Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia

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The Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia is a peace treaty among Southeast Asian countries established by the founding members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), a geo-political and economic organisation of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia.

History[edit]

On 24 February 1976, the treaty was signed into force by the leaders of the original members of ASEAN,[1] Lee Kuan Yew, Ferdinand Marcos, Datuk Hussein Onn, Kukrit Pramoj, and Suharto.[2] Other members acceded to it upon or before joining the bloc. It was amended on 15 December 1987 by a protocol to open the document for accession by states outside Southeast Asia,[3] and again on 25 July 1998, to condition such accession on the consent of all member states.[4] On 23 July 2001, the parties established the rules of procedure of the treaty's High Council, which was stipulated in Article 14 of the document.[5] On 7 October 2003, during the annual summit, a declaration was released that says:[6]

"A High Council of [the treaty] shall be the important component in the ASEAN Security Community since it reflects ASEAN’s commitment to resolve all differences, disputes and conflicts peacefully."

India and China were first, outside ASEAN to sign the treaty in 2003 at Bali, Indonesia. As of July 2009, sixteen countries outside the bloc have acceded to the treaty. On 22 July 2009, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton signed the TAC on behalf of the United States.[7] The European Union intends to accede as soon as the treaty is amended to allow for the accession of non-states.[8][9][10] The treaty has been endorsed by the General Assembly stating that:[11]

"The purposes and principles of the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia and its provisions for the pacific settlement of regional disputes and for regional co-operation to achieve peace, amity and friendship among the peoples of Southeast Asia [are] in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations."

Principles[edit]

The purpose of the Treaty is to promote perpetual peace, everlasting amity and co-operation among the people of Southeast Asia which would contribute to their strength, solidarity, and closer relationship. In their relations with one another, the High Contracting Parties shall be guided by the following fundamental principles;[2]

a. mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity and national identity of all nations,
b. the right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercion,
c. non-interference in the internal affairs of one another,
d. settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful means,
e. renunciation of the threat or use of force, and
f. effective co-operation among themselves.

Parties[edit]

Countries that entered into the treaty by date

The following table lists the parties in the order of the dates on which they entered into the treaty:

Country Date
Indonesia 24 February 1976
Malaysia 24 February 1976
Philippines 24 February 1976
Singapore 24 February 1976
Thailand 24 February 1976
Brunei 7 January 1984[12]
Papua New Guinea 5 July 1989[11]
Laos 29 June 1992[13]
Vietnam 22 July 1992[14]
Cambodia 23 January 1995[15]
Burma (Myanmar) 27 July 1995[16]
People's Republic of China 8 October 2003[17]
India 8 October 2003[18]
Japan 2 July 2004[19]
Pakistan 2 July 2004[20]
South Korea 27 November 2004[21]
Russia 29 November 2004[22]
New Zealand 25 July 2005[23]
Mongolia 28 July 2005[24]
Australia 10 December 2005[25]
France 20 July 2006[26]
East Timor 13 January 2007[27]
Bangladesh 1 August 2007[28]
Sri Lanka 1 August 2007[29]
North Korea 24 July 2008[30]
United States 23 July 2009[31]
European Union 12 June 2012[32]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia". Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Forty-seventh session of the Geeral Assembly A/C.1/47/L.24 30 October 1992 [1]
  3. ^ "Protocol Amending the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia". Retrieved 23 February 2009. ,
  4. ^ "Second Protocol Amending the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  5. ^ "Rules of Procedure of the High Council of the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia". Retrieved 28 February 2009. 
  6. ^ "Declaration of ASEAN Concord II (Bali Concord II)". Retrieved 28 February 2009. 
  7. ^ "Beginning a New Era of Diplomacy in Asia". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  8. ^ "Joint Declaration of the ASEAN-EU Commemorative Summit". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  9. ^ "Explanatory Memorandum for the Treaty of Amity and Co-operation in Southeast Asia". Retrieved 23 February 2009. [dead link]
  10. ^ "Thailand and EU’s Issues Consulted". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  11. ^ a b "Review and implementation of the Concluding Document of the Twelfth Special Session of the General Assembly". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  12. ^ "Instrument of Accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia". Retrieved 23 February 2009. [dead link]
  13. ^ "Declaration on the Admission of the Lao People's Democratic Republic into the Association of Southeast Asian Nations". Retrieved 23 February 2009.  However, a United Nations document states that Laos acceded to the treaty on the same day as Vietnam, 22 July 1992. The reason for the discrepancy is not apparent.
  14. ^ "Declaration of the Admission of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam into the Association of Southeast Asian Nations". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  15. ^ "Declaration on the Admission of the Kingdom of Cambodia into the Association of Southeast Asian Nations". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  16. ^ "Declaration on the Admission of the Union of Myanmar into the Association of Southeast Asian Nations". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  17. ^ "Instrument of Accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  18. ^ "Instrument of Accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  19. ^ "Japan Instrument of Accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southest Asia". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  20. ^ "The Islamic Republic of Pakistan Instrument of Accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  21. ^ "Instrument of Accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia by Republic of Korea". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  22. ^ "Instrument of Accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia by Russian Federation". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  23. ^ "Instrument of Accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia by New Zealand". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  24. ^ "Instrument of Accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia by Mongolia". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  25. ^ "Instrument of Accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia by Australia". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  26. ^ "Declaration on the Deposit of the Instrument of Accession of the French Republic to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia". Retrieved 23 February 2009.  The instrument of accession was deposited half a year after it was signed.
  27. ^ "Instrument of Accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  28. ^ "Instrument of Accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  29. ^ "Instrument of Accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia by Sri Lanka". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  30. ^ "Instrument of Accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast". Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  31. ^ "U.S. Accession to ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC)". Retrieved 21 July 2009. 
  32. ^ EU in Asia http://eeas.europa.eu/asia/docs/2012_eu_in_asia_year_facts_figures_en.pdf=The EU in Asia. Retrieved 2013-010-16.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)