Treaty of Medicine Creek
The Treaty of Medicine Creek was an 1854 treaty between the United States, and the Nisqually, Puyallup and Squaxin Island tribes, along with the "S'Homamish, Stehchass, T'Peeksin, Squi-aitl, and Sa-heh-wamish", as designated by the treaty. (Those nations are now extinct.)
The signing took place in Thurston County, Washington, on December 26, 1854, in a grove of Douglas fir trees well known to the tribes. Though not officially recognized as a historical location, the site was avoided during the creation of Interstate 5 in the 1960s, and a monument erected on the hillside overlooking the creek, pointing at the site, in 1972, by students of nearby Timberline High School. The single tree remaining on the site from the original grove was also a de facto monument, known as Treaty Tree. The large fir, which had been languishing for decades, was formally recognized as diseased by 1975, and by 1979 was dead. Seeds from Treaty Tree that were gathered in the 1970s were re-planted in a circle 40 feet from it. The dead snag was left standing and still visible from the Interstate until 2006, finally falling during strong windstorms in December 2006.
The treaty granted 2.24 million acres (9,060;km²) of land to the United States in exchange for establishment of three reservations, cash payments over a period of twenty years, and recognition of traditional native fishing and hunting rights. Those rights were ignored by the territorial and later state government, until the Boldt Decision in 1974. Since that decision, the tribes named in the treaty have had a recognized right to half of the fish caught on traditional lands throughout south Puget Sound. The original Nisqually reservation was in rocky terrain and unacceptable to the Nisqually, who were a riverside fishing people. They went to war in 1855. An unfortunate outcome of a year of skirmishes that followed was that Nisqually Chief Leschi was hanged for murder. (He was exonerated in 2004.)
See also 
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