||It has been suggested that this article be merged into Posttraumatic stress disorder. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2013.|
A trauma trigger is an experience that triggers a traumatic memory in someone who has experienced trauma. A trigger is thus a troubling reminder of a traumatic event, although the trigger itself need not be frightening or traumatic.
Triggers can be quite diverse, appearing in the form of individual people, places, noises, images, smells, tastes, emotions, animals, films, scenes within films, dates of the year, tones of voice, body positions, bodily sensations, weather conditions, time factors, or combinations thereof. Triggers can be subtle and difficult to anticipate, and can sometimes exacerbate post-traumatic stress disorder, a condition in which sufferers cannot control the recurrence of emotional or physical symptoms, or of repressed memory. A trauma trigger may also be referred to as a trauma stimulus or a trauma stressor.
A trauma trigger can can manifest in a variety of forms from exhibiting a changed mental state or physical reactions. A person that is experiencing a trauma trigger may not even know this is happening.
The first step in helping trauma survivors[vague] begin the healing process involves establishing a safe environment, in particular, an environment in which the sufferer does not feel threatened with recurrence of the original trauma, and also feels safe from encountering situations that will trigger the memory of the original trauma. Because traumatic memories are stored differently in the brain, their recurrence is often difficult or impossible for the survivor to control. Creating a living condition in which a survivor feels protected from trauma and from people or situations that will trigger traumatic memory enables the survivor to begin the healing process, in which survivors integrate their dissociated traumatic experience into acknowledged memory and are able to reconnect with their surroundings.
Film and other visual media represent an especially powerful form of trauma trigger. Because of the realistic portrayal of graphic violence in visual media, sufferers may encounter lifelike trauma triggers while watching movies or television.
In some publications a "trigger warning" may appear at the beginning of certain articles. These are to warn that the articles contain disturbing themes that may trigger traumatic memories for sufferers. An example of a trigger warning is: "TRIGGER WARNING: This content deals with an account of sexual assault and may be triggering to some people."
The efficacy of 'trigger warnings' is contested. Rhiannon Lucy Cosslett wrote in the New Statesman that "[trigger warnings] display an increasingly nannying approach to language that is being used to shut down discourse and to silence.". While Jill Filipovic writing in The Guardian notes that "triggers are often unpredictable and individually specific" thus making warnings on specific topics irrelevant and also that a precluding trigger warning "sets the tone for reading and understanding the book. It skews students' perceptions. It highlights particular issues as necessarily more upsetting than others, and directs students to focus on particular themes that have been singled out" There have also been suggestions that trigger warnings could themselves act as triggers by reminding the sufferer of their trigger even if the article itself is unrelated. In the Belfast Telegraph, Fionola Meredith wrote that "trigger warnings have got seriously out of hand." and they are a form of censorship: "Look closer at what's going on here and you see that the original, well-meaning intention to protect has changed into something quite different – another tool for liberal fascists (who make an ugly mockery of true liberalism) to control and restrict the flow of debate and shut down anything that they don't want to hear, or that doesn't fit comfortably into their approved list of acceptable things to say.". As Trigger Warnings have slowly crept into other media, Jay Caspian Kang for the New Yorker discussed the effect trigger warnings would have on novelists and notes they are "reducing a work of literature to its ugliest plot points"
- Flashback (psychological phenomenon)
- Posttraumatic stress disorder
- Acute stress reaction
- Glossary of trauma terms
- Emotional dysregulation
- Survivor syndrome
- Repressed memory
- Narcissistic defences
- Excuses for negative actions
- Post Traumatic Stress Disorders in Rape Survivors
- Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. nimh.nih.gov.
- Herman, pp. 37, 42.
- Fagan, N; Freme, K (2004). "Confronting posttraumatic stress disorder". Nursing 34 (2): 52–3. PMID 14758331.
- Herman, p. 155.
- Yehuda, Rachel (2002). "Post-traumatic stress disorder". N Engl J Med 346 (2): 108–14. doi:10.1056/NEJMra012941. PMID 11784878.
- Herman, pp. 159-174.
- Ephron, Dan (2006-10-01). "Battlefield flashbacks". Newsweek. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- An Account of Sexual Assault at Amherst College By Angie Epifano
- http://www.newstatesman.com/sci-tech/2013/01/why-i-dont-agree-trigger-warnings Why I don’t agree with trigger warnings by Rhiannon Lucy Cosslett
- http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/mar/05/trigger-warnings-can-be-counterproductive Jill Filipovic in The Guardian
- http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/blogs-ouch-26295437 Trigger warnings: What do they do? by BBC News
- http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/opinion/columnists/fionola-meredith/red-alert-over-annoying-rise-in-trigger-warnings-save-them-for-the-people-who-really-need-them-30236672.html FIONOLA MEREDITH , The Belfast Telegraph
- http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/books/2014/05/trigger-warnings-and-the-novelists-mind.html Jay Caspian Kang, The New Yorker
- Herman, Judith Lewis, MD (1992). Trauma and Recovery. BasicBooks, A Division of HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0465087655.
- "Trigger warnings: What do they do?". BBC. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.