Treaty of Paris (1229)
The Treaty of Paris, also known as Treaty of Meaux, was signed on April 12, 1229 between Raymond VII of Toulouse and Louis IX of France in Meaux near Paris. Louis was still a minor and it was his mother Blanche of Castile who had been responsible for the treaty. The agreement officially ended the Albigensian Crusade in which Raymond conceded defeat to Louis IX. Based on the terms of the treaty, Raymond's daughter Joan was to be married to Louis' brother Alfonso. Since Joan was Raymond's heir, this meant she and Alfonso would become the rulers of Toulouse on his death. Moreover, Raymond ceded the eastern provinces of his lands to Louis and the Marquisat de Provence to the Pope.
The treaty marks an end to Occitan political autonomy: Raymond ceded more than half his land to the King directly, and retained the remainder only during his life, as it would fall into royal hands after his death and the death of his son-in-law Alfonso. Raymond regained his feudal rights, but had to swear allegiance to Louis IX. Fortifications, such as those of Toulouse, were dismanteled. Henceforth, Cathars had no political protection, as Raymond and his subordinates as vassals of the King were ordered to hunt them down.
See also 
- Jackson, Guida, M. (1999). Women rulers throughout the ages: an illustrated guide. ABC-CLIO, Inc.
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