient Egyptian language. However, there is a growing trend, even among English-speaking scholars, to adopt a modified version of the method used in the Wörterbuch (e.g., Allen 2000).

Although these conventional approaches to transliteration have been followed since most of the second half of the nineteenth century to the present day, there have been some attempts to adopt a modified system that seeks to utilise the International Phonetic Alphabet to a certain degree. The most successful of these is that developed by Wolfgang Schenkel (1990), and it is being used fairly widely in Germany and other German-speaking countries. More recent is a proposal by Thomas Schneider (2003) that is even closer to the IPA, but its usage is not presently common. The major criticism levelled against both of these systems is that they give an impression of being much more scientifically accurate with regard to the pronunciation of Egyptian. Unfortunately this perceived accuracy is debatable. Moreover, the systems reflect only the theoretical pronunciation of Middle Egyptian and not the older and later phases of the language, which are themselves to be transliterated with the same system.

Electronic transliteration[edit]

In 1984 a standard, ASCII-based transliteration system was proposed by an international group of Egyptologists at the first Table ronde informatique et égyptologie and published in 1988 (see Buurman, Grimal, et al., 1988). This has come to be known as the Manuel de Codage (or MdC) system, based on the title of the publication, Inventaire des signes hiéroglyphiques en vue de leur saisie informatique: Manuel de codage des textes hiéroglyphiques en vue de leur saisie sur ordinateur. It is widely used in e-mail discussion lists and internet forums catering to professional Egyptologists and the interested public.

Although the Manuel de codage system allows for simple "alphabetic" transliterations, it also specifies a complex method for electronically encoding complete ancient Egyptian texts, indicating features such as the placement, orientation, and even size of individual hieroglyphs. This system is used (though frequently with modifications) by various software packages developed for typesetting hieroglyphic texts (such as SignWriter, WinGlyph, MacScribe, InScribe, Glyphotext, WikiHiero, and others).

Unicode[edit]

With the introduction of the Latin Extended Additional block to Unicode version 1.1 (1992) and the addition of Egyptological alef and ayin to Unicode version 5.1 (2008), it is possible to fully transliterate Egyptian texts using a Unicode typeface. The following table only lists the special characters used in various transliteration schemes (see below).

Transcription characters in Unicode
Minuscule (Egyptological Alef) ʾ (Egyptological Secondary Alef) ı͗ (Egyptological Yod) ï (Egyptological Aijn)
Unicode U+A723 U+02BE U+0131
U+0357
U+0069
U+032F
U+00EF U+A725 U+0075
U+032F
U+1E25 U+1E2B U+1E96 U+0068
U+032D
Majuscule Ï
Unicode U+A722 U+0049
U+0357
U+0049
U+032F
U+00CF U+A724 U+0055
U+032F
U+1E24 U+1E2A U+0048
U+0331
U+0048
U+032D
Minuscule ś š č č̣
Unicode U+015B U+0161 U+1E33 U+010D U+1E6F U+1E6D U+1E71 U+010D
U+0323
U+1E0F
Majuscule Ś Š Č Č̣
Unicode U+015A U+0160 U+1E32 U+010C U+1E6E U+1E6C U+1E70 U+010C
U+0323
U+1E0E
Brackets/
interpunction
Unicode U+2E17 U+27E8 U+27E9 U+2308 U+2309

Egyptological alef, ayin, and yod[edit]

Three additional characters are required for transliterating Egyptian:

  • Alef (Egyptological Alef, two Semitistic alephs, one set over the other (Lepsius); approximated by the digit ⟨3⟩ in ASCII);[1]
  • Ayin (Egyptological Aijn, a Semitistic ayin);
  • Yod (Egyptological Yod, i with a Semitistic aleph instead of the dot, both yod and alef being considered possible sound values in the 19th century).[2]

Although six Egyptological and Ugariticist letters were proposed in August 2000,[3] it was not until 2008 (Unicode 5.1) that four of the six letters were encoded:

Designation Capital Lowercase
Egyptological alef
U+A722

U+A723
Egyptological ayin
U+A724

U+A725

Another two proposals were made regarding the Egyptological yod,[4][5] the eventual result of which was to accept the use of the Cyrillic psili pneumata (U+0486 ◌҆ ) as one of several possible diacritics for this purpose. The other options use the superscript comma (U+0313) and the right half ring above (U+0357). OpenType tables in fonts will be necessary to support the combination correctly.

