Treaty of Fond du Lac

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The Treaty of Fond du Lac may refer to either of two treaties made and signed in Duluth, Minnesota between the United States and the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Native American peoples.

1826 Treaty of Fond du Lac[edit]

The first treaty of Fond du Lac was signed by Lewis Cass and Thomas L. McKenney for the United States and representatives of the Ojibwe of Lake Superior and the Mississippi on August 5, 1826, proclaimed on February 7, 1827, and codified in the United States Statutes at Large as 7 Stat. 290. The Ojibwe chiefs who were not in attendance to the Treaty of Prairie du Chien agreed to its adhesion. The Ojibwe Nations granted to the United States the rights to minerals exploration and mining within Ojibwe lands located north of the Prairie du Chien Line. Provisions were also made for the Ojibwe living about Saint Mary's River. As addenda to this treaty, arrest warrants to certain individuals living outside the jurisdiction of the United States were issued and land grants to the Métis were made.

Signatories[edit]

# Location Recorded name Name (Translation/"Alias")
01 St. Marys Shin-gau-ba Was-sin Zhingaabewasin (Image Stone) [a]
02 St. Marys She-wau-be-ke-toan Zhiiwaabikitoon (Jingles)
03 St. Marys Way-ish-kee
04 St. Marys Shee-gud
05 St. Croix Band Peezhickee Bizhiki (Buffalo)
06 St. Croix Band No-den Noodin (Wind) [b]
07 St. Croix Band Na-gwun-a-bee Negwanebi ("Tallest" [Quill]feather)
08 St. Croix Band Kau-be-map-pa Gaa-bimabi (He that sits to the side/"Wet Mouth")
09 St. Croix Band Chau-co-pee Shák'pí ("Little" Six)[c][d]
10 St. Croix Band Jau-beance Ayaabens (Little Buck)
11 St. Croix Band Ul-tau-wau[e] Odaawaa (Trader/"Ottawa")
12 St. Croix Band My-een-gun-sheens Ma'iinganzhiins (Little Bad-Wolf)
13 St. Croix Band Moa-so-mo-nee Máza-máni (Ironwalker)[f]
14 St. Croix Band Muck-u-day peenaas Makade-bines (Black Bird)
15 St. Croix Band Shee-wee-tau-gun Zhiiwitaagan (Salt)
16 La Pointe Band Peexhickee Bizhiki (Buffalo)
17 La Pointe Band Kee-mee-wun Gimiwan (Rain)
18 La Pointe Band Kau-bu-zo-way
19 La Pointe Band Wy-au-wee-nind
20 La Pointe Band Pee-kwauk-wo-to-an-se-kay
21 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Pay-baum-ik-o-way
22 Lac du Flambeau Band Gitshee Waubeeshaans Gichi-waabizhesh (Big Marten)
23 Lac du Flambeau Band Moa-zo-nee Moozonii (Moose People)
24 Lac du Flambeau Band Git-shee Mi-gee-zee Gichi-migizi (Great Eagle)
25 Lac du Flambeau Band Mi-zhau-quot Mizhakwad (Clear Sky)
26 Ontonagon Keesh-kee-to-wug Giishkitawag (Cut Ear)
27 Ontonagon Pee-nay-see Binesi (Bird)
28 Ontonagon Mau-tau-gu-mee
29 Ontonagon Kwee-wee-zais-ish Gwiiwizhenzhish (Bad Boy)
30 Vermilion Lake At-tick-o-ans Adikoons (Little Elk)
31 Vermilion Lake Gy-ut-shee-in-i-nee Gayaachiinh-inini (Small Man)
32 Vermilion Lake Jauk-way
