Treaty of Aranjuez (1801)
The Treaty of Aranjuez was signed on March 21, 1801, between France and Spain. The overall accord confirmed the terms presented in the Treaty of San Ildefonso. Moreover, Ferdinand, the Bourbon Duke of Parma, agreed to surrender the Duchy of Parma (with Piacenza and Guastalla) to France. Ferdinand's son Louis received the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, which became the Kingdom of Etruria. Ferdinand III, the Habsburg Grand Duke of Tuscany, was compensated with the secularized territories of the Archbishop of Salzburg.
- Schneid, Frederick, C. Napoleon's Conquest of Europe: The War of the Third Coalition. Praeger/Greenwood. p. 220. ISBN 0-275-98096-0.
- Panzac, Daniel; Translated by Victoria Hobson (2004). The Barbary Corsairs: The End of a Legend, 1800-1820. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-12594-9.
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