Examples showing the Cyrillic option and the reverse sicilicus option are given below:

Egyptological yod workarounds
Designation Capital Lowercase
Cyrillic psili pneumata
U+0049 U+0486

U+0069 U+0486
Right half ring above
U+0049 U+0357
ı͗
U+0069 U+0357

The Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale adopted its own Unicode-based transliteration system. It uses the Middle English yoghȝ⟩ (Unicode U+021D) for alef (hamza), ⟨j⟩ or Vietnamese ⟨⟩ (Unicode U+1EC9, i with hook above) for Egyptological yod, and a reverse sicilicus ⟨ʿ⟩ (Unicode U+02BF) for ayin.

Demotic[edit]

As the latest stage of pre-Coptic Egyptian, Demotic texts have long been transliterated using the same system(s) used for hieroglyphic and hieratic texts. However in 1980, Demotists adopted a single, uniform, international standard based on the traditional system used for hieroglyphic, but with the addition of some extra symbols for vowels (which are frequently indicated in Demotic[citation needed]) and other letters that were written in the Demotic script. The Demotic Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (or CDD) utilises this method. As this system is likely only of interest to specialists, for details see the references below.

  • de Cenival, Françoise. 1980. "Unification des méthodes de translittération." Enchoria: Zeitschrift für Demotistik und Koptologie 10:2–4.
  • Johnson, Janet H. 1980. "CDDP Transliteration System." Enchoria 10:5–6.
  • Johnson, Janet H. 1991. Thus Wrote 'Onchsheshonqy: An Introductory Grammar of Demotic. 2nd ed. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 45. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Tait, William John. 1982. "The Transliteration of Demotic." Enchoria 11:67–76.
  • Thissen, Heinz-Josef. 1980. "Zur Transkription demotischer Texte." Enchoria 10:7–9.

Table of conventional transliteration schemes[edit]

Erman & Grapow 1926–1953 Gardiner 1957 Buurman, Grimal, et al. 1988 Schenkel 1991 Hannig 1995 Allen 2000 Hoch 1997 Schneider 2003 traditional English pronunciation
A
𓄿
ꜣ (Egyptian 3 symbol.png, 3) 3 A 3 3 3 ɹ /ɑː/
i
𓇋
ı͗/j ı͗ i ı͗ j j ı͗ ı͗ /ɑː, iː/
i i
𓇌
ı͗j y y y y y y y /j, iː/
a
𓂝
ꜥ (ˤ) ˤ a ˤ ˤ ˤ ɗ /ɑː/
w
𓅱
w w w w w w w w /w, uː/
b
𓃀
b b b b b b b b /b/
p
𓊪
p p p p p p p p /p/
f
𓆑
f f f f f f f f /f/
m
𓅓
m m m m m m m m /m/
n
𓈖
n n n n n n n n /n/
r
𓂋
r r r r r r r l /r/
h
𓉔
h h h h h h h h /h/
H
𓎛
H /h/
x
𓐍
x /x/
X
𓄡
X /x/
z
𓊃
s s s s z, s z s s /s/
s
𓋴
ś s s ś s s s ś /s/
S
𓈙
š š S š š š š š /ʃ/
q
𓈎
q q q q /k/
k
𓎡
k k k k k k k k /k/
g
𓎼
g g g g g g g g /ɡ/
t
𓏏
t t t t t t t t /t/
T
𓍿
T č c /tʃ/
d
𓂧
d d d d d d /d/
D
𓆓
D č̣ /dʒ/

The vowel /ɛ/ is conventionally inserted between consonants to make Egyptian words pronounceable in English.

Samples of various transliteration schemes[edit]

The following text (rendered using WikiHiero) is transliterated below in some of the more common schemes.

