Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes
Stevenson was in his late 20s and still dependent on his parents for support. Travels was both meant to he needed to be with the woman he loved[clarification needed], and provide the adventure he craved, having been sickly much of his life.
Travels recounts Stevenson's 12-day, 120-mile solo hiking journey through the sparsely populated and impoverished areas of the Cévennes mountains in south-central France in 1878. The character of Modestine, a stubborn, manipulative donkey he could never quite get the better of, is memorable. It is one of the earliest accounts which presented hiking and camping outdoors as a recreational activity. It also tells of commissioning one of the first sleeping bags, large and heavy enough to require a donkey to carry.
The Cévennes was the site of a Protestant rebellion around 1702, severely suppressed by Catholic Louis XIV. The Protestant insurgents, a minority population in the region, were known as the Camisards. Stevenson was well-versed in the history, romantically imagining scenes from the rebellion along the way. He notes that the Catholics and the Protestants, at the time of his travels, lived peaceably but with an absolute divide between the two communities. A young Catholic man who married a Protestant girl and changed his faith in the process was unanimously condemned for this breach of loyalty, an example of the sentiment "change is not good" which pervaded the countryside.
Stevenson himself was Protestant by upbringing, and both the geography of the Cévennes with its barren rocky heather-filled hillsides, and the history of religious strife that lay over the land, were familiar ground for the Scot.
The book appeared the following year, 1879, and is dedicated to his friend Sidney Colvin, a cultured man who had befriended him when he was still unpublished.
Stevenson's 1878 itinerary:
- September 22: Le Monastier
- September 23: Langogne
- September 24: Cheylard-l'Évêque
- September 25: Luc
- September 26: La Bastide-Puylaurent
- September 27: Chasseradès, Le Bleymard
- September 29: Le Pont-de-Montvert, Cocurès
- September 30: Florac
- October 2: Saint-Germain-de-Calberte, Saint-Étienne-Vallée-Française
- October 3: Saint-Jean-du-Gard
Beginning in the last decades of the twentieth century, hikers–sometimes with donkeys–have retrace the route Stevenson took on hiking paths (GR footpath GR 70), some of which are transhumance routes taken annually by shepherds and their flocks. Asked in 2007 why this "Ecossais veritable" continues to have such an impact on the identity of the people of the Cévennes today, a local politician and historian at St Germain de Calberte told the Scottish writer, Alastair McIntosh, "Because he showed us the landscape that makes us who we are."
In the arts
- In John Steinbeck's novel The Pastures of Heaven, one character regards Stevenson's Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes as one of the greatest works of English literature and names his son Robert Louis. Steinbeck and his wife Elaine were inspired by Stevenson in choosing the title Travels With Charley.
- A section of Richard Holmes' Footsteps: Adventures of a Romantic Biographer chronicles the author's retracing of Stevenson's journey.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes.|
- The Annotated 'Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes', at Wikisource.
- Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes, at Project Gutenberg.
- Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes, at Internet Archive - scanned books.
- Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes and Selected Travel Writings, Oxford University Press, USA (January 1, 1993) ISBN 0-19-282629-8
- Stevenson Trail GR70, includes map of route.
- John Alexander Hammerton. In the track of R. L. Stevenson and elsewhere in old France. Bristol, J. W. Arrowsmith; etc., 1907. From Internet Archive. Romantic and delightful views of the trail taken by bicycle about 25 years after Stevenson's trip.
- Christopher Rush, To Travel Hopefully (2005), ISBN 1-86197-793-X - powerful personal memoir by Scottish novelist who re-traces Stevenson's journey.
- Hillary Macaskill and Molly Wood (2006). Downhill All The Way: Walking with donkeys on the Stevenon Trail. Two British ladies tackle the trail in stages with often humorous results.
- Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes, a show by Théâtre S'Amourailles.