33 Vermilion Lake Mad-wag-ku-na-gee-zhig-waab
34 Vermilion Lake Jau-ko-gee-zhig-waish-kun
35 Vermilion Lake Nee-zbo-day Niizhoode' (Two-hearted)
36 Vermilion Lake Nun-do-chee-ais
37 Vermilion Lake O-gee-mau-gee-gid
38 Vermilion Lake An-nee-mee-kees Animikiins (Little Thunder)
39 Ontonagon Kau-waish-kung
40 Ontonagon Mau-tau-gu-mee
41 Snake River Way-mit-te-goash Wemitigoozh (Frenchman)
42 Snake River Isk-quag-wun-aa-bee Ishkwaagwanebi (End [Quill]feather)
43 Snake River Mee-gwun-aus Miigwanens (Little Feather)
44 Lac du Flambeau Band Pa-moos-say Bemose (Walking)
45 Lac du Flambeau Band May–tau-koos-ee-gay Metaakozige ([Smokes] Pure Tobacco) [g]
46 Rainy Lake Aa-nub-kum-ig-ish-kunk Aanakamigishkaang ([Traces of] Foot Prints [upon the Ground])
47 Sandy Lake Band O-sau-mem-i-kee Ozaawinimikii (Yellow Thunder)
48 Sandy Lake Band Git-shee Way-mir-tee-go-ost[h] Gichi-wemitigoozh (Big Frenchman)
49 Sandy Lake Band Paa-shu-nin-leel
50 Sandy Lake Band Wau-zhus-ko-kok
51 Sandy Lake Band Nit-um-o-gau-bow-ee Netamigaabawi (Stands First)
52 Sandy Lake Band Wat-tap Wadab (Spunk)
53 Fond du Lac Band Shin-goop Zhingob (Spruce)
54 Fond du Lac Band Mon-e-to-gee-zi-so-ans Manidoo-giiziswens ( Little Sun-Spirit)
55 Fond du Lac Band Mong-a-zid Maangozid (Loon's Foot)
56 Fond du Lac Band Ma-ne-to-gee-zhig Manidoo-giizhig (Sky Spirit)
57 Fond du Lac Band O-jau-nee-mau-son
58 Fond du Lac Band Mis-kwau-tais Miskwaadesi ([Painted] Turtle)
59 Fond du Lac Band Nau-bu-nay-ger-zhig Nabane-giizhig (One-side of the Sky)
60 Fond du Lac Band Un-nau-wau-bun-daun
61 Fond du Lac Band Pau-tau-bay
62 Fond du Lac Band Mi-gee-see Migizi (Eagle)
63 Ontonagon Waub-ish-kee-pee-naas Waabishki-bines (White Bird)
64 Ontonagon Tweesh-tweesh-kee-way
65 Ontonagon Kun-de-kund Okandikan (Bouy)
66 Ontonagon Oguh bayaunuhquotwaybee
67 Ontonagon Pay-bau-mau-sing
68 Ontonagon Keesh-kee-mun Giishkimon (Whetstone/"Sharpened Knife")
69 Crow Wing River Mau-gu-gau-bo-wie
70 Crow Wing River Pu-dud Pítad (Muskrat's Liver)[i]
71 Crow Wing River Naug-du-nosh
72 Crow Wing River O-zhus-kuck-oen Wazhashkokon (Muskrat's Liver)
73 Crow Wing River Waub-o-gee Waabojiig (White Fisher)
74 Crow Wing River Saw-ba-nosh
75 Crow Wing River Kee-way-den Giiwedin (North [Wind])
76 Crow Wing River Git-shee-mee-win-i-nee
77 Crow Wing River Wy-nu-nee
78 Crow Wing River O-bu-mau-gee-zhig
79 Crow Wing River Pay-bou-mid-gee-wung
80 Crow Wing River Mau-gee-gau-bou Maajigaabawi (Starts to Stand/"Stepping Ahead")
81 Crow Wing River Pay-bau-mo-gee-zhig Bebaamogiizhig (Sky Rambling)
82 Crow Wing River Kau-be-map-pa Gaa-bimabi (He that sits to the side)
83 Crow Wing River Way-mit-te-goa-zhu Wemitigoozhi (Frenchman)
84 Crow Wing River On-ju-pe-naas Aanji-bines (Changing Bird)
85 Crow Wing River Mad-way-os-sin Madwewasin (Hears Stones)

1847 Treaty of Fond du Lac[edit]

Land ceded by the treaty of Fond du Lac in 1847, designated 268 (green) on the map.

