Transport in Keihanshin
Transport in the Keihanshin metropolitan region is much like that of Tokyo: it includes public and private rail and highway networks; airports for international, domestic, and general aviation; buses; motorcycle delivery services, walking, bicycling, and commercial shipping. The nexus is in the central part of Osaka, though Kobe and Kyoto are major centers in their own right. Every part of Keihanshin has rail or road transport services. The sea and air transport is available from a limited number of ports for the general public.
Public transport within Keihanshin is dominated by an extensive public system, beginning with an urban rail network second only to that of Greater Tokyo, consisting of over seventy railway lines of surface trains and subways run by numerous operators; buses, monorails, and trams support the primary rail network. Over 13 million people use the public transit system daily as their primary means of travel. Like Tokyo, walking and bicycling are much more common than in many cities around the globe. Trips by bicycle (including joint trips with railway) in Osaka is at 32.3% with railway trips having the highest share at 36.2%. Private automobiles and motorcycles play a secondary role in urban transport with private automobiles only having a 9.5% modal share in Osaka.
- 1 Airports
- 2 Rail
- 3 Buses
- 4 Taxis
- 5 Roads
- 6 Maritime transport
- 7 Other modes
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Osaka Airport (Itami Airport) is the main domestic airport, and busiest, followed by Kansai International Airport, the main international airport in the region. Kobe Airport is the region's newest airport, and has mostly domestic services, with a few international charter flights.
Yao Airport serves the area's general aviation needs. Still further across Osaka Bay into Shikoku lies Tokushima Airport, also capable of handling large planes, and a possible alternative airport for the region. (for evacuation, disaster relief, emergency landings, cargo, overload etc.).
There are also a number of JASDF military facilities.
The rail network in Keihanshin is very dense, with the average number of daily passengers topping 13 million. Railway usage and density is similar to that of Greater Tokyo, despite the smaller population base of Keihanshin, like in Tokyo, few free maps exist of the entire network, most show only the stations of a particular company, and whole network (See this map of Keihanshin's rail network) often are confusing simply because they are so large. In addition to above-ground and below-ground rail lines, the Sanyō and Tōkaidō Shinkansen serve as the backbone of intercity rail transport.
List of operating passenger rail lines
List of cable car/funicular lines
- Keihan Electric Railway Cable Line (鋼索線), also called Otokoyama Cable (男山ケーブル)
- Nankai Railway Cable Line (鋼索線)
- Sanyo Electric Railway Sumaura Ropeway
- Keifuku Electric Railroad
- Nose Electric Railway Myōken Cable
List of incomplete/abandoned lines
Following table lists annual ridership in millions of passengers a year, average daily in parenthesis.
|Operator||Annual (daily) 1993 (peak year)||Annual (daily) 2007|
|West Japan Railway Company (Kansai Only)||943 (2,584,000) ||961 (2,633,000) |
|Kintetsu (Kansai Only)||806 ||611 |
|Nankai Railway||310 ||231 |
|Keihan Railway||419 ||291 |
|Hankyu Railway||787 ||601 |
|Hanshin Railway||221 ||162 |
|SubTotal||2,545 (6,972,000)||1,899 (5,202,000)|
|Osaka Municipal Subway||N/A||2,234,000|
|Semboku Rapid Railway||58 (158,900)||51.1 (140,100)|
|Kyoto Municipal Subway||(344,000)|
Note above table does not yet include figures for Kobe Municipal Subway, Kitakyu, Kobe New Transit, Kobe Rapid, Nosenden, or Shintetsu.
There are numerous private and public bus companies with hundreds of routes throughout the region. Most bus routes complement existing rail service to form an effective intermodal transit network.
Taxis also serve a similar role to buses, supplementing the rail system, especially after midnight when most rail lines cease to operate. Persons moving around the city on business often chose taxis for convenience, as do people setting out in small groups.
National, prefectural, and local roads crisscross the region.
Local and regional highways
- Route 1
- Route 2
- Route 9
- Route 24 (Kyoto - Nara Prefecture - Wakayama Prefecture)
- Route 25 (Osaka - Nara - Nagoya)
- Route 26 (Osaka - Wakayama)
- Route 28 (Kobe - Awaji - Tokushima, Tokushima)
- Route 171 (Kobe - Kyoto, San'yōdō)
- Route 423 (Osaka - Senri - Kameoka, "New-Midosuji")
- Hanshin Expressway
- Meishin Expressway (Asian Highway 1)
- Chūgoku Expressway (Asian Highway 1)
- Sanyō Expressway
- Kinki Expressway
- Maizuru-Wakasa Expressway (To Maizuru)
- Nishi-Meihan Expressway (To Nara Prefecture, Nagoya)
- Hanwa Expressway (To Wakayama Prefecture)
Osaka's international ferry connections are far greater than Tokyo's, mostly due to geography. There are international ferries that leave Osaka for Shanghai, Korea, and until recently Taiwan. Osaka's domestic ferry services include regular service to ports such as Shimonoseki, Kagoshima, and Okinawa.
Shipping plays a crucial role for movign freight in and out of the Keihanshin area. Although in the 1970s the port of Kobe was the busiest in the world by containers handled, it no longer ranks among the top twenty worldwide. Kansai area is home to 5 existing LNG terminals.
Scooters, as in Tokyo, were once quite popular in the 1990s, but have declined in popularity as people reverted to using bicycles and walking for short trips, and cars for longer ones. They are commonly used by individuals for buying groceries and short in town trips, as well as commercially for delivery of small items by food or household delivery services.