Treaty of Königsberg (1390)

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The Treaty of Königsberg was signed in Königsberg(Królewiec) on May 26, 1390 during the Lithuanian Civil War (1389–1392) between Samogitian nobles and representatives of the Teutonic Knights.[1] The 31-member or 30-member[2] delegation from seven Samogitian regions (Ariogala, Kaltinėnai, Knituva, Kražiai, Medingėnai, Raseiniai, and Viduklė) arrived to Königsberg around pentecost.[3] They promised their loyalty to "their king" Vytautas and guaranteed trade freedom for the Knights in Samogitia.[1] The Knights gifted the nobles with food and clothes.[1]

Vytautas the Great waged a civil against his cousin Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. In order to secure Teutonic support in the civil war, Vytautas signed the Treaty of Lyck and granted Samogitia up to the Nevėžis River to the Knights on January 19, 1390.[4] Samogitia was important for the Knights as this territory physically separated them from uniting with the Livonian Order in the north. Support of Samogitians was crucial to Vytautas as it was the only guarantee that the Treaty of Lyck would be carried out.[1] However, Vytautas betrayed the Knights when in 1392 he reconciled with his cousin Jogaila and signed the Ostrów Agreement. Samogitia was not ceded to the Knights until the Treaty of Salynas in 1398. The treaty and the 30 names of Samogitian nobles are important for the study of personal names in pagan Lithuania.[5]

List of Samogitian nobles[edit]

# Reconstructed name[5][6][7] Recorded name[6] Where from[6] Notes
1 Asteika Hosteike Raseiniai
2 Bimantas, Bymantas Bimunt Viduklė
3 Daukša Dawchs Kaltinėnai
4 Dirkštelis Dirkstel Medininkai
5 Dramutis Dramutte Ariogala In 1401 with his son he witnessed the Union of Vilnius and Radom[6]
6 Eikutis Eycutte Kražiai In 1419 he was a court official in Medininkai[6]
7 Eimantas Eymund Kaltinėnai
8 Einorius, Einoras Eynur Kražiai Brother of Eivildas
9 Eivildas, Eiviltas Eywild Eynuren bruder[2] Kražiai In 1413 m. received Ciołek coat of arms according to the Union of Horodło[6]
10 Erimas Erim Ariogala
11 Gelvonas Gelwan Viduklė
12 Getas, Gedas Getez Kražiai
13 Gineitis Gineth Ariogala In 1413 m. received Zaremba coat of arms according to the Union of Horodło, in 1433 served as elder of Kaunas[8]
14 Jodeika, Joteikis Jotheke Ariogala
15 Klausigaila Clawssegail Raseiniai Active during the Samogitian uprising of 1409, in 1413 testified in hearings regarding Samogitian border[9]
16 Mazbutas Maisebuth Medininkai
17 Pamplys Pampli Knituva
18 Ragelis Ragel Kaltinėnai
19 Ramontas, Ramavydas Ramomt, Ramouit Kražiai
20 Rėkutis Roeukutte Medininkai
21 Skutas Skutez Kaltinėnai
22 Skvaibutis Sqwaybuth Kaltinėnai
23 Sungaila, Surgaila Sungail Viduklė Might be identical to Sungalo who testified in the Council of Constance in 1416 and was later killed by the Knights[6]
24 Surtenis, Surtinis Surthen Viduklė
25 Tyla, Tylenis Tilen Kaltinėnai
26 Vidas, Vydas Wide Kražiai
27 Vilaudis, Vyliaudas Wilawde Ariogala
28 Zundys Sunde Ariogala
29 Žaudys Zawden Raseiniai
30 Žilpa Zilpe Knituva

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Ivinskis, Zenonas (1988) [1930]. "Vytauto jaunystė ir jo veikimas iki 1392 m.". In Paulius Šležas. Vytautas Didysis (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Vyriausioji enciklopedijų redakcija. p. 36. OCLC 25726071. 
  2. ^ a b Zenonas Ivinskis and Jonas Puzinas interpreted that note "Eywild Eynuren bruder" refers to two persons: Eywild and some unnamed brother of Eynur. Rimvydas Petrauskas interpreted it is the same person.
  3. ^ (Lithuanian) Ivinskis, Zenonas (1978). Lietuvos istorija iki Vytauto Didžiojo mirties. Rome: Lietuvių katalikų mokslo akademija. p. 306. LCC 79346776. 
  4. ^ Urban, William (2006). Samogitian Crusade. Chicago: Lithuanian Research and Studies Center. p. 197. ISBN 0-929700-56-2. 
  5. ^ a b Simas Sužiedėlis, ed. (1970–1978). "Personal names". Encyclopedia Lituanica IV. Boston, Massachusetts: Juozas Kapočius. p. 230. LCC 74-114275. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Petrauskas, Rimvydas. "Žemaitijos bajorai 1390–1413 m." (in Lithuanian). The Samogitian Diocese Museum. Retrieved 2008-07-12. 
  7. ^ (Lithuanian) Puzinas, Jonas (1983). Antanas Mažiulis, ed. Rinktiniai raštai 2. Lituanistikos instituto leidykla. p. 215. LCC 82084676. 
  8. ^ Petrauskas, Rimvydas (2003). Lietuvos diduomenė XIV a. pabaigoje – XV a. (in Lithuanian). Aidai. pp. 234–235. ISBN 9955-445-67-X. 
  9. ^ Petrauskas, Rimvydas (2003). Lietuvos diduomenė XIV a. pabaigoje – XV a. (in Lithuanian). Aidai. pp. 255–256. ISBN 9955-445-67-X.