Signed on 25 May 1915, the Treaty of Kyakhta was a tri-party treaty between Russia, Mongolia, and China.
Russia and China recognized Outer Mongolia's autonomy (as part of Chinese territory); Mongolia recognized China's suzerainty, and autonomous Mongolia has no right to conclude international treaties with foreign countries respecting political and territorial questions.
The Mongolian representative, Prime Minister Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren, were determined to stretch autonomy into de facto independence, and to deny the Chinese anything more than vague, ineffectual suzerain powers. The Chinese sought to minimize, if not to end, Mongolian autonomy. Nevertheless, Outer Mongolia remained effectively outside Chinese control. Mongolians viewed the treaty as a disaster because it denied the recognition of a truly independent, all-Mongolian state.