Treaty of Ghent

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Signing of the Treaty of Ghent. Admiral of the Fleet James Gambier is shaking hands with the U.S. Ambassador to Russia, John Quincy Adams. Also, the British Undersecretary of State for War and the Colonies, Henry Goulburn, is carrying a red folder.
Plaquette at the building in the Veldstraat, Ghent. This where the American plenipotentiaries stayed and one of the locations where the treaty was negotiated. It was located at the retail "Esprit" store on Veldstraat 47.

The Treaty of Ghent (8 Stat. 218), signed on December 24, 1814 in the Flemish city of Ghent, was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The treaty restored relations between the two nations to status quo ante bellum — that is, it restored the borders of the two countries to the line before the commencement of hostilities.[1] The Treaty was ratified by Parliament on December 30, 1814 and signed into law by the Prince Regent (the future King George IV). Because of the era's lack of telecommunications, it took weeks for news of the peace treaty to reach the United States. An American army under Andrew Jackson won the Battle of New Orleans on January 8, 1815. The Treaty of Ghent was not in effect until it was ratified by the U.S. Senate unanimously on February 18, 1815.

Background[edit]

After the abdication of Napoleon in April 1814 British public opinion demanded major gains in the war against the United States. The senior American representative in London told Secretary of State James Monroe:

"There are so many who delight in War that I have less hope than ever of our being able to make peace. You will perceive by the newspapers that a very great force is to be sent from Bordeaux to the United States; and the order of the day is division of the States and conquest. The more moderate think that when our Seaboard is laid waste and we are made to agree to a line which shall exclude us from the lake; to give up a part of our claim on Louisiana and the privilege of fishing on the banks, etc. peace may be made with us.:[2]

However the Prime Minister, Lord Liverpool, aware of growing opposition to wartime taxation and the demands of Liverpool and Bristol merchants to reopen trade with America, realized Britain had little to gain and much to lose from prolonged warfare.[3][4]

After rejecting Russian proposals to broker peace negotiations, Britain reversed course in 1814. With the defeat of Napoleon the main British goals of stopping American trade with France and impressment of sailors from American ships were dead letters. Negotiations were held in Ghent, Kingdom of the Netherlands, starting in August, 1814. The Americans sent top leaders, including Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams and Albert Gallatin, while the British sent minor officials who kept in close touch with their (much closer) superiors in London.[5][6]

Negotiations[edit]

At last in August 1814, peace discussions began in the neutral city of Ghent. Both sides began negotiations with demands.[7][8] As the peace talks opened American diplomats demanded the end to all British maritime practices it deemed objectionable, while also demanding cessions of Canadian territory which it was failing to obtain militarily and demanding guaranteed fishing rights off Newfoundland .At the same time British diplomats demanded the creation of an Indian barrier state in the American Northwest Territory (the area from Ohio to Wisconsin). It was understood the British would sponsor this Indian state. The British strategy for decades had been to create a buffer state to block American expansion .However this was only a secondary objective to retaining their maritime polices and territory.[9] The Americans refused to consider a buffer state and the proposal was dropped.[10] Although article IX of the treaty included provisions to restore to Natives "all possessions, rights and privileges which they may have enjoyed, or been entitled to in 1811", the provisions were unenforceable.[11]

The British—assuming their planned invasion of New York state would go well—also demanded that Americans not have any naval forces on the Great Lakes and that the British get certain transit rights to the Mississippi River in exchange for continuation of American fishing rights off Newfoundland. The U.S. rejected the demands and there was an impasse.[12][13] American public opinion was so outraged when Madison published the demands that even the Federalists were willing to fight on.[14]

During the negotiations the British had four invasions underway. One force carried out a burning of Washington, D.C., but the troops and fleet failed to capture Baltimore in the Battle of Baltimore. The British fleet sailed away when the army commander was killed. Another force invaded the District of Maine from New Brunswick, capturing parts of northeastern Maine and several smuggling towns on the seacoast. In northern New York State, 10,000 British troops marched south until a decisive defeat at the Battle of Plattsburgh forced them back to Canada.[nb 1] Nothing was known then of the fate of the third large invasion force that intended to capture New Orleans. The British Prime Minister wanted the Duke of Wellington, to go to command in Canada and with the assignment of winning the War. Wellington replied that he would go to America, but he believed that he was needed in Europe.[15][16][17] He also stated:

I think you have no right, from the state of war, to demand any concession of territory from America... You have not been able to carry it into the enemy's territory, notwithstanding your military success, and now undoubted military superiority, and have not even cleared your own territory on the point of attack. You cannot on any principle of equality in negotiation claim a cession of territory except in exchange for other advantages which you have in your power... Then if this reasoning be true, why stipulate for the uti possidetis? You can get no territory: indeed, the state of your military operations, however creditable, does not entitle you to demand any.[18][19]

