Treaty of Compiègne (1624)

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The Treaty of Compiègne of 10 June 1624 was a peace treaty between France and the Netherlands. It allowed France to subsidize the Dutch war effort against Spain in the Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) after the end of the Twelve Years' Truce. France offered an immediate loan of 480,000 thalers, to be followed by more instalments over a period of three years in which the Dutch would continue the fight against Spain.[1] This move was part of the general effort of France to undermine the Habsburg Empire. It led to the revival of a Franco-Dutch alliance which had been enfeebled since the execution of Oldenbarnevelt in 1619.[1]

This treaty permitted to France to pursue this opposition through indirect means, much as the Treaty of Bärwalde in 1631 between France and Sweden would finance Sweden's war effort in Germany.[2] The treaty was masterminded by Richelieu in order to prevent a Habsburg revival.[2]

Under the treaty, the Dutch had to participate to the Capture of Île de Ré by Charles, Duke of Guise against their Protestant correligionaries on September 16, 1625.

Through the treaty, the Dutch requested financial help in their fight against Spain, in exchange for naval support to France. In particular the foundation of a French West India Company was suggested, that could receive the support of the Dutch West India Company in opposition to Spain.[3] A definite agreement on cooperation on the high seas was not found however, but it was agreed that France would provide a loan to be repaid once the Netherlands had a truce or peace with Spain, and that if the French king was to go to war the Dutch should return half of the money to him or help him with men and ships.[3] The Dutch also agreed to intervene in the Western Mediterranean against the piracy to the Barbary States, and to generally support French shipping there.[3]

Under the terms of this treaty, the Dutch had to supply a fleet of 20 warships for the French king's fight against the Protestants in the Capture of Ré island, thereby infamously providing military support against their coreligionaries.[4] The fleet was under the command of Admiral Willem Haultain de Zoete. It was withdrawn from French service in February 1626 after a resolution of the States-General in December 1625.[4]

With the Treaty of Compiègne, Richelieu also obtained that the Dutch would stop fighting the French in East Asia, thereby facilitating French commercial ventures.[5]

See also[edit]

Treaty of Compiègne (867)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Thirty Years' War by Geoffrey Parker p.70
  2. ^ a b The Thirty Years War by Stephen J. Lee p. 17ff
  3. ^ a b c European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States by Frances Gardiner Davenport p. 285 [1]
  4. ^ a b Reason of state, propaganda, and the Thirty Years by Thomas Hobbes p.140 [2]
  5. ^ Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume III: A Century of Advance. Book 1 by Donald F. Lach p. 93 [3]