Treaty of London (1827)
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The Treaty of London was signed by the United Kingdom, France, and Russia on 6 July 1827. The three main European powers had called upon Greece and the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) to cease hostilities that had been going on since the Greeks had revolted against Ottoman rule on March 6, 1821. After years of negotiation, the European allied powers had finally decided to intervene in the war on the side of the Greeks. The allied powers mainly wanted this treaty to cause the Ottoman Empire to create an independent Greek state. It stated that while the Ottoman Empire should recognize the independence of Greece, the Sultan would be the supreme ruler of Greece. However, the Ottoman Empire, basing its decision upon its (supposedly) superior naval force, declined to accept the treaty. The London Treaty of July 6, 1827, allowed the three European powers to intervene together on behalf of the Greeks in the naval Battle of Navarino. At Navarino, on October 20, 1827, the allied powers crushed the combined Ottoman/Egyptian fleet in a spectacular victory which forcefully and effectively created an independent Greek state.
The Treaty of London (1827) also bound Russia to a promise not to attempt any territorial aggrandisement at the expense of Turkey and/or secure any exclusive commercial advantage from Turkey as the result of any subsequent Russian war with Turkey. The war between Russia and Turkey anticipated by the Treaty, actually broke out in June 1828 when Russian Troops crossed the Danube into the Ottoman controlled province of Dobruja. This war became the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829. The Treaty of Adrianople was signed by Russia and Turkey on September 14, 1829, ending the Russo-Turkish War. On top of recognizing the independence of Greece, Turkey was forced by the Treaty to give the Danube Delta and its islands, and a considerable portion of the Black Sea south of the Kuban estuary over to Russia. Because of these new territorial arrangements and the other articles contained in the treaty, Britain and the other European powers came to regard the Treaty of Adrianople as infringing on the promises that Russia had made in the Treaty of 1827.
- Karl Marx, "Palmerston: Eighth Article" contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 12 (International Publishers: New York, 1979) p. 400.
- Note 35 contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 12, p. 642.
- Karl Marx, "Palmerston Eighth Article" contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 12, p. 400.