The government had no choice but to agree with Wellington. Prime Minister Liverpool informed Foreign Secretary Castlereagh, who was at Vienna: "I think we have determined, if all other points can be satisfactorily settled, not to continue the war for the purpose of obtaining, or securing any acquisition of territory." Liverpool cited several reasons, especially the unsatisfactory negotiations underway at Vienna, the alarming reports from France that it might resume the war, and the weak financial condition of the government. He did not need to tell Castlereagh that the war was very unpopular; Britons wanted peace and a return to normal trade. The war with America had ruined many reputations and promised no gain.[20][21]

After months of negotiations, against the background of changing military victories, defeats and losses, the parties finally realized that their nations wanted peace and there was no real reason to continue the war. Now each side was tired of the war. Export trade was all but paralyzed and after Napoleon fell in 1814 France was no longer an enemy of Britain, so the Royal Navy no longer needed to stop American shipments to France, and it no longer needed more seamen. The British were preoccupied in rebuilding Europe after the apparent final defeat of Napoleon. After British negotiators were urged by lord Liverpool to offer a status quo which was desired since the beginning of the war by the British government .British diplomats immediately offered this to the US negotiators, who dropped their demands for an end to British maritime practices and Canadian territory ignoring their war aims and agreed . Prisoners would be exchanged, and captured slaves returned to the United States or be paid for by Britain.[22][23]

Agreement[edit]

On December 24, 1814, the members of the British and American negotiating teams signed and affixed their individual seals to the document. It didn't end the war itself—that required formal ratification by their governments, which came in February 1815.[24] The treaty released all prisoners and restored all captured lands and ships. Returned to the United States were approximately 10,000,000 acres (40,000 km2) of territory, near Lakes Superior and Michigan, and in Maine.[25] American-held areas of Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) were returned to British control. The treaty thus made no significant changes to the prewar boundaries, although the U.S. did gain territory from Spain. Britain promised to return the freed black slaves that they had taken. In actuality, a few years later Britain instead paid the United States $1,204,960 for them.[26] Both nations also promised to work towards an ending of the international slave trade.[27]

Pierre Berton wrote of the treaty, "It was as if no war had been fought, or to put it more bluntly, as if the war that was fought was fought for no good reason. For nothing has changed; everything is as it was in the beginning save for the graves of those who, it now appears, have fought for a trifle:...Lake Erie and Fort McHenry will go into the American history books, Queenston Heights and Crysler's Farm into the Canadian, but without the gore, the stench, the disease, the terror, the conniving, and the imbecilities that march with every army."[28]

Aftermath[edit]

The Treaty of Ghent failed to secure official British acknowledgment of American maritime rights or reverse British maritime polices, but in the century of peace among the naval powers from 1815 until World War I these rights were not seriously violated (with the exception of US ships searched by the royal navy to stop Atlantic slave trade) . The course of the war made irrelevant all of the issues over which the United States had fought, especially since the First Nations had been defeated and the Americans scored enough victories (especially at New Orleans) to satisfy honor and the sense of becoming fully independent from Britain. However by the signing the treaty of Ghent American diplomats had recognized their failure to achieve their war aims by reversing British maritime policy and annexing Canada.[8][29]

News of the treaty finally reached the United States after the major American victory in the Battle of New Orleans and the local British victory in the Second Battle of Fort Bowyer, but before the Capture of HMS Cyane and Levant, Penguin and Nautilus, as well as the British assault on Mobile, Alabama, which was never executed.[30] Skirmishes occurred between U.S. troops and British-allied Indians along the Mississippi River frontier for months after the treaty, including the Battle of the Sink Hole in May 1815.[31][32]

James Carr argues that Britain negotiated the Treaty of Ghent with the goal of ending the war, even though it knew a major British expedition had been ordered to seize New Orleans. Carr says that Britain had no intention of repudiating the treaty and continuing the war had victory been theirs at the Battle of New Orleans[33]

The U.S. Senate unanimously approved the treaty on February 16, 1815, and President James Madison exchanged ratification papers with a British diplomat in Washington on February 17; the treaty was proclaimed on February 18. Eight days later, on February 26, Napoleon escaped from Elba, starting the war in Europe again, and forcing the British to concentrate on the threat he posed.

Fighting continued sporadically in and near Spanish Florida, leading to the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819.

Memorials[edit]

The Peace Bridge between New York and Ontario

The Peace Arch, dedicated in September 1921, stands 20.5 metres (67 ft) tall and straddles the US-Canada border at the Douglas/Blaine border crossing.[34] In 1922, the Fountain of Time was dedicated in Washington Park, Chicago, commemorating 110 years of peace between the United States and Britain.[35] The Peace Bridge between Buffalo, New York, and Fort Erie, Ontario, opened in 1927 to commemorate a century of peace between the United States and Canada.[36]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The British Government was unsure whether the attack on Baltimore was a failure, but the loss at Plattsburgh was a humiliation that called for a court martial of the commander.(Latimer 2007, pp. 331,359,365)

References[edit]