M23 X1
R4
X8 Q2
D4
W17 R14 G4 R8 O29
V30
U23 N26 D58 O49
Z1
F13
N31
V30
N16
N21 Z1
D45
N25

[Unicode: 𓇓𓏏𓊵𓏙𓊩𓁹𓏃𓋀𓅂𓊹𓉻𓎟𓍋𓈋𓃀𓊖𓏤𓄋𓈐𓎟𓇾𓈅𓏤𓂦𓈉 ]

(This text is conventionally translated into English as "an offering that the king gives; and Osiris, Foremost of Westerners [i.e., the Dead], the Great God, Lord of Abydos; and Wepwawet, Lord of the Sacred Land [i.e., the Necropolis]." It can also be translated "a royal offering of Osiris, Foremost of the Westerners, the Great God, Lord of Abydos; and of Wepwawet, Lord of the Sacred Land" [Allen 2000:§24.10].)

Erman and Grapow 1926–1953

  • ḥtp-dỉ-nśwt wśỉr ḫntỉj ỉmntjw nṯr ˤꜣ nb ꜣbḏw wp-wꜣwt nb tꜣ ḏśr

Gardiner 1953

  • ḥtp-dỉ-nswt wsỉr ḫnty ỉmntỉw nṯr ˤȝ nb ȝbḏw wp-wȝwt nb tȝ ḏsr

Buurman, Grimal, et al. 1988

  • Htp-di-nswt wsir xnty imntiw nTr aA nb AbDw wp-wAwt nb tA Dsr
A fully encoded, machine-readable version of the same text is:
  • M23-X1:R4-X8-Q2:D4-W17-R14-G4-R8-O29:V30-U23-N26-D58-O49:Z1-F13:N31-V30:N16:N21*Z1-D45:N25

Schenkel 1991

  • ḥtp-dỉ-nswt wsỉr ḫnty ỉmntjw nčr ˤȝ nb ȝbč̣w wp-wȝwt nb tȝ č̣sr

Allen 2000

  • ḥtp-dj-nswt wsjr ḫnty jmntjw nṯr ˤȝ nb ȝbḏw wp-wȝwt nb tȝ ḏsr

Schneider 2003

  • ḥtp-ḍỉ-nśwt wśỉr ḫnty ỉmntjw ncr ɗɹ nb ɹbc̣w wp-wɹwt nb tɹ c̣śr

Uniliteral signs[edit]

The Egyptian hieroglyphic script contained 24 uniliterals (symbols that stood for single consonants, much like English letters) which today we associate with the 26 glyphs listed below. (Note that the glyph associated with w/u also has a hieratic abbreviation.)

The traditional transliteration system shown on the left of the chart below is over a century old and is the one most commonly seen in texts. It includes several symbols such as alef () for sounds that were of unknown value at the time. Much progress has been made since, though there is still debate as to the details. For instance, it is now thought the alef () may have been an alveolar lateral approximant [l] in Old Egyptian but was lost by Middle Egyptian. The consonants transcribed as voiced (d, g, ḏ) may actually have been ejective or, less likely, pharyngealized like the Arabic emphatic consonants. A good description can be found in Allen.[6]

