Treaties to recognise the Spanish American independence

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After the Cádiz Cortes of 1810 many Spanish Empire colonies decided to declare independence. King Ferdinand VII of Spain refused to accept these declarations and promised that he would retake all the territories, by force if necessary. There were diplomatic negotiations during the Trienio Liberal (1820-1823) but they were quashed by the return of absolutism. Ferdinand VII died in 1833, ending all military projects to reconquest Spanish America. In 1834 the Regnant Queen Isabella II of Spain decided that times had changed, that a more modern approach was needed, and started consulting other members of her government. In December 16, 1836 the Congress of Spain issued a decree authorizing the Spanish Government to renounce its territorial and sovereign claims over its domains in continental Americas, by concluding treaties with each of the states of Spanish America. Throughout the 19th century Spain made treaties of peace and recognition with each of newborn states. The process was less conflictive than the government thought, but several diplomatic hurdles meant that 68 years passed until the last treaty was signed.[1]

Chronology[edit]

The table lists the signing dates, not the ratification dates.

Treaties to recognise the Spanish American independence
Year Date Country Hispanic Americans[citation needed] Spain[citation needed]
1837 November 14[1] Mexico
Flag of Mexico.svg
President José Justo Corro
plenipotentiary Miguel Santa María
Queen María Cristina de Borbón, Queen consort of Spain, widow of Fernando VII
plenipotentiary José María Calatrava
1841 [1] Ecuador
Flag of Ecuador.svg
President Juan José Flores
plenipotentiary Pedro Gual
Queen María Cristina de Borbón, Queen consort of Spain widow Fernando VII
plenipotentiary Evaristo Pérez de Castro
1845 [1] Chile
Flag of Chile.svg
President Manuel Bulnes
plenipotentiary José Manuel Borgoño
Queen Isabella II of Spain
plenipotentiary Luis González Bravo
1846 [1] Venezuela
Flag of Venezuela.svg
President Carlos Soublette
plenipotentiary Alejo Fortique
Queen Isabella II of Spain
plenipotentiary Ramón María Narváez
Plenipotentiary Francisco Martínez de la Rosa
1850 [1] Costa Rica
Flag of Costa Rica.svg
President Juan Rafael Mora Porras
plenipotentiary Felipe Molina
Queen Isabella II of Spain
Cabinet council Ramón María Narváez
plenipotentiary Pedro José Pidal
1851 [1] Nicaragua
Flag of Nicaragua.svg
Presidente Norberto Ramírez
plenipotentiary José de Marcoleta
Queen Isabella II of Spain
cabinet council Ramón María Narváez
plenipotentiary Pedro José Pidal
1855 [1] Dominican Republic
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg
President Ignacio María González
plenipotentiary Manuel Joaquín Delmonte[citation needed]
President del Poder Ejecutivo de la República Española Francisco Serrano
Presidente del Consejo de Ministros Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
plenipotentiary Juan Gutiérrez de la Concha[citation needed]
1861 February[1][notes 1] Bolivia
Flag of Bolivia.svg
President José Ballivián
plenipotentiary José María Linares
Queen Isabella II of Spain
plenipotentiary Joaquín Francisco Pacheco
1864 [1] Guatemala
Flag of Guatemala.svg
President Rafael Carrera y Turcios
plenipotentiary Felipe del Barrio Larrazábal
Queen Isabella II of Spain
Cabinet Council and plenipotentiary Manuel Pando Fernández de Pinedo
1863 September 21[notes 2] Argentina
Flag of Argentina.svg
President Bartolomé Mitre
plenipotentiary Mariano Balcarce
Queen Isabella II of Spain
plenipotentiary Manuel Pando Fernández de Pinedo
1866 [1] El Salvador
Flag of El Salvador.svg
President Francisco Dueñas
plenipotentiary Juan Víctor Herrán
Queen Isabella II of Spain
Presidente del Consejo de Ministros Leopoldo O'Donnell
plenipotentiary Manuel Bermúdez de Castro y Díez
1879 August 14[1][notes 3] Peru
Flag of Peru.svg
President Mariano Ignacio Prado
plenipotentiary Juan Mariano de Goyeneche y Gamio
King Alfonso XII of Spain
Presidente del Consejo de Ministros Arsenio Martínez-Campos
plenipotentiary El I marqués de Molins
1881 [1] Colombia
Flag of Colombia.svg
Presidente Rafael Núñez
Chancellor and plenipotentiary Luis Carlos Rico
King Alfonso XII of Spain
Presidente del Consejo de Ministros Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
plenipotentiary El I marqués de Molins
1882 [1][notes 4] Paraguay
Flag of Paraguay.svg
President Cándido Bareiro
plenipotentiary Carlos Saguier
King Alfonso XII of Spain
Presidente del Consejo de Ministros Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
plenipotentiary Francisco Otín y Mesía
1882 [1][notes 5] Uruguay
Flag of Uruguay.svg
President Lorenzo Batlle
plenipotentiary Adolfo Rodríguez
Regente del Reino Francisco Serrano
Presidente del Consejo de Ministros Juan Prim
plenipotentiary Carlos Creus y Camps
1894 November 17[1] Honduras
Flag of Honduras.svg
Presidente Policarpo Bonilla
plenipotentiary José Diego Gámez
Regente Maria Christina of Austria Queen consort of Spain
Presidente del Consejo de Ministros Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
plenipotentiary Julio de Arellano
1903 [1] Cuba
Flag of Cuba.svg
Spanish possession until the Spanish–American War. It remained under the control of the United States until May 1902, when it became independent. Diplomatic relationships were established, but no formal treaty was signed.[1]
1904 May 10[1][notes 6] Panama
Flag of Panama.svg
King Alfonso XIII of Spain
President of Cabinet Council Antonio Maura

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Signed in July 21, 1847, but internal instability in Bolivia prevented its ratification until 1861
  2. ^ First peace treaty in June 24, 1829, followed by a distancing. In 1845 Spain tried to reestablish relationships, but was unsuccessful until April 29, 1857 when they signed a peace treaty and a consular treaty. They were modified with a July 9, 1959 treaty. Disagreements between the Argentine Confederation and Buenos Aires prompted new negotiations, and normal relationship were not established until the 1863 treaty (Pereira, 2004)
  3. ^ A preliminary peace treaty had been signed in January 27, 1867 (Pereira, 2004)
  4. ^ Paraguay asked that part of an article was removed, it referred to the reclamations of the subjects of both states. (Pereira, 2004)
  5. ^ A treaty was signed in 1841, but it was not ratified and it caused great instability. A new treaty was signed in March 26, 1845, but was replaced by a new treaty in 1846. In June 25, 1870 a consular treaty was signed. In July 19, 1870 the definitive treaty was signed, but it wasn't ratified until 1882. (Pereira, 2004)
  6. ^ Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903. This is the date of the recognition of Panama by Spain. (Pereira, 2004)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Juan Carlos Pereira Castañares (November–December 2004), "Establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas Argentina,Paraguay y Uruguay", Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos (in Spanish) (Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional) (653-654) 

See also[edit]