Treaty of Berwick (1357)
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The Treaty of Berwick, signed at Berwick-upon-Tweed, Scotland, in 1357, officially ended the Second War of Scottish Independence. In this second phase of the Wars of Scottish Independence, which began in 1333, King Edward III of England attempted to install Edward Balliol on the Scottish throne, in place of King David II, son of Robert the Bruce.
Under the terms of the treaty, David II was released by the English, who had captured him at the Battle of Neville's Cross in 1346. The English demanded a ransom of 100,000 merks (around £150,000 Scots, or £67,000 sterling) for his release, payable in annual installments over a period of ten years, but only the first two payments were made. The first installment of the ransom was paid punctually, the second was late, and after that no more could be paid. Taxation was increased in order to pay the ransom, and David began to embezzle from his own ransom fund, causing widespread resentment.
David II also agreed to name Edward III of England as his successor, which was rejected by the Scottish people, as evidenced by continuing cross-border raids. The issue of succession was settled when Robert Stewart assumed the throne on David's death in 1371.
- Mitchison, Rosalind. A History of Scotland