The second treaty of Fond du Lac was signed by Issac A. Verplank and Henry Mower Rice for the United States and representatives of the Ojibwe of Lake Superior and the Mississippi on August 2, 1847, proclaimed on April 7, 1848, and codified as 9 Stat. 904. This treaty ceded lands in a triangular area west of the Mississippi River, bounded by the Prairie du Chien Line, Mississippi River, Crow Wing River and Long Prairie River.

According to the oral histories of the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe, representatives from the Ho-Chunk Nation negotiated with the Lake Superior and Mississippi Chippewas before treaty discussions with the United States took place to guarantee the safety of the Ho-Chunk Nation which was about to be displaced from the Neutral Ground with the admission of much of Iowa Territory into the Union as the State of Iowa, in their Treaty of Washington (1846). The Ho-Chunk were supposed to be removed to the land ceded by the two 1847 Ojibwe treaties along the Long Prairie River (now in Minnesota). Many refused. Some fled to Wisconsin and some to Nebraska. The balance were removed to Minnesota in 1848 and a second removal occurred in 1850 which brought in another portion of the Ho-Chunk to the area. Due to frequent skirmishes by Ojibwe and Dakota bands against one another the Ho-Chunk could not avoid being attacked at times. The Ho-Chunk were unhappy with the land and were eventually relocated to Blue Earth in southern Minnesota in 1855. After the Dakota rose up against whites in 1862 and the U.S.-Dakota war caused depopulation of southern Minnesota, many remaining Minnesota citizens were in no mood to allow the Ho-Chunk Nation to remain in the state, despite their neutrality during the hostilities. The Winnebago subsequently ceded their Minnesota lands to the United States per Treaty of Washington (1865) for relocation to South Dakota and then Nebraska. Meanwhile, the Ojibwe land ceded in 1847 remained in U.S. government hands and was eventually opened up to white settlement.

Signatories[edit]