  1. ^ The United States gained some territory (the Mobile area) from the Spanish Empire, but that was not mentioned in the Treaty.
  2. ^ Reuben Beasley to Monroe, May 9, 1814, cited in Wood (1940) p. 503
  3. ^ Latimer 2007, pp. 389–91.
  4. ^ Gash 1984, pp. 111–119.
  5. ^ Robert V. Rimini, Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union (1993) pp 103-22
  6. ^ Samuel Flagg Bemis, John Quincy Adams and the foundations of American foreign policy (1949) pp. 196-220
  7. ^ the war of 1812 by carl been pg81
  8. ^ a b the challenge by Andrew lambert
  9. ^ the war of 1812 by carl been pg 81
  10. ^ Robert Remini, Henry Clay (1991) p 117
  11. ^ A. T. Mahan, "The Negotiations at Ghent in 1814," The American Historical Review (1905) 11#1 pp. 68-87 esp pp 73-78 free in JSTOR
  12. ^ Spencer C. Tucker (2011). The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607–1890: A Political, Social, and Military History: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 1097. ISBN 9781851096039. 
  13. ^ Charles M. Gates, "The West in American Diplomacy, 1812-1815," Mississippi Valley Historical Review (1940) 26#4 pp. 499-510 in JSTOR
  14. ^ George C. Daughan (2011). 1812: The Navy's War. Basic Books. p. 365. ISBN 9780465028085. 
  15. ^ Perkins 1964, pp. 108–109.
  16. ^ Hickey 2006, pp. 150–151.
  17. ^ Hibbert 1997, p. 164.
  18. ^ Dudley Mills, "The Duke of Wellington and the Peace Negotiations at Ghent in 1814," Canadian Historical Review (1921) 2#1 pp 19-32, quote at p. 22
  19. ^ Toll 2006, p. 441.
  20. ^ Troy Bickham (2012). The Weight of Vengeance: The United States, the British Empire, and the War of 1812. Oxford UP. pp. 258–59. 
  21. ^ Allen Johnson, Jefferson and his Colleagues, A Chronicle of the Virginia Dynasty (1921) online
  22. ^ Mills, "Duke of Wellington,"
  23. ^ the war of 1812 by carl benn pg 81
  24. ^ Engelman, 1960
  25. ^ W.G. Dean et al. (1998). Concise Historical Atlas of Canada.  plate 38
  26. ^ Arnett G. Lindsay, "Diplomatic Relations Between the United States and Great Britain Bearing on the Return of Negro Slaves, 1783-1828," Journal of Negro History (1920) 5#4 pp 391-419 in JSTOR
  27. ^ For text see Avalon Project – British-American Diplomacy – Treaty of Ghent
  28. ^ Pierre Berton (1981), Flames across the Border, 1813—1814, Boston: Atlantic—Little, Brown, Chapter 13, "Ghent, August—December, 1814", pp. 418—419.
  29. ^ the war of 1812 by carl benn
  30. ^ "Chapter 6: THE WAR OF 1812". 25 August 2005. Retrieved 21 February 2011. 
  31. ^ Stevens, Walter B. (1921). Centennial history of Missouri (the center state) one hundred years in the union. St. Louis: S. J. Clarke. 
  32. ^ Black Hawk (1916) [1834]. Milo M. Quaife, ed. Life of Black Hawk, Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak. Chicago: Lakeside Press. pp. 66–68. 
  33. ^ James A. Carr, "The Battle of New Orleans and the Treaty of Ghent," Diplomatic History (1979) 3#3 pp 273-282.
  34. ^ http://www.peacearchpark.org/History_2.html#.Uw0JSPldV8E
  35. ^ MobileReference (2007). Travel Chicago: City Guide and Maps. p. 287. ISBN 9781605010533. 
  36. ^ Peter R. Eisenstadt; Laura-Eve Moss (2005). The Encyclopedia Of New York State. Syracuse University Press. p. 240. ISBN 9780815608080. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Bemis, Samuel Flagg. John Quincy Adams and the Foundations of American Foreign Policy (1949), pp 129–60.
  • Berton, Pierre (1981), Flames across the Border, 1813—1814, Boston: Atlantic—Little, Brown.
  • Burt, A. L. The United States, Great Britain and British North America from the Revolution to the Establishment of Peace after the War of 1812, 1940 Online Edition.
  • Engelman, Fred L. "The Peace of Christmas Eve," American Heritage Magazine (Dec 1960) v 12#1 popular account; online.
  • Hickey, Donald R. The War of 1812: A Forgotten Conflict (1990) pp. 281–98.
  • Mahan, A.T. "The Negotiations at Ghent in 1814," The American Historical Review (1905) 11#1 pp. 68–87 esp pp 73–78 free in JSTOR
  • Matloff, Maurice. American Military History: Army Historical Series. Chapter 6: The War of 1812. (Center of Military History, 1989). Official US Army history, online.
  • Perkins, Bradford. Castelereagh and Adams: England and the United States, 1812-1823, 1964; the standard scholarly history
  • Remini, Robert Vincent. Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union (1991) pp. 94–122.
  • Ward, A.W. and G.P. Gooch, eds. The Cambridge History of British Foreign Policy, 1783-1919 (3 vol, 1921–23), Volume I: 1783-1815 online pp 535-42.

Primary sources[edit]

  • "Letters relating to the Negotiations at Ghent, 1812-1814," American Historical Review (1914) 20#1 pp. 108–129 in JSTOR.

External links[edit]