Uniliteral signs
Sign Traditional transliteration Phonetic values per Allen (2000)
  Say Notes Old Egyptian Middle Egyptian
A
𓄿
Egyptian vulture (3) a called alef or hamza,
a glottal stop
[l] or [ɾ] silent, [j], and [ʔ]
i
𓇋
flowering reed ı͗ i/a called yod an initial or final vowel; sometimes [j]
i i
𓇌
pair of reeds y y called yod or y no record [j]
y
𓏭
pair of strokes
or river (?)
a
𓂝
forearm (ʾ) a called ayin,
a voiced pharyngeal fricative
perhaps [d] [ʕ]; [d] perhaps retained in some words and dialects
w
𓅱 or
W
𓏲
quail chick or its
hieratic abbreviation
w w/u called waw
[w] ~ [u]
b
𓃀
lower leg b b   [b] ~ [β]
p
𓊪
reed mat or stool p p   aspirated [pʰ]
f
𓆑
horned viper f f   [f]
m
𓅓
owl m m   [m]
n
𓈖
ripple of water n n   [n] [n], sometimes [l]
r
𓂋
human mouth r r   [l] or [ɾ] [ɾ], sometimes [l]
(always [l] in some dialects)
h
𓉔
reed shelter h h   [h]
H
𓎛
twisted wick h an emphatic h,
a voiceless pharyngeal fricative
[ħ]
x
𓐍
sieve or placenta kh
a voiceless velar fricative
[x]
X
𓄡
animal belly and tail kh a softer sound,
a voiceless palatal fricative
[ç]
s
𓋴
folded cloth s s Old Egyptian sound for
"door bolt" is unknown,
but perhaps was z or th
[s] [s]
z
𓊃
door bolt [z]
S
𓈙 or
N38
𓈛 or
N39
𓈜
garden pool š sh   [ʃ]
q
𓈎
hill slope or q k an emphatic k,
a voiceless uvular plosive
ejective [qʼ]
k
𓎡
basket with handle k k   aspirated [kʰ]
in some words, palatalized [kʲ]
g
𓎼
jar stand g g   ejective [kʼ]
t
𓏏
bread loaf t t   aspirated [tʰ]
T
𓍿
tethering rope or hobble or tj ch as in English church palatalized [tʲ] or [t͡ʃ]
d
𓂧
hand d d   ejective [tʼ]
D
𓆓
cobra or dj j as in English judge ejective [tʲʼ] or [t͡ʃʼ]

Gardiner [7] lists several variations:

Uniliteral signs
Sign Traditional transliteration Notes
V33
𓎤
bag of linen g Appears in a few older words
Aa15
𓐝
possibly a finger m Originally biliteral ı͗m
S3
𓋔
crown of Lower Egypt n Originally ideogram nt for 'crown of Lower Egypt'
U33
𓍘
pestle t Originally biliteral tı͗

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Carsten Peust, Egyptian Phonology: Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language (Göttingen, 1999), 127.
  2. ^ Peust, Egyptian Phonology, p. 50, 99ff.
  3. ^ Everson, Michael. Proposal to add 6 Egyptological characters to the UCS, 2000-08-27
  4. ^ Everson, Michael and Bob Richmond, EGYPTOLOGICAL YOD and Cyrillic breathing, 2008-04-08
  5. ^ Everson, Michael, Proposal to encode Egyptological Yod and similar characters in the UCS, 2008-08-04
  6. ^ Allen, James P. (2000). Middle Egyptian: an Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77483-7. 
  7. ^ Gardiner, Sir Alan H. (1973). Egyptian Grammar, 3rd. Ed. The Griffith Institute. p. 27. ISBN 0-900416-35-1. 

References[edit]

  • Allen, James Paul. 2000. Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Buurman, Jan, Nicolas-Christophe Grimal, Michael Hainsworth, Jochen Hallof, and Dirk van der Plas. 1988. Inventaire des signes hiéroglyphiques en vue de leur saisie informatique: Manuel de codage des textes hiéroglyphiques en vue de leur saisie sur ordinateur. 3rd ed. Informatique et Égyptologie 2. Mémoires de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belle-Lettres (Nouvelle Série) 8. Paris: Institut de France.
  • Erman, Adolf, and Hermann Grapow, eds. 1926–1953. Wörterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache im Auftrage der deutschen Akademien. 6 vols. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'schen Buchhandlungen. (Reprinted Berlin: Akademie-Verlag GmbH, 1971).
  • Gardiner, Alan Henderson. 1957. Egyptian Grammar; Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. 3rd ed. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
  • Hannig, Rainer. 1995. Großes Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch–Deutsch: die Sprache der Pharaonen (2800–950 v. Chr.). Kulturgeschichte der antiken Welt 64 (Hannig-Lexica 1). Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern.
  • Schenkel, Wolfgang. 1990. Einführung in die altägyptische Sprachwissenschaft. Orientalistische Einführungen. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
  • Schneider, Thomas. 2003. "Etymologische Methode, die Historizität der Phoneme und das ägyptologische Transkriptionsalphabet." Lingua aegyptia: Journal of Egyptian Language Studies 11:187–199.

External links[edit]