Transport in Kazakhstan
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The vast territory of Kazakhstan, 2.7 million km ², low population density, dissociation centers of industry and agriculture, and the remoteness from world markets, makes the possession of advanced transportation system vital for Kazakhstan.
Total: Transportation by rail in Kazakhstan is very important. Kazakhstan Railways provide 68% of all cargo and passenger traffic to over 57% of the country. 15,079 km in common carrier service, excluding industrial lines.
Broad Gauge: 15,079 km of 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 5⁄6 in) gauge (4,000 km electrified) (2008)
Kazakhstan Temir Zholy (KTZ) is the national railway company.
As the Kazakhstani rail system was designed during the Soviet era rail routes were designed ignoring intersoviet borders and to the needs of Soviet planning. This has caused anamolies such as the route from Ural'sk to Aktobe briefly now passing through Russian territory. It also means routes might not now suit modern day Kazakhstani needs.
- Russia - same gauge (former Soviet Union railway system)
- China - break of gauge 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 5⁄6 in)/1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in); border station at Druzhba, KZ - Alashankou, CN, connects to the Lanxin railway.
- Kyrgyzstan - same gauge (former Soviet Union railway system)
- Uzbekistan - same gauge (former Soviet Union railway system)
- Turkmenistan - same gauge (former Soviet Union railway system) (No direct link, passing through Uzbekistan, but proposed railway will pass through Turkmenistan and link Kazakhstan to Iran)
The strategy of transport development in Kazakhstan until 2015 will be built 1600 km of new electrified and 2700 km of existing railway stations.
- BOOT line from Zhetigen to Khorgos on China border. The line would branch off the existing railway near Shaquanzi.
- Proposals to eliminate break of gauge at Druzhba-Alashankou by converting Kazakhstan main line to European gauge.
Towns served by rail 
Rapid Transit & Tram Systems 
In May 2011 the construction of the second phase of the Almaty Metro line 1 commenced. The general contractor of construction is Almatymetrokurylys. Currently more than 300 metres of tunnels on the extension project have been excavated.The extension includes 5 new stations and will connect downtown area of Almaty with Kalkaman in the suburbs. Its length will be 8.62 km.
There is still a tram system which opened in 1937. However, with the metro construction, 8 of the 10 lines were closed and now there are only 2 lines. They total 23 km.
The Astana Metro system is under construction.
The system was opened between 1959 and 1978 and the tram is a popular form of transport in Oskemen/Ust-Kamenogorsk. At its peak it had 6 routes, but now has 4 routes in operation. It has a fleet of 50 working tram cars.
There is an 86 km tram network, which began service in 1965 with, as of 2012, 20 regular and 3 special routes. The network has a 60% share of the local public transport market. Its fleet of 115 trams are due to be replaced and in 2012 the city announced plans to purchase 100 new trams.
There are 2 tram lines in this city.
Total: 189,000 km\117,445 mi (2002)
Paved: 108,100 km\67,173 mi(2002)
Unpaved: 80,900 km/50,272;mi(2002)
It is stated in the CIA Factbook that Kazakhstan has a total road network of 93,612 km which is made up of: paved: 84,100 km and unpaved: 9,512 km. (2008)
As of May 2011 in Kazakhstan there were 3,264,400 registered cars. Kazakhstan has a road network stretching over 96,000 km, most of which is in need of modernization and repair.
5 international road routes passes from Kazakhstan, totaling 23,000 kilometers. These highways are:
- M-36 Highway: Almaty - Astana - Kostanay (continues to Chelyabinsk)
- Almaty - Petropavl to Omsk with the release of
- M-38 Highway: Almaty - Semey - Pavlodar (continues to Omsk)
- M-39 Highway: Almaty - Shymkent (continues to Tashkent)
- M-32 Highway: Shymkent - Aktobe - Oral (continues to Samara)
In 2009 the country commenced the construction of the "Western Europe - Western China" highway, which will be completed by 2013. The total length of the road will be 8445 km, of which 2,787 km will be in Kazakhstan, (Aktobe, Kyzylorda, South Kazakhstan, Zhambyl and Almaty oblasts). The thickness of the asphalt and concrete pavement will be 80 cm, and the expected lifespan of the highway will be 25 years, without a major overhaul, and the maximum speed limit 120 km/h. The project includes a number of road bridges over rivers, road maintenance facilities, bus stop areas, avtopavilony, cattle trails, and electronic signage. Simultaneously with the construction of this highway roads will be repaired and built in areas along its route.
Condensate 658 km; gas 12,317 km; oil 11,201 km; refined products 1,095 km; water 1,465 km (2010)
Waterways & Waterborne Transportation 
Ports and harbors 
Caspian Sea 
On rivers 
Merchant Marine 
Total: 11 By type: cargo 1, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 1, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 3 (Austria 1, Ireland 1, Turkey 1) (2010)
The large area of the country and the associated long distances makes air travel a very important component in domestic travel.
Airports - with paved runways 
- over 3,047 m: 10
- 2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
- 1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
- 914 to 1,523 m: 5
- under 914 m: 8 (2012)
Airports - with unpaved runways 
- over 3,047 m: 5
- 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
- 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
- 914 to 1,523 m: 5
- under 914 m: 13 (2012)
Total: 3 (2012)
Air Astana - most popular Kazakhstani Air operator
Air Astana (Эйр Астана) is the principal airline and the flag carrier of the Republic of Kazakhstan, based in Almaty, Kazakhstan. It operates scheduled domestic and international services on 56 routes from its main hub, Almaty International Airport, and from its 2 secondary hubs, Astana International Airport and Atyrau Airport. It is a joint venture between Kazakhstan’s sovereign wealth fund Samruk-Kazyna (51%), and BAE Systems PLC (49%). It was incorporated in October 2001 and started commercial flights on 15 May 2002. At the 2012 World Airline Awards held at Farnborough Airshow in the UK, Air Astana was named the Best Airline in Central Asia & India.
Air Astana operates the following destinations (as of April 2009):
Domestic (Kazakhstan) 
- Aktau (Aktau Airport)
- Aktobe (Aktobe Airport)
- Almaty (Almaty International Airport) (Hub)
- Astana (Astana International Airport) (Hub)
- Atyrau (Atyrau Airport)
- Karaganda (Sary-Arka Airport)
- Kostanay (Kostanay Airport)
- Kyzylorda (Kyzylorda Airport)
- Oral (Oral Ak Zhol Airport)
- Oskemen (Oskemen Airport)
- Pavlodar (Pavlodar Airport)
- Petropavl (Petropavl Airport)
- Semey (Semey Airport)
- Shymkent (Shymkent International Airport)
- Zhezkazgan (Zhezkazgan Airport)
- South Korea
- United Arab Emirates
- United Kingdom
See also 
- Kazakhstan, South Korea to set up bus-assembling JV
- Air Astana website
- Kazakhstan Railways website in English
- Almaty airport details
- Official website for Astana Airport in English
- Unofficial website for Astana Airport in English
- CIA: The World Factbook
- Tehran Times
- ENRC to develop and operate the Zhetigen-Khorgos railway line between Kazakhstan and China | International Mining
- KAZAKHSTAN - Temir Zholy
- "Head Office." Air Astana. Retrieved on 21 December 2010. "Registered office 4A, Zakarpatskaya Street, Almaty, 050039, Kazakhstan"
- "Air Astana named Best Airline in Central Asia & India". The Gazette of Central Asia (Satrapia). 17 July 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.