Transport in England

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England has a dense and modern transportation infrastructure. The Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the English transport network.

Rail[edit]

The British Rail network is largely based on services originating from one of London's rail termini operating in all directions. Internal intercity services include:

Long distance travel that doesn't pass through London is generally referred to as cross country travel. Most services are operated by CrossCountry and often terminate in South East Wales or Scotland. The Oxford to Cambridge or Varsity Line is due to be rebuilt to enable journeys avoiding London and Birmingham.

Regional train services are also operated by these, and other, train companies, and focus on the major cities, several of which have developed commuter and urban rail networks.

Rapid transit[edit]

Two cities in England have rapid transit systems. Most well known is the London Underground (commonly known as the Tube), the oldest and longest rapid transit system in the world. Also in London are the separate Docklands Light Railway (though this is integrated with the Underground in many ways), and the London Overground. Outside of London, there is the Tyne and Wear Metro, focused on Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead and Sunderland.

Trams and light rail[edit]

A vintage British tram from the former Leeds Tramway, preserved at the National Tramway Museum.

Tram systems were popular in England in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. However, with the rise of the motor bus and later the car they began to be widely dismantled in the 1950s. By 1962, only Blackpool tramway remained. However in recent years trams have seen a revival, as in other countries, as have light rail systems. Examples of this second generation of tram systems and light rail include:

Rail links with adjacent countries[edit]

Road[edit]

Motorways[edit]

England contains a vast majority of the UK's motorways, dating from the first built in 1958 (part of the M6) to the most recent (M6 Toll). Important motorways include:

Motorway From To Major destinations Year opened to completion
M1 London Leeds Milton Keynes
Nottingham
Leicester
1999
M11 London Cambridge Stansted Airport 1980
M20 London Folkestone Channel Tunnel 1991
M23 London Crawley Gatwick Airport 1999
M25 London Orbital London Orbital n/a 1986
M27 Southampton Portsmouth Fareham 1983
M3 London Southampton Winchester 1995
M4 London Pont Abraham Bristol
Cardiff
1996
M40 London Birmingham Oxford 1990
M42 Redditch Tamworth Birmingham 1989
M5 Birmingham Exeter Bristol 1977
M56 Chester Manchester Manchester Airport 1981
M6 Rugby Carlisle Birmingham
Manchester
1972
M6 Toll National Exhibition Centre Wolverhampton Birmingham 2003
M60 Manchester Orbital Manchester Orbital n/a 2000
M62 Liverpool Hull Manchester
Leeds
1976
M65 Preston Colne Blackburn 1997
A1(M) London Newcastle-upon-Tyne Non-continuous motorway 2006

Note: There is no definition of a major motorway. Those in the table are particularly important due to their destinations, and other motorways exist. Where a major city (such as London) is given as a destination it is usually to give a general idea of the location, as most (London) motorways end outside the actual city (for example, the M40 actually ends in Buckinghamshire).

Ports[edit]

Ships

See also[edit]