Transport in Adelaide
The city of Adelaide, South Australia is served by a wide variety of transport, being centrally located on the Australian mainland and forms a hub for east-west and north-south routes. The road network includes major expressways such as the Southern Expressway, the South Eastern Freeway, the Port River Expressway, the Northern Expressway and the under construction South Road Superway. The city also has a public transport system managed by Adelaide Metro, consisting of a contracted bus system including the O-Bahn Busway (a guided busway), 6 metropolitan railway lines, and the Glenelg-Adelaide-Hindmarsh Tram.
Road transport in Adelaide has historically been comparatively easier than many of the other Australian cities, with a well-defined city layout and wide multiple-lane roads from the beginning of its development. Historically, Adelaide was known as a "twenty-minute city", with commuters having been able to travel from metropolitan outskirts to the city proper in roughly twenty minutes. However, these roads are now inadequate to cope with Adelaide's growing road traffic.
In 1964 the 'M.A.T.S.' plan (Metropolitan Adelaide Transport Study) was commissioned by the S.A. Government. It examined establishing a large network of highways along Adelaide's main urban transport corridors. The plan went as far as the State Government of the day purchasing land along Adelaide's major roads, in preparation for highway construction. However, later State Governments abandoned the plan during the 1970s. The consequences of the political rejection of this plan are now being realised as increased traffic has seen travel times increase, and congestion on main thoroughfares such as South Road has become a daily reality.
Adelaide is connected to Port Wakefield Road and the Sturt Highway in the north, and the South Eastern Freeway in the South East. The Southern Expressway acts as a bypass for congested South Road in the southern suburbs of Adelaide. The expressway is unique for changing direction according to peak flow.
The focus of Adelaide's public transport system is the large fleet of diesel and natural gas powered buses. The majority of services terminate at the city-centre or at a suburban interchange. Buses get priority on many roads and intersections, with dedicated bus lanes and 'B'-light bus-only phases at many traffic lights.
The Adelaide Metro buses are operated by:
- Torrens Transit - East-West contract area (includes City Free)
- Australian Transit Enterprises, trading as SouthLink - Outer South, Outer North and Hills contract areas.
- Light City Buses - North-South and Outer North East contract areas (includes the 300 suburban connecter and O-Bahn services).
Transitplus does not now operate any services in Adelaide. The O-Bahn Busway is one of a few guided busways in the world. With large growth in the North-eastern Suburbs of Adelaide in the 1970s and 1980s, Adelaide was faced with a transport dilemma. The Adelaide O-Bahn was constructed in 1986 in response, after beating competing proposals of expanded rail and road networks. (One of the competing proposals was to build an Adelaide underground, but proved to be cost-ineffective in comparison).
Interstate bus routes to and from all the major Australian towns and cities connect to Adelaide. The main terminus for intra and interstate coach-liners is the Franklin Street Coach Terminal at Franklin and Bowen Streets in the city-centre. Beginning in 2005, the terminal is to undergo a complete $25 million reconstruction, in conjunction with the much larger $375 million former Balfours site redevelopment – the end-product being a new multistorey bus station and various residential and commercial towers.
The Tindo ("Tindo", Kaurna word for sun) solar bus is an experimental battery electric vehicle that operates in Adelaide. It uses 100% solar power, is equipped with a regenerative braking system and air conditioning and can carry up to 40 persons, 25 of whom are seated. Hailed as the world's first bus service powered exclusively by solar power, the bus service connects Adelaide City and North Adelaide as part of Adelaide City's sustainable transport agenda. The Tindo is part of the Adelaide Connector bus service which is offered as free public transport.
While Adelaide's suburban passenger-rail network does not suffer the chronic delays of its inter-state counterparts, it is comparatively under-developed; Adelaide is the last mainland capital with a non-electric network, with a 10-year $2 billion transport program commencing in 2008-09 to rebuild and electrify the network. Adelaide is also the midpoint of the long distance Indian Pacific service between Perth and Sydney, as well as the terminus of The Overland to Melbourne and The Ghan to Alice Springs and Darwin.
In late 2005 the State Government released a State Infrastructure Plan. This saw a A$56 million upgrade of the Adelaide’s sole remaining tramway, from the city centre to the historic beachside resort of Glenelg. The tram line was extended from the city centre to a new terminus in the inner north-west suburb of Hindmarsh. There are now fifteen Flexity Classic Light Rail vehices and six Alstom Citadis (model 302) in service with the older H-type trams being used only for special and tourist-oriented occasions.. Further plans exist to extend the tram to Port Adelaide and Semaphore. A CBD tram loop too, is being considered and the latest Adelaide Airport master plan has also revealed a tram extension to the airport in the near future.
The Adelaide International Airport, located at West Beach, is Australia's newest and most advanced airport terminal and is designed to serve in excess of 6.8 million passengers annually. The new dual international/domestic terminal replaced the old and ageing terminals known locally as the 'tin sheds', and incorporates new state-of-the-art features, such as glass aerobridges and the ability to cater for the new Airbus A380. The airport is designed to handle 27 aircraft simultaneously and it is capable of processing 3,000 passengers per hour. It was officially opened in a ceremony in October 2005 by South Australian Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson, Premier of South Australia Mike Rann and Prime Minister of Australia John Howard. Due to problems with the new refuelling system, the new airport terminal was not used for interstate domestic flights until 17 February 2006.
See also 
South Australia 
Superseded Transport Authorities 
- ^ Metro Malcontent - The Twenty Minute City No More, courtesy RAA  (.pdf)
- ^ RAA's Vision: Backwater to Benchmark, courtesy RAA 
- ^ Princes Highway SA (South-Eastern Freeway), courtesy Ozroads 
- ^ Southern Expressway, courtesy M Greenslade 
- ^ Adelaide Metro: The Adelaide O-Bahn, courtesy Adelaide Metro 
- ^ Adelaide's new Bus Terminal, courtesy Capital City Committee 
- ^ South Australia Transport Plan, courtesy South Australian Department of Transport 
- ^ Adelaide Metro: New Trams, courtesy Adelaide Metro 
- ^ Adelaide Airport, courtesy Adelaide Airport Limited 
- ^ Passengers urged to be patient as new SA terminal opens, courtesy ABC News 
- Minister for Transport - Report on the Adelaide Metro Bus Service Contracts, August 2011, retrieved 2011-12-03.
- To, Kien; Fernández, John E. (18-20 June 2012). "Alternative urban technologies demonstration projects for innovative cities". Third International Engineering Systems Symposium, CESUN 2012, Delft University of Technology.
- "All-Electric, Solar-Powered, Free Bus!!!". Ecogeek.org. 2007-12-27. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
- "AdelaideNow... State Budget 08 - Foley unveils $10bn infrastructure masterplan". www.news.com.au. Retrieved 2008-06-05.[dead link]
- http://www.adelaidenow.com.au/city-loop-in-tram-proposal/story-e6frea6u-1226032608322 City loop extension in tram proposal
- http://www.adelaideairport.com.au/assets/pdfs/master-planning/Vol2MaterPlanDec2009.pdf Master Plan - Adelaide Airport