# Location Recorded Name Name (Translation/"Alias") Title
1 Crow Wing Kai-ah-want-e-da 2d chief
2 Gull Lake Waub-o-jceg[j] Waabojiig (White Fisher) 1st chief
3 Crow Wing Ut-tom-auh 1st warrior
4 Crow Wing Shen-goob Zhingob (Spruce) 1st warrior
5 Gull Lake Que-wish-an-sish Gwiiwizhenzhish (Bad Boy) 1st warrior
6 Crow Wing Maj-c-gah-bon[k] Maajigaabaw (Start to Stand) 2d warrior
7 Crow Wing Kag-gag-c-we-guon[l] Gaagagiwigwan (Raven’s Feather) warrior
8 Crow Wing Mab uk-um-ig warrior
9 Sandy Lake Band Nag-aun-cg-a-bon[m] Naagaanigaabaw (Stand in Front) 2d chief
10 Sandy Lake Band Wan-jc-ke-shig-uk[n] Wenji-giizhigak (From the Sky) chief
11 Sandy Lake Band Kow-az-rum-ig-ish-kung warrior
12 La Pointe Band Ke-che-wask-keenk Gichi-weshkiinh (Great Renewer) 1st chief
13 St. Croix Lake Gab-im-ub-be Gaa-bimabi chief
14 Pelican Lakes Kee-che-waub-ish-ash Gichi-waabizhesh (Big Marten) 1st chief
15 Pelican Lakes Nig-gig Nigig (Otter) 2d chief
16 Lac du Flambeau Band Ud-c-kum-ag[o] Adikameg (Whitefish) 2d chief
17 La Pointe Band Ta-che-go-onk 3d chief
18 La Pointe Band Muk-no-a-wuk-und warrior
19 St. Croix Band O-sho-gaz warrior
20 La Pointe Band A-dow-c-re-shig[p] Edaawi-giizhig (Both Ends of the Sky) warrior
21 La Pointe Band Keesh-ri-tow-ng[q] Giishkitawag (Cut Ear) 1st warrior
22 Rice Lake Band I-aub-ans Ayaabens (Little Buck) chief
23 La Pointe Band Tug-wany-am-az[r] Dagwagaane (Two Lodges Meet) 2d chief
24 Ontonagon Band O-rum-de-kun[s] Okandikan (Bouy) chief
25 Ontonagon Keesh-re-tow-no[t] Giishkitawag (Cut Ear) 2d chief
26 Pokegama Maj-c-wo-we-clung[u] Maajiwewidang (Starts Speaking) 2d chief
27 Pokegama Ke-che-wa-mib-co-osk[v] Gichi-wemitigoozh (Big Frenchman) 1st chief
28 Fond du Lac Band Mongo-o-sit Maangozid (Loon’s Foot) 3d chief
29 Fond du Lac Band Mug-un-ub 2d chief
30 Fond du Lac Band An-im-as-ung Enimaasing (Sails Away) 1st warrior
31 Chippewa River Waub-ish-ashe Waabizheshi (Marten) 1st chief
32 Chippewa River Make-cen-gun[w] Ma'iingan (Wolf) 2d chief
33 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Kee-wan-see chief
34 Puk-wa-wun Ten-as-see[x] Binesi (Bird) chief
35 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Nag-an-is 2d chief
36 Puk-wa-wun Ke-chi-in-in-e Gichi-inini 1st warrior
37 Turtle Portage Ke-che-now-uj-c-nim chief
38 Lac du Flambeau Band Bus-e-guin-jis warrior
39 Fond du Lac Band Shin-goob Zhingob (Spruce) 1st chief
40 Grand Portage Band Shay-u-ash-cens[y] Zhaaganaashiins (Little Englishman) 1st chief
41 Grand Portage Band Ud-ik-ons Adikoons (Little Elk) 2d chief
42 La Pointe Band Me-zye Mizay (Eel) 4th chief
43 L'Anse Band David King 1st chief
44 L'Anse Band Ma-tak-o-se-ga Metaakozige ([Smokes] Pure Tobacco) 1st warrior
45 L'Anse Band Assurcens 2d warrior
46 L'Anse Band Peter Marksman chief
47 Alexander Corbin chief
48 William W. W. Warren William W. Warren 1st chief
49 Jno. Pta. Rellenger Jean-Baptise Reyergé
50 Charles Charlo
51 Battiste Gauthier Chief
52 La Pointe Band Half-breeds Vincent Roy Chief
53 La Pointe Band Half-breeds John Btse. Cadotte Jean-Baptise Cadotte Warrior
54 La Pointe Band Half-breeds Lemo Sayer 2d chief
55 La Pointe Band Half-breeds Jhn. Btse. Roy Jean-Baptise Roy Warrior
56 La Pointe Band Half-breeds Michel Bas-he-na
57 La Pointe Band Half-breeds Lueson Godin Luizon Godin
58 La Pointe Band Half-breeds John Sayer
59 La Pointe Band Half-breeds Lueson Corbin Chief
60 La Pointe, Wisconsin Wm. W. Warren William W. Warren witness/interpreter
61 La Pointe, Wisconsin Chas. H. Oakes Charles H. Oakes witness
62 Rochester, New York Roswell Hart witness
63 Batavia, New York Henry Evans witness
64 A. Morrison Allan Morrison witness
65 S. Hovers Smith Hovers witness
66 Mamoci M. Samuel witness
67 Henry Blatchford witness/interpreter
68 William A. Aitken witness
69 Julius Ombrian witness

The signatory headmen were the following:

# Location Recorded Name Name (Translation/"Alias") Title
01 Trout Lake Ke-nesh-te-no Ginishinoo (Cree) chief
02 Lac du Flambeau Band Mah-shah 1st warrior
03 Red Cedar Lake I-oush-ou-c-ke-shik[z] chief
04 Mille Lacs Indians Mah-ko-dah Makode' (Bear's Heart) 1st warrior
05 Mille Lacs Indians Pe-tud Pítad[aa] (Muskrat's Liver) 1st chief
06 Mille Lacs Indians Aunch-e-be-nas Aanji-bines (Changing Bird) 2d warrior
07 Red Cedar Lake Mish-in-nack-in-ugo warrior
08 Sandy Lake Band Gah-nin-dum-a-win-so[ab] Gaa-nandawaawinzo (He that Gathers Berries/"le Brocheux") 1st chief
09 Sandy Lake Band Mis-quod-ase Miskwades (Painted Turtle) warrior
10 Sandy Lake Band Na-tum-e-gaw-bow Netamigaabaw (Stands First) 2d chief
11 Sandy Lake Band I-ah-be-dua-we-dung Ayaabidwewidang (Constantly Speak) warrior
12 Pokegama Bi-a-jig Bayezhig (Lone Man) 1st chief
13 Mississippi Half-breeds Joseph Montre 1st chief
14 Wm. W. Warren William W. Warren witness/interpreter
15 Peter Marksman witness/interpreter
16 Smith Hovers witness

Treaty adhesion:

# Location Recorded Name Name (Translation/"Alias") Title
01 Snake River No-din Noodin (Wind) chief
02 William A. Aitkin William A. Aitken witness
03 R. B. Carlton witness

Treaty adhesion approval:

# Location Recorded Name Name (Translation/"Alias") Title
01 Po-go-ne-gi-shik Bagonegiizhig (Hole in the Day)
02 William Aitkin William A. Aitken witness
03 D. T. Sloan witness

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Portraited by Bird as "SHIN-GA-BA-W'OSSIN or IMAGE STONE"
  2. ^ Portraited by Bird as "NO-TIN"
  3. ^ Name given in Dakota language
  4. ^ Portraited by Bird as "JACK-O-PA"
  5. ^ "Ul-tau-wau" should be "Ut-tau-wau"
  6. ^ Name given in Dakota language
  7. ^ Portraited by Bird as "META-KOOSEGA or PURE TOBACCO"
  8. ^ "Git-shee Way-mir-tee-go-ost" should be "Git-shee Way-mit-tee-go-osh"
  9. ^ Name given in Dakota language
  10. ^ "Waub-o-jceg" should be "Waub-o-jeeg"
  11. ^ "Maj-c-gah-bon" should be "Maj-e-gah-boh"
  12. ^ "Kag-gag-c-we-guon" should be "Kag-gag-e-we-guon"
  13. ^ "Nag-aun-cg-a bon" should be "Nag-aun-eg-a-bow"
  14. ^ "Wan-jc-ke-shig-uk" should be "Wan-je-ke-shig-uk"
  15. ^ "Ud-c-kum-ag" should be "Ud-e-kum-ag"
  16. ^ "A-dow-c-re-shig" should be "A-dow-e-ke-shig"
  17. ^ "Keesh-ri-tow-ng" should be "Keesh-ki-tow-ug"
  18. ^ "Tug-wany-am-az" should be "Tug-waug-aun-ay"
  19. ^ "O-rum-de-kun" should be "O-kun-de-kun"
  20. ^ "Keesh-re-tow-no" should be "Keesh-ke-tow-uc"
  21. ^ "Maj-c-wo-we-clung" should be "Maj-e-wa-we-dung"
  22. ^ "Ke-che-wa-mib-co-osk" should be "Ke-che-wa-mi-te-co-osh"
  23. ^ "Make-cen-gun" should be "Mah-een-gun"
  24. ^ "Ten-as-see" should be "Pen-as-see"
  25. ^ "Shay-u-ash-cens" should be "Shag-un-ash-eens"
  26. ^ "I-oush-ou-c-ke-shik" should be "I-ansh-ow-e-ke-shik"
  27. ^ Name given in Dakota language
  28. ^ "Gah-nin-dum-a-win-so" should be "Gah-nin-duw-a-win-so"

